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1.
Nat Hazards (Dordr) ; : 1-12, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528387

RESUMO

American governance in the twenty-first century continues down a path of enhanced coercion and direction from the federal government. Emergency management policy is no different from any other policy field in this aspect, especially in the time following the September 11 attacks. Throughout the Obama administration, the federal government continued these policies and created additional mandates that required local compliance with federal policy demands. Failure to do so would put grant funding at risk in a field where budgets are typically stretched to the limit. However, an earlier study by Hildebrand (J Homeland Secur Emerg Manag 12(2):273-298, 2015) showed that this coercive threat had no statistical significance in predicting the reported implementation behaviors of local emergency management officials during the George W. Bush administration. This study seeks to determine if attitudes of local emergency managers changed during the Obama administration, and if the potential impacts from coercion had any predictive effect upon the local agencies decision to implement policy demands from the National Response Framework (NRF), National Incident Management System (NIMS), and Incident Command System (ICS). The findings once again show that coercive threats (the potential loss of grant funding) play little-to-no role in the actions and attitudes of local emergency management professionals when reporting compliance with federal policy demands.

2.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35494417

RESUMO

Background: In the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, work in many companies was relocated to the home and the work situation of the employees changed suddenly and within a short period of time. In order to identify possible stressors and to expand health resources, a multifactorial analysis of the work situation is necessary. Objective: The goal of this work was to provide an in-depth analysis in the area of occupational health management even in times of contact restrictions. With the help of digital work situation analysis (ASITA) both stressors and strengths of the home office activity in a public administration were identified and recommendations for appropriate action were derived. Material and methods: Using digital ASITAs, 3 groups (in total 16 employees) were asked about their work situation and conditions at home. Employees who worked at least 2 days per week from home during the last 12 weeks before the survey were included in the studies. Results: Working from home places new demands on employees, which in turn lead to both positive and negative consequences. An example of a positive change can be seen with respect to the work organization. Employees reported many advantages, such as the reduction of time commuting to work, and better time management. An example of a negative outcome can be seen in terms of communication in the company, where clear structures are lacking for working in the home office. Discussion: Digital work situation analysis can be an instrumental tool to examine health burdens and benefits, even in companies with mobile flexible work models. As shown by the pandemic, a change in the work situation within companies requires a continuous process of reflection, a process in which the health of the employees must be an essential part.

3.
Front Psychol ; 13: 842057, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35615175

RESUMO

The conflict of administrative morality among civil servants at the grassroots level arises from the background of China's long-standing traditional culture, and the current administrative system cannot keep up with the pace of economic development. In the process of grassroots management, due to the lag in the construction of administrative morality, the traditional official standard thinking, the imperfection of the current system, and the restriction of human nature, it is easy to cause the administrative moral conflict of the grassroots civil servants in practice. This paper takes the interpersonal society as the research background, analyzes the influence of the interpersonal society on the environment, and studies the administrative ethics conflicts and governance issues of basic civil servants from the interpersonal background. In addition, this paper conducts a more detailed field investigation based on fuzzy cluster analysis, analyzes the manifestations and causes of the administrative moral conflict of grassroots civil servants in the context of human society from multiple perspectives and levels, and then proposes countermeasures to solve the administrative moral conflict. The administrative moral conflict and governance of grass-roots civil servants under the background of interpersonal relationship is of great positive significance for solving the administrative moral conflict and improving the service awareness and service level of grass-roots civil servants.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409550

RESUMO

Gen Z, people born in the Internet age, are entering the labour market and soon will be responsible for public administration. Such a situation creates the need to study their professional motivations and competencies. We aim to determine: (1) What are the motivating factors of Gen Z representatives? (2) What is the factor's structure of competencies of Gen Z employees? (3) Do Gen Z's interest in public administration result from their needs to realise the public interest? These questions are fundamental for the strategy of hiring and training newcomers. This original paper's insights have emerged iteratively based on a systematic literature searching method and data obtained from the surveys (n = 335). Research of Polish representatives of Gen Z showed that their expectations are similar to those found in other countries. However, their responses suggest that ethical issues are not the most important for them. The presence of generation G on the labor market will generate a paradigm shift in the activity of companies and public institutions that will be the employers of these young people. Reconfiguration of the principles of human resource management is necessary so that organizations benefit from the qualities of generation Z-they gravitate towards gamified processes because of mobile-centricity; they are natives of global communication, self-learners, and self-motivators; they appreciate transparency.


Assuntos
Motivação , Gestão de Riscos , Adolescente , Humanos , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
SN Bus Econ ; 2(4): 31, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313479

RESUMO

This study aimed to (1) analyze the relationship between the three job crafting dimensions (task, cognitive and relational crafting) and performance; (2) explore whether meaningful work fully mediates the links between the three job crafting dimensions and performance; (3) analyze if presenteeism moderates the indirect effect of meaningful work in the relationship between job crafting and performance. To achieve these goals, we collected data with 146 workers from a town hall. We analyzed the proposed moderated-mediation model using the PROCESS macro. The results showed that (1) the meaning in work mediated the relationship between the three job crafting dimensions and performance; (2) presenteeism moderated the mediated relationship between job crafting and performance via meaningful work, that is, lower levels of presenteeism were positively related to performance, in particular, when the levels of meaning in work were lower. These results show the importance of empowering employees to craft their work, as it appears to increase employees' performance, by enhancing the meaning attributed to the work. Promoting health conditions, at work, also seems to be relevant for performance once it may decrease levels of presenteeism. The cross-sectional design should be regarded as a limitation, and we assessed all the variables through self-reported measures. The present study contributes to the literature by analyzing the relationship of job crafting to performance via meaningful work, within the public administration context. Moreover, this study adds to the literature the conditional effect of presenteeism which has not been discussed in prior studies. This study aids in bridging this gap.

6.
Front Artif Intell ; 5: 836557, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35224480

RESUMO

How can the public sector use AI ethically and responsibly for the benefit of people? The sustainable development and deployment of artificial intelligence (AI) in the public sector requires dialogue and deliberation between developers, decision makers, deployers, end users, and the public. This paper contributes to the debate on how to develop persuasive government approaches for steering the development and use of AI. We examine the ethical issues and the role of the public in the debate on developing public sector governance of socially and democratically sustainable and technology-intensive societies. To concretize this discussion, we study the co-development of a Finnish national AI program AuroraAI, which aims to provide citizens with tailored and timely services for different life situations, utilizing AI. With the help of this case study, we investigate the challenges posed by the development and use of AI in the service of public administration. We draw particular attention to the efforts made by the AuroraAI Ethics Board in deliberating the AuroraAI solution options and working toward a sustainable and inclusive AI society.

7.
Resour Policy ; 76: 102584, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35185261

RESUMO

The recent Covid-19 pandemic outbreak caused a global economic recession and promoted uncertainty in the natural resources. Also, this uncertainty is linked with the demand and supply of natural resources such as oil and natural gas, which is a substantial factor of industrial and economic activities. Declining natural resource demands substantially drop such activities that adversely affect economic performance. This attracts the attention of policy-makers and governors to efficiently tackle the issue. This study investigates the association of natural resources volatility, global economic performance, and public administration in earlier and Covid-19 pandemic peak periods. The study covers the period from 1990 to 2020 for the global data. The empirical findings of the cointegration test suggested that the variables are cointegrated. This study utilizes three long-run estimators, i.e., fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS), dynamic OLS (DOLS), and Canonical Cointegrating Regression (CCR). The empirical findings suggest that natural resources volatility (TNR) negatively and significantly affect global economic performance. While natural gas rents, oil rents, and public administration quality (QPA) promote global economic performance. Besides, the results also indicate that the interaction of QPA and TNR enhances economic performance. This study demonstrates that volatility in natural resources is detrimental to global economic performance. However, improved public administrative quality could play a significant role in transforming the negative influence. of natural resources volatility into a positive effect. The findings are robust as validated by Robust regression. This study provides some practical policy insights for the governors and policy-makers to tackle the mentioned issues.

8.
Multimed Tools Appl ; 81(16): 22215-22246, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35002470

RESUMO

A chatbot is emerged as an effective tool to address the user queries in automated, most appropriate and accurate way. Depending upon the complexity of the subject domain, researchers are employing variety of soft-computing techniques to make the chatbot user-friendly. It is observed that chatbots have flooded the globe with wide range of services including ordering foods, suggesting products, advising for insurance policies, providing customer support, giving financial assistance, schedule meetings etc. However, public administration based services wherein chatbot intervention influence the most, is not explored yet. This paper discuses about artificial intelligence based chatbots including their applications, challenges, architecture and models. It also talks about evolution of chatbots starting from Turing Test and Rule-based chatbots to advanced Artificial Intelligence based Chatbots (AI-Chatbots). AI-Chatbots are providing much kind of services, which this paper outlines into two main aspects including customer based services and public administration based services. The purpose of this survey is to understand and explore the possibility of customer & public administration services based chatbot. The survey demonstrates that there exist an immense potential in the AI assisted chatbot system for providing customer services and providing better governance in public administration services.

9.
Data Brief ; 40: 107768, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028345

RESUMO

This data article describes a dataset of corruption approach and possible variables related, and this dataset was created by integrating eight different systems of Brazilian federal government and Federal District. We present real data from civil servants and militaries to comply with GDPR legislation, the attributes that could identify a person were removed, making the data anonymized.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2204, 2021 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As the digitization of the working world progresses, the demands on employees change. Not least, this is true for the setting of public administrations in Germany, which is currently affected by the transformation to E-Government. This study aims to identify and describe a risk cluster of digitally stressed employees in public administrations. METHODS: An online sample of 710 employees from three public administrations in North Rhine-Westphalia were surveyed about digital stress (7 items) and several potential risk factors (19 items) derived from the current research. In the first step, a hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis is used to detect the risk cluster. This is followed by a comparison to the group of the remaining employees regarding their risk profiles. RESULTS: The analysis states that the digitally stressed cluster accounts for approximately ten percent of the public administration's employees of the total sample. Employees in the risk cluster are less satisfied with on-site work overall, experience less collegial support on-site, experience less collegial support in the home office, resign more often, are more likely to feel overwhelmed, are less educated, are older in age and more often have relatives in need of care. CONCLUSION: This work was able to identify and describe a group of digitally stressed rather than left-behind employees in public administrations to bring awareness to potentially destructive factors in the digital transformation process but eventually to social inequalities. The findings offer the basis for interventions to arise and evoke potential for further research.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 10(4): 125-152, out.-dez.2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344346

RESUMO

Objetivos: verificar se os instrumentos e mecanismos de inclusão e transparência disponíveis ao cidadão no estado de São Paulo permitem o exercício da democracia sanitária e o controle social das metas e resultados da contratualização da prestação de serviços de saúde. Metodologia: pesquisa documental, realizada em sistemas oficiais de informação, sobre a contratualização de entidades públicas e/ou privadas para prestação de serviços públicos de saúde pelo estado de São Paulo/ e pesquisa documental em Portais da Transparência e financeiros, de âmbito estadual, para aferição de metas e resultados dessas contratações. Resultados: as iniciativas privadas complementares ao papel do Estado atuam sob nítida dependência financeira da esfera governamental. Há um déficit significativo de informações para a construção ou padronização dos dados de performance, inviabilizando a fiscalização das políticas públicas em saúde e a aferição do custo/efetividade dos serviços de saúde prestados diretamente pela Administração Pública e pelo setor privado. Conclusão: os dados encontrados na pesquisa não aferiram uma maior eficiência dessas novas formas de coalizões e alianças com a sociedade civil, em que pese o fato do Poder Público não ter capacidade de absorver diretamente toda a assistência hoje prestada por intermédio dos entes privados e do terceiro setor. A falta de instrumentos de accountability governamental ocasiona falta de transparência no controle de metas e resultados das contratualizações.


Objectives: to verify whether the instruments and mechanisms for inclusion and transparency available to citizens in the state of São Paulo allow for the exercise of sanitary democracy and social control of the goals and results of the contractualization of the provision of health services. Methods: documentary research, conducted in official information systems, on the contracting of public and/or private entities for the provision of public health services by the state of São Paulo/ and documentary research on Transparency and financial Portals, at the state level, for measurement of goals and results of these contracts. Results: private initiatives that complement the role of the State act under a clear financial dependence on the government sphere. There is a significant deficit of information for the construction or standardization of performance data, making it impossible to monitor public health policies and to measure the cost/effectiveness of health services provided directly by the Public Administration and by private sector. Conclusion: the data found in the research did not show a greater efficiency of these new forms of coalitions and alliances with civil society, even though the Government is not able to directly absorb all the assistance currently provided through private entities and the third sector. The lack of governmental accountability instruments causes a lack of transparency in the control of contractual targets and results.


Objetivos: verificar si los instrumentos y mecanismos de inclusión y transparencia a disposición de los ciudadanos en el estado de São Paulo permiten el ejercicio de la democracia sanitaria y el control social de las metas y resultados de la contratación de la prestación de servicios de salud. Metodología: investigación documental realizada en sistemas de información oficiales sobre contratos con entidades públicas y/o privadas para la prestación de servicios de salud pública en el estado de São Paulo e investigación documental en Portales de Transparencia y financieros, a nivel estatal, para medir metas y resultados de estas contrataciones. Resultados: las iniciativas privadas que complementan el rol del Estado actúan bajo una clara dependencia financiera del ámbito gubernamental. Existe un importante déficitde información capaz de conducir a la construcción o estandarización de datos de desempeño, imposibilitando el seguimiento de las políticas de salud pública y la medición del costo/efectividad entre los servicios de salud brindados directamente por la Administración Pública y los brindados por el sector privado. Conclusión: No existe evidencia científica o empírica que asegure una mayor eficiencia en estas nuevas formas de coaliciones y alianzas con la sociedad civil, a pesar de que el Gobierno no puede absorber directamente toda la asistencia que actualmente se brinda a través de las entidades privadas y del tercer sector. Además, la falta de instrumentos gubernamentales de rendición de cuentas terminaprovocando poca transparencia en el control de metas y resultados colimados en los contratos establecidos.

12.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 55(5): 1017-1033, set.-out. 2021. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356834

RESUMO

Abstract In recent years, an increasing number of studies adopting the experimental method have appeared in Public Administration journals. It has been argued that the advantage of experiments in behavioral sciences is that researchers can control contextual factors while investigating the effect of manipulations on a variable of interest. Another point is that experiments can be replicated and, thus, increase confidence in research results. However, replications are rarely undertaken, especially in the behavioral sciences. This article examines the results of the "Open Science Reproducibility Project: Psychology," which replicated 100 experiments previously published in leading Psychology journals. Based on the findings of this project, we present seven recommendations to Public Administration scholars that can improve the quality of their experiments.


Resumen En los últimos años, han aparecido en revistas de Administración Pública un número creciente de estudios que adoptan el método experimental. Se ha argumentado que la ventaja de los experimentos en las ciencias del comportamiento es que permiten a los investigadores controlar los factores contextuales mientras investigan el efecto de las manipulaciones en una variable de interés. Otro argumento es que los experimentos se pueden reproducir y, por tanto, aumentar la confianza en los resultados de la investigación. Sin embargo, las repeticiones rara vez se realizan, especialmente en las ciencias del comportamiento. En este artículo examinamos los resultados del Open Science Reproducibility Project: Psychology, que repitió 100 experimentos publicados anteriormente en las principales revistas de Psicología. Con base en los hallazgos de este proyecto, presentamos siete recomendaciones a los académicos del área de Administración Pública que pueden mejorar la calidad de sus experimentos.


Resumo: Nos últimos anos, um número crescente de estudos adotando o método experimental tem surgido em periódicos de Administração Pública. Tem-se argumentado que a vantagem dos experimentos nas ciências comportamentais é que este permite aos pesquisadores controlar os fatores contextuais enquanto investigam o efeito das manipulações em uma variável de interesse. Outro argumento é que os experimentos podem ser replicados e, assim, aumentar a confiança nos resultados da pesquisa. No entanto, replicações raramente são realizadas, especialmente nas ciências comportamentais. Neste artigo, examinamos os resultados do Open Science Reproducibility Project: Psychology, que replicou 100 experimentos publicados anteriormente nas principais revistas de Psicologia. Com base nas conclusões deste projeto, apresentamos sete recomendações a acadêmicos da área de Administração Pública que podem melhorar a qualidade de seus experimentos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pesquisa , Ciências do Comportamento , Administração Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisa Comportamental
13.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 55(5): 1215-1231, set.-out. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356833

RESUMO

Resumo A hipótese da produtividade exógena aponta a relação entre quantidade de juízes e desempenho como linear, porém várias fragilidades vêm sendo apontadas, como o limite de produção dos juízes. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho é testar se o desempenho dos juízes em relação à demanda tem um modelo funcional em forma de U invertido. Os dados usados na pesquisa compreendem os anos de 2009 a 2019. Os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes para todas as variáveis analisadas, tanto para a justiça estadual quanto para a trabalhista, confirmando a hipótese de que o desempenho e a demanda judicial podem responder a um modelo funcional em forma de U invertido. A confirmação da hipótese de pesquisa traz luz à discussão sobre como a pressão da demanda afeta o desempenho e como elas se relacionam. Este artigo discutiu e endossou as conclusões de outros autores sobre fragilidades e incongruências da hipótese da produtividade exógena para o Judiciário. Há evidências empíricas de que o aumento da demanda judicial pressiona o aumento de desempenho dos juízes, mas esse crescimento tem limites, e a partir de determinado ponto isso pode declinar e afetar negativamente o desempenho.


Resumen La hipótesis de la productividad exógena indica que la relación entre el número de jueces y el rendimiento es lineal, pero se han señalado varios puntos débiles, como el límite de producción de los jueces. En vista de ello, el objetivo de este trabajo fue comprobar para los tribunales estatales y laborales si la actuación del juez en relación con la demanda tiene un modelo funcional en forma de U invertida. Los datos utilizados en la investigación abarcan los años 2009 a 2019. Los resultados fueron estadísticamente significativos para todas las variables analizadas tanto para los tribunales estaduales como para los laborales confirmando la hipótesis de que el rendimiento y la demanda judicial pueden responder a un modelo funcional en forma de U invertida. La confirmación de la hipótesis de la investigación arroja luz sobre la discusión sobre cómo la presión de la demanda afecta al rendimiento y cómo se relacionan. La contribución de este trabajo fue discutir y refrendar las conclusiones de otros autores sobre las debilidades e incongruencias de la hipótesis de la productividad exógena del poder judicial. Hay pruebas empíricas de que el aumento de la demanda judicial ejerce presión sobre el aumento del rendimiento de los jueces, pero este crecimiento tiene límites y a partir de cierto punto puede disminuir y afectar negativamente al rendimiento.


Abstract The hypothesis of exogenous productivity points to the relationship between the number of judges and performance as linear. However, several weaknesses have been pointed out, such as the production limit of the judges. Therefore, this work aims to test if the performance of judges related' to demand has an inverted U functional model. The data used in the research comprise the years from 2009 to 2019. The results were statistically significant for all variables analyzed for both state and labor courts, confirming the hypothesis that performance and judicial demand may respond to an inverted U functional model. Confirming the research hypothesis sheds light on the discussion of how demand affects performance and how they relate. The contribution of this work lies in the discussion and endorsing the conclusions of other authors concerning weaknesses and incongruities of the hypothesis of exogenous productivity for the judiciary. There is empirical evidence that the increase in judicial demand pressures the increase in the performance of judges, but this increase has limits, and after a certain point, this can decline and negatively affect performance.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Administração Pública , Carga de Trabalho , Poder Judiciário , Eficiência , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto
14.
Stud Russ Econ Dev ; 32(4): 431-438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366653

RESUMO

The article presents the Small and Medium Enterprise Growth Index (SMEs), developed by the Stolypin Institute for the Economy of Growth based on the data of PAO Sberbank. The tool proposed by the authors allows not only to carry out operational monitoring of the state of the SME sector, but also to assess the effectiveness of state policy aimed at developing the SME sector, including with the aim of designing further measures to support it. In the context of a pandemic and sanitary and epidemiological restrictions, according to the results of the 1st-3rd quarters of 2020, the index showed moderate growth in the SME sector, close to "stagnation" (+5.8 p.). At the same time, the growth of the index relative to the 2nd quarter of 2020, during which the decline in business activity was maximum, amounted to +1 p.

15.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 55(4): 861-880, jul.-ago. 2021. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340883

RESUMO

Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo descrever os frames (enquadramentos) associados ao processo de mobilização em torno do debate sobre a reforma dos Tribunais de Contas brasileiros (TCs) no período de 2000 a 2017. Por meio de legitimacy accounts (assertivas de legitimidade) de atores legais e não legais foram identificados três frames: legal, associado à regulação, ressignificação e conformidade legal dos TCs; normativo, relacionado à transição da gestão política à competência técnica dos TCs e; responsivo, ligado à visibilidade social dos TCs. Os dados analisados consideraram discursos parlamentares, audiências públicas, debates, notícias e entrevistas com representantes de segmentos específicos como corporações profissionais, mídia, academia e sociedade civil organizada. Os achados lançam luz sobre a natureza processual da legitimidade em organizações institucionalizadas, como é o caso dos TCs, e destacam: a emergência das corporações profissionais enquanto entes mobilizadores das três esferas de segmentação; o surgimento de tônica cerimonialista em aspectos fomentadores do comportamento interoganizacional e; o aumento progressivo da responsividade ligada ao campo como decorrência do ingresso de segmentos específicos da sociedade no debate. Os resultados aprofundam a natureza político-discursiva da mudança institucional.


Resumen Esta investigación describe los marcos (frames) asociados al proceso de movilización en torno al debate sobre la reforma de los tribunales de cuentas (TC) brasileños en el período de 2000 a 2017. A través de los relatos de legitimidad de los actores legales y no legales, se identificaron tres marcos: legal, asociado a la regulación, resignificación y cumplimiento legal de los TC; normativo, asociado a la transición de la gestión política a la competencia técnica de los TC; y responsivo, asociado a la visibilidad social de los TC. Para el análisis de los datos se consideraron los discursos parlamentarios, audiencias públicas, debates, noticias y entrevistas con representantes de segmentos específicos, como corporaciones profesionales, medios de comunicación, academia y sociedad civil organizada. Las conclusiones arrojan luz sobre la dimensión procesal de la legitimidad en los tribunales y ponen de relieve: el surgimiento de las corporaciones profesionales como movilizadoras de las tres esferas de la segmentación; la aparición de un tono ceremonial en aspectos que fomentan el comportamiento interoganizacional y el aumento progresivo de la capacidad de respuesta vinculada al campo como resultado de la entrada de segmentos específicos de la sociedad en el debate. Los resultados profundizan el carácter político-discursivo del cambio institucional.


Abstract: This research describes the frames associated with the mobilization process around the debate about the reform of Brazilian Courts of Accounts (TCs) from 2000 to 2017. Through legitimacy accounts of legal and non-legal actors, three frames were identified: legal, associated with regulation, reframing, and legal compliance of TCs; normative, associated with the transition from political management to the technical competence of TCs and; responsive, associated with the social visibility of TCs. The data consisted of parliamentary speeches, public hearings, debates, news broadcasts, and interviews with representatives of specific segments such as professional corporations, media, academia, and organized civil society. The findings shed light on the procedural dimension of legitimacy in Justice organizations and highlight the emergence of professional corporations as mobilizing entities in the three spheres of segmentation; the emergence of a ceremonial tonic in aspects that promote inter-organizational behavior, and; the progressive increase in responsiveness linked to the field as a result of the entry of specific segments of society in the debate. The results deepen the political-discursive nature of institutional change.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Política , Administração Pública , Orçamentos , Prestação de Contas Financeiras em Saúde , Sociedade Civil
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281118

RESUMO

Little is known about family medicine academic workforce in Taiwan, and basic data on this may aid healthcare decision-makers and contribute to the limited literature. We analyzed data from 13 medical schools in Taiwan collected by the Taiwan Association of Family Medicine from June to September 2019, regarding characteristics of medical schools, and total staff, gender, age, degree, working title (adjunct/full-time), academic level, and subspecialty of each current family medicine faculty member. Total 13 medical schools in Taiwan with an undergraduate education program in family medicine, but only nine of the 13 medical schools had family medicine departments, while four still do not. A total of 116 family medicine faculty members ranging from 33-69 years. Of these, most were male (n = 85, 73.3%), with a mean age of 43.3 years. Most faculty members possessed a master's degree (n = 49, 42.2%), were academic lecturers (n = 49, 42.2%), were located in northern Taiwan (n = 79, 68.1%), and subspecialize in gerontology and geriatrics (n = 55, 47.4%) and hospice palliative care (n = 53, 45.7%). Additionally, most family medicine faculty in medical schools were adjunct faculty (n = 90, 77.6%), with only about one-fourth (n = 26, 22.4%) working full-time. Our study provides the most holistic census to date on academic family medicine faculty from all medical schools in Taiwan. The novel information can provide educational leaders, health policy managers, and decision-makers about the current developments of the family medicine departments in Taiwan's medical schools. The basic data will help formulate an effective medical school family medicine education plan and improve the establishment and development of the family medicine faculty workforce to help medical education and national health policy development in the future in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Faculdades de Medicina , Adulto , Docentes de Medicina , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwan , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
17.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202333

RESUMO

A key issue in food governance and public administration is achieving coordinated implementation of policies. This study addressed this issue by systematically comparing the governance of animal welfare in Norway and Sweden, using published papers, reports, and legal and other public information, combined with survey and interview data generated in a larger research project (ANIWEL). Governing animal welfare includes a number of issues that are relevant across different sectors and policy areas, such as ethical aspects, choice of legal tools, compliance mechanisms and achieving uniform control. Based on the challenges identified in coordinating animal welfare in Norway and Sweden, relevant organisational preconditions for achieving uniform and consistent compliance were assessed. The results showed that Sweden's organisation may need more horizontal coordination, since its animal welfare management is divided between multiple organisational units (Swedish Board of Agriculture, National Food Agency and 21 regional County Administration Boards). Coordination in Norway is managed solely by the governmental agency Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA), which has the full responsibility for inspection and control of food safety, animal health, plant health, as well as animal welfare. Thus, Norway has better preconditions than Sweden for achieving uniformity in animal welfare administration. However, in Norway, the safeguards for the rule of law might be an issue, due to NFSA acting as de facto "inspector", "prosecutor" and "judge".

18.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 795-798, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327965

RESUMO

The rapid spread of the COVID-19 virus challenges governments to act in ways that are usually reserved for war or natural disasters. The pandemic has caused massive global upheaval that could last for months, or longer. Governments are taking extreme measures to limit economic shocks and human costs. The pressure on the state authorities in this situation increases. In a rapidly evolving crisis, with information coming in from all sides, citizens turn to their governments for information and guidance. They expect to be kept safe and provided with medical care in a timely manner. The purpose of this paper is to review foreign public administration practices in response to the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Internacionalidade
19.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 804-807, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327967

RESUMO

The article is devoted to the research of problems and tasks of state management under the conditions of threat of spread of coronavirus infection COVID-19 and consideration of approaches to optimization of processes in the system of state management. The social and economic risks of the pandemic are identified and the directions of anti-crisis measures are considered. Public administration is a system consisting of citizens, business structures and government employees. State authorities, while implementing the directions of public policy, must take into account the interests of all participants of the system, building the channels of interaction between them in the most effective way. The pandemic is a serious challenge to the state administration system of any country, the prevention of the consequences of which requires timely and effective measures to be taken. Under the conditions of the pandemic in Russia, as well as all over the world, the role of the state has significantly increased, both in terms of prevention of pandemic spread, and in the form of measures aimed at supporting citizens and businesses, the most affected spheres of the economy. The purpose of this work is to consider new approaches to optimize the processes in the system of public administration, caused by the need to revise the directions of state policy under the threat of the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(3): 499-503, jul.-set. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347139

RESUMO

Resumo A República Federativa do Brasil, ao reconhecer o valor da liberdade do exercício profissional e o dever de proteger a sociedade, delegou aos conselhos profissionais atividades típicas de poder de fiscalização ética e técnica de pessoas que exercem determinadas profissões. A essa função típica de Estado são somados ainda o exercício de um serviço público e o papel de zelar pelo bom prestígio da profissão. Os conselhos de fiscalização profissional cumprem essas funções de forma legítima, democrática, eficaz e com incontestável valor social. Para que essas entidades continuem exercendo suas missões institucionais, é necessário defender seu reconhecimento como pessoas jurídicas de direito público, detentoras do poder de fiscalização.


Abstract The Federative Republic of Brazil, in recognizing the value of freedom of professional practice and the duty to protect society, delegated to professional councils activities typical of ethical and technical supervision of people who exercise certain professions. To this typical function of the State are also added the exercise of a public service and the role of ensuring the good prestige of the profession. Professional supervisory boards fulfill these functions in a legitimate, democratic, effective way and with undeniable social value. For these entities to continue exercising their institutional missions, it is necessary to defend their recognition as legal entities of public law, holders of supervisory power.


Resumen La República Federativa de Brasil, reconociendo el valor de la libertad de ejercicio profesional y el deber de proteger a la sociedad, delegó en los consejos profesionales actividades típicas de poder de supervisión ética y técnica de las personas que ejercen ciertas profesiones. A esta función típica del Estado se añaden el ejercicio de un servicio público y el papel de velar por el buen prestigio de la profesión. Los consejos profesionales de supervisión desempeñan estas funciones de manera legítima, democrática, efectiva y con un valor social innegable. Para que estas entidades puedan continuar ejerciendo sus misiones institucionales, es necesario defender su reconocimiento como personas jurídicas de Derecho Público, titulares de la facultad de supervisión.


Assuntos
Humanos , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Administração Pública , Constituição e Estatutos , Ética Profissional , Brasil
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