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1.
J Med Screen ; : 9691413221102321, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735352

RESUMO

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of relatively common fatal or severely disabling birth defects that result in about 300,000 cases a year world-wide. The search for a cause was elusive, but in 1991 it was shown that about 8 out of 10 cases are due to a lack of vitamin B9 (folate) and are therefore preventable. This article (i) describes the challenge in finding the cause; (ii) examines the reasons for the failure of many countries to introduce folic acid fortification of staple foods such as flour and rice; (iii) shows that countries that have introduced fortification failed to do so in a fully effective way; (iv) shows how current preventive polices are confusing, inconsistent and sub-optimal; (v) shows that the proposed UK folic acid fortification policy is expected to prevent about 1 out of 10 NTD cases only; and (vi) proposes a simple, fully effective fortification policy that would prevent about 8 out of 10 NTDs and avoid the need for women to start taking folic acid supplements before pregnancy, a policy that has been shown to fail because only a small percentage of women adopt this practice.

2.
Soc Sci Med ; 306: 115159, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753168

RESUMO

This study examines whether people smoked more under the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) closure policies which trapped them at home with their families. In such circumstances, the pleasure from smoking could be more tempting than usual, but at the same time smokers' families are more likely to be victims of passive smoking. This study uses temporal and regional variations in policy strengths with data from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker project (OxCGRT) to examine the impact of COVID-19 closure policies on smoking behaviors. With longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) in 2018 and 2020, we find diminished smoking behaviors among Chinese male adults when the government implemented strict public health policies for the COVID-19 pandemic. People with more conscientiousness personality traits or stronger pro-family attitudes tend to smoke less as policy stringency increases.

3.
Nordisk Alkohol Nark ; 39(3): 240-261, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720517

RESUMO

Aim: The aim is to study non-governmental actors' production and use of alcohol policy knowledge in the early 20th and the 21st century respectively, by analyzing their main arguments, knowledge substantiation and their overarching discursive legitimacy. Design: The first impact focuses on prohibitionist-critical actors' engagement against the alcohol ban in the years 1916-1922. The second impact focuses on the Swedish think tank Timbro's engagement in alcohol policy in the years 2012-2020. The analysis of the two empirical cases was based on an open coding strategy with a focus on what type of knowledge claims that were made and how which reasoning was put forward in relation to these. Results: Great similarities are distinguished between the two time periods. Alcohol is an issue of freedom and at the same time a threat of crucial importance for the future society. The arguments are supported by historical, international, media and scientific evidence. The biggest difference lies in the legitimization of the argumentation. In the early 20th century this is rooted in democracy and the will of the people while the arguments of the 21st century are rooted in public health and governmentally sanctioned knowledge. Conclusion: The knowledge processes are explored as matters of political appropriation that takes place through processes of directing and stealing the spotlight. These processes show how the aspiring democracy and the existing public health policy respectively are productive preconditions for what kind of knowledge that can be brought forward. This enables a renegotiation regarding what democracy and public health policy can involve.

4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1368: 167-188, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594025

RESUMO

Infectious diseases remain an essential global challenge in public health. For instance, novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has resulted in significant negative impacts on public health, infecting more than 214 million people and causing 4.47 million deaths worldwide as of August 2021. Geographic Information Systems have played an essential role in managing, storing, analyzing, and mapping disease and related risk information. This article provides an overview of a broad topic on applications of GIS into infectious disease research. Our review follows the framework of human-environment interactions, focusing on the environmental and social factors that cause the disease outbreak and the role of humans in disease control, including public health policies and interventions such as social distancing/face covering practice and mobility modeling. The work identifies key spatial decision-making issues where GIS becomes valued in the agenda for infectious disease research and highlights the importance of adopting science-based policies to protect the public during the current and future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 953, 2022 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to the threat of COVID-19 infection, Australia mandated a 14 day quarantine period in a designated facility for all travellers returning from overseas from late March 2020. These facilities were usually hotels, or hotel-like serviced apartments, and also included a repurposed former mining village in the Northern Territory. This paper aimed to investigate the experiences of risk of people quarantined in designated supervised facilities in Australia, which has not been systematically explored before. METHODS: In this qualitative study semi-structured interviews were conducted with 58 participants quarantined between March 2020 and January 2021. Participants were returned Australian citizens and residents who were required to undergo mandatory supervised quarantine for COVID-19. Interviews were conducted using video teleconferencing (via Zoom), transcribed and coded, then analysed thematically. RESULTS: While participants generally supported the concept of quarantine to protect the Australian public, they were critical of elements of it where they felt exposed to risk (COVID-related or not). They also described instances where infection control within the system seemed inadequate. For some, particularly those quarantined with small children, they reported that the facilities were inadequate or inappropriate for health and wellbeing. Using thematic analysis, three major themes were identified that related to problems in the existing system: perception of being subjected to high risk through lax standards of COVID protection in the quarantine process; risks to the community identified in quarantine; and risk in non-hotel managed quarantine facilities. CONCLUSIONS: There are systemic issues with infection control in hotel quarantine, which can be further undermined by individual non-compliance. Risks to safety for those in quarantine can be reduced, both in terms of infection control within hotel quarantine and, in the case of the Northern Territory facility, timely in-person medical care as needed for non-COVID conditions. Systems of infection control need ongoing review to ensure that people entering quarantine are protected from known risks of infection at every stage. Medical services in quarantine facilities should be examined to ensure timely and appropriate non-COVID medical services are available.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Cureus ; 14(4): e23807, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35518550

RESUMO

Introduction A history of fracture is a well-documented risk factor for sustaining future falls and subsequent fractures in geriatric patients. Orthopedic surgeons advocate various lifestyle modifications to reduce the risk of sustaining a recurrent fracture in this vulnerable group. However, it has been observed that patients seldom adhere to this advice and the rate of fragility fractures has thus continued to rise in this vulnerable subset of the population. The factors influencing the compliance of patients with various modifications have not been documented in any previous studies. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the factors influencing patient adherence to various lifestyle modifications advised by orthopedic surgeons for reducing future fracture risk. Material and methods A total of 112 patients aged >65 years who were diagnosed as having a peritrochanteric fragility fracture of the hip and were treated operatively for the same were included in this study. Upon discharge from the hospital, the patients were advised 10 lifestyle modifications to reduce the recurrent fracture risk. A data collecting form that graded the adherence on a 20-point scale (2 points for each lifestyle modification) was prepared by the investigators. Upon the six-month follow-up visit, adherence was assessed on the 20-point scale, and data were collected via the face-to-face interview method. Statistical analysis was accomplished by the Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Observations and results Of the 112 subjects included in the study, 58 (51.7%) were male and the mean age was 75 ± 8 (65 - 92) years. The adherence to less than 4 recommendations (Score <8) was seen in 39.2%, adherence to 4 - 6 recommendations (Score between 8 - 12) was seen in 30.86%, adherence to 6 - 8 recommendations (Score between 12 and 16) was seen in 29.94% and adherence to eight to 10 recommendations (score between 16 and 20) was seen in 0% of participants. According to the regression analysis, the presence of adherence to less than six recommendations was related to the low-income level (OR=0.298; 95%CI - 0.132-0.666; p<0.001) and lack of education and awareness (OR=2.329; 95% CI - 1.114-4.859; p=0.002). Conclusion The rates of adherence to advised lifestyle modifications were generally found to be low. Compliance was particularly reduced in patients belonging to the lower socioeconomic strata, which were less likely to be educated and had lower rates of income. The authors concluded that merely advising lifestyle modifications was not enough, and various social and public health measures are required to improve patient compliance, with the broader aim of ending the menace of recurrent fragility fractures.

7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 651, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate the economic impact of replacing the current Peruvian primary immunization scheme for infants under 1 year old with an alternative scheme with similar efficacy, based on a hexavalent vaccine. METHODS: A cost-minimization analysis compared the costs associated with vaccine administration, adverse reactions medical treatment, logistical activities, and indirect social costs associated with time spent by parents in both schemes. A budgetary impact analysis assessed the financial impact of the alternative scheme on healthcare budget. RESULTS: Incorporating the hexavalent vaccine would result in a 15.5% net increase in healthcare budget expenditure ($48,281,706 vs $55,744,653). Vaccination costs would increase by 54.1%, whereas logistical and adverse reaction costs would be reduced by 59.8% and 33.1%, respectively. When including indirect social costs in the analysis, the budgetary impact was reduced to 8.7%. Furthermore, the alternative scheme would enable the liberation of 17.5% of national vaccines storage capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite of the significant reduction of logistical and adverse reaction costs, including the hexavalent vaccine into the National Immunization Program of Peru in place of the current vaccination scheme for infants under 1 year of age would increase the public financial budget of the government as it would represent larger vaccine acquisition costs. Incorporating the indirect costs would reduce the budgetary impact demonstrating the social value of the alternative scheme. This merits consideration by government bodies, and future studies investigating such benefits would be informative.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Vacinação , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Lactente , Peru , Vacinas Combinadas
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 838509, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570952

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the prevalence of MHAs' usage and explore the context and determinants of using MHAs among inhabitants in Saudi Arabia (SA). This cross-sectional study randomly selected 679 adult inhabitants from the 20 health regions in SA through an electronic, self-administered, well-structured, and validated Arabic questionnaire. The prevalence of using MHAs was 47.9%, and it was significantly higher among younger, Saudis, highly educated, and working participants, as well as those with chronic diseases (p < 0.05). The main motives for using MHAs were to promote health status (68.6%) and to lose weight (33.2%). The most used apps were related to daily steps-counting (54.2%), and among females was tracking ovulation period apps (43.5%). The most common reported advantage of using MHAs was saving time (64%). Despite the potential benefits of MHAs, they were used by only about half of the study participants in SA. The most effective MHAs in improving health status were exercise, calorie-related, water uptake, and daily steps-counting apps. Policymakers looking to address reform aimed at improving health with mobile apps will find our study interesting.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência
9.
Perspect Public Health ; : 17579139221095326, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506700

RESUMO

AIM: This article provides a comprehensive exploration of the varied Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) actions in relation to supporting communities reported by the UK's leading food retailers. Findings are discussed against a backdrop of enduring inequalities, exacerbated by the on-going global Coronavirus pandemic, with actions considered for their potential contribution to community-based approaches to addressing local wellbeing and inequalities. METHOD: This article presents the structure and key characteristics of community-oriented CSR in food retailing in the UK. A thematic analysis of comprehensive documentary evidence from the 11 principle UK food retailers was conducted, drawing on asset-based frameworks of community-centred actions towards wellbeing. FINDINGS: The findings suggest an increasing acknowledgement in food retail that local community is of key importance. Initiatives were categorised according to a typology, comprising national partnerships, local store-based funding and support actions, targeted programmes on healthy lifestyles or employability, and changes to store operations, in the favour of priority groups, prompted by the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The article combines an up to date overview of community-focused CSR agendas and support by food retailers at a time of significant economic and social challenge for the UK. It highlights the potential of the sector to contribute more strategically to reducing inequalities and supporting community wellbeing, alongside statutory and voluntary sector partners.

11.
Global Health ; 18(1): 54, 2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35619107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The political activities of industry stakeholders must be understood to safeguard the development and implementation of effective public health policies. METHODS: A quantitative descriptive study was performed using data from Canada's Registry of Lobbyists to examine the frequency and governmental target of lobbying that occurred between various types of stakeholders (i.e., industry versus non-industry) and designated public office holders (DPOH) regarding Health Canada's Healthy Eating Strategy, from September/2016 to January/2021. Initiatives of interest were revisions to Canada's Food Guide, changes to the nutritional quality of the food supply, front-of-pack nutrition labelling and restrictions on food marketing to children. RESULTS: The majority of registrants (88%), and corporations and organizations (90%) represented in lobbying registrations had industry ties. Industry-affiliated stakeholders were responsible for 86% of communications with DPOH, interacting more frequently with DPOH of all ranks, compared to non-industry stakeholders. Most organizations and corporations explicitly registered to lobby on the topic of marketing to children (60%), followed by Canada's Food Guide (48%), front-of-pack nutrition labelling (44%), and the nutritional quality of the food supply (23%). The food and beverage industry, particularly the dairy industry, was the most active, accounting for the greatest number of lobbying registrations and communications, followed by the media and communication industry. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a strategic advantage of industry stakeholders in influencing Canadian policymakers. While some safeguards have been put in place, increased transparency would allow for a better understanding of industry discourse and help protect public health interests during the policy development process.


Assuntos
Empregados do Governo , Manobras Políticas , Canadá , Criança , Dieta Saudável , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Política Nutricional
12.
Gerontol Geriatr Educ ; : 1-17, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603812

RESUMO

While the barriers to specializing in geriatrics are known, motivators behind why medical trainees choose geriatrics are not as well understood. It is also unknown if recruitment strategies in the literature address these barriers and motivators. The aim of this systematic scoping review is to examine the current literature on recruitment strategies alongside motivators and barriers for specializing in geriatrics. Eligible articles for this scoping review either focused on motivators or barriers among trainees (medical students, resident-physicians, fellows) or recruitment strategies. A scoping search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsychINFO. Data was extracted on article characteristics and themes. 88 of 2064 articles were eligible and included. Personal fulfillment emerged as the most common theme for motivators, contrary to prior studies that cite positive role modeling. Financial disincentive remained the most common barrier, followed by limited exposure and "futile" practice. Promising interventions beyond financial compensation include defining geriatrics better, emphasizing the high job satisfaction rates, increasing clinical exposure for medical students, and additional funding for academic centers to recruit academic geriatricians. Policymakers and medical educators should consider multiple strategies that target the motivators, as well as the barriers to pursuing geriatrics.

13.
Geroscience ; 44(3): 1255-1262, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467316

RESUMO

Decreases in acute stroke presentations have been reported during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic surges. A recent study by Bojti et al. (GeroScience. 2021;43:2231-2248) sought to understand the relationship of public health mandates in Hungary as they were implemented with acute ischemic stroke admissions and interventions during two separate COVID-19 waves. We sought to perform a similar analysis of changes in ischemic stroke care at two distinct medical institutions in the USA. Two separate institutions and systems of ischemic stroke care were evaluated through a regional comprehensive stroke center telestroke service and a Veterans Affairs (VA) inpatient stroke and neurorehabilitation service. Telestroke consultations in a single system in Chicago, IL, were significantly decreased during the first COVID-19 wave during severely restricted public health mandates (z-score < - 2), and were less depressed during a subsequent wave with less severe restrictions (z-score approaching - 1), which resembles findings in Hungary as reported by Bojti et al. In contrast, inpatient admissions during the first and second COVID-19 waves to a VA stroke and neurorehabilitation service in Oklahoma City remained unchanged. The Chicago and Hungary patterns of stroke presentations suggest that public perceptions, as informed by regional health mandates, might influence healthcare-seeking behavior. However, the VA experience suggests that specific patient populations may react differently to given public health mandates. These observations highlight that changes in stroke presentation during the COVID-19 pandemic may vary regionally and by patient population as well as by the severity of public health mandates implemented. Further study of COVID-19-related public health policies on acute stroke populations is needed to capture the long-term impact of such policies. Learning from the real-time impact of pandemic surges and public health policy on presentation of acute medical conditions, such as ischemic stroke, may prove valuable for designing effective policies in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
14.
Can J Public Health ; 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (1) document, globally and by domain, Canadian municipalities' level of age-friendliness, and (2) identify municipality characteristics most associated with age-friendliness. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was sent to all Canadian municipalities (N=3406) with an online survey of 56 items from 9 domains providing age-friendliness scores. These scores were then crossed with the following municipality characteristics: percentage of adults aged 65 and older, population density, material deprivation, social deprivation, degree of metropolitan influence, implementation step of an age-friendly municipality initiative and geographic area. RESULTS: Nine hundred twenty-one municipalities completed the survey. Overall, municipalities' age-friendliness total score is good (58.4%). Four domains have high scores: Security (80.0%), Respect and social inclusion (65.0%), Outdoor spaces and building (62.2%), and Social participation (62.2%). Higher age-friendliness is associated with metropolitan municipalities, regions other than Prairies and Atlantic, higher residential density, greater proportion of older adults, greater social deprivation, lower material deprivation, and the last step of an age-friendly initiative. CONCLUSION: This portrait of Canadian municipalities' age-friendliness can be used to strengthen actions promoting active aging.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIFS: Cette étude visait à: 1) documenter, globalement et par domaine, le niveau de convivialité des municipalités canadiennes à l'égard des aînés, et 2) identifier les caractéristiques des municipalités les plus associées à cette convivialité. MéTHODE: Une enquête transversale a été soumise à l'ensemble des municipalités canadiennes (N=3 406) à l'aide d'un questionnaire en ligne composé de 56 énoncés répartis dans 9 domaines et permettant d'établir un score de convivialité à l'égard des aînés. Ces scores ont ensuite été mis en relation avec différentes caractéristiques des municipalités: pourcentage de personnes âgées de 65 ans et plus, densité de population, défavorisation matérielle, défavorisation sociale, degré d'influence métropolitaine, étape d'implantation d'une démarche Villes et communautés amies des aînés (VADA) et région géographique. RéSULTATS: Neuf cent vingt-et-une municipalités ont complété le questionnaire. En moyenne, les municipalités présentent globalement une bonne convivialité à l'égard des aînés (58,4 %). Les quatre domaines présentant les scores les plus élevés sont : Sécurité (80,0 %), Respect et inclusion sociale (65,0 %), Espaces extérieurs et bâtiments (62,2 %) et Participation au tissu social (62,2 %). Une convivialité à l'égard des aînés supérieure est associée aux municipalités métropolitaines, aux régions autres que les Prairies et l'Atlantique, à une densité de population élevée, à une proportion supérieure d'aînés, à une défavorisation sociale supérieure, à une défavorisation matérielle inférieure et à la dernière étape d'une démarche VADA. CONCLUSION: Ce portrait de la convivialité des municipalités canadiennes à l'égard des aînés peut servir à renforcer les actions favorisant un vieillissement actif.

15.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 3: 100260, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35479262

RESUMO

Objectives: To explore the viability of running human judgement forecasting tournaments with public health practitioners, and to gather initial data on forecasting accuracy and participant perceptions of forecasting. Study design: Quality improvement study comprising two COVID-19 forecasting tournaments using Brier Skill Score scoring and a follow-up participant questionnaire. Methods: Over two forecasting tournaments, public health registrars in the East Midlands, UK, assigned probabilities to future possible binary events relating to COVID-19. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their experiences of forecasting. Results: There were 17 participants in the first tournament and nine in the second tournament, with no new participants. In both tournaments, the majority of participants scored a Brier Skill Score above the benchmark of 0. The median Brier Skill Score improved slightly between the two tournaments. Participants reported luck and changing political climates as impacting their performance. Participants reported forecasting in their day job but had received no formal training to do so. Conclusions: Forecasting is an important public health skill, and human judgement forecasting tournaments can be run amongst public health practitioners with little time and resource requirements. Further research would help identify whether training, teamwork or other interventions can improve public health forecasting accuracy.

16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 859889, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35425772

RESUMO

Introduction: Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy (HAM) restricts activities of daily living (ADLs), affecting health and quality of life. Occupational therapy is used to promote independence during ADL in people living with HTLV (PLHTLV). Objective: To quantify the clinical aspects, levels of functionality, performance in ADLs and occupational roles of PLHTLV and propose an occupational therapeutic intervention. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study was designed with 40 PLHTLV monitored at two referral laboratories of the Federal University of Pará. The Evandro Chagas Research Institute Neurological Disability Scale (EIPEC-2), the Barthel Index and the Occupational Roles Identification List were applied. The G test and Fisher's exact test (to identify associations between qualitative variables), the Mann-Whitney test (to identify associations between quantitative variables) and Pearson correlation analysis (to identify associations between the total Barthel Index and EIPEC-2 scores) were performed with Microsoft Excel and BioEstat 5.0, and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Motor aspects, the presence of spasticity, sensory aspects, and pain in the lumbar region and lower limbs were significantly (p = 0.0002) higher among symptomatic individuals, who also had more difficulties urinating, traveling up and down stairs and transferring from a chair to a bed. Being a worker, performing housework and socializing (with friends or family members) were the most affected activities among HAM patients. Conclusion: The impact of HAM on PLHTLV should include an intervention plan with occupational therapists in rehabilitation programs to create an important third-level prevention initiative, which may help achieve short-, medium-, and long-term goals. Asymptomatic PLHTLV should also be able to prevent future ADL impairment.

17.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 15: 643-655, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444478

RESUMO

Purpose: Considering high risk of imported epidemic in port cities, it is necessary to estimate COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and to promote vaccination coverage of high-risk occupations. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the occupations in Yantai city, China, using an online questionnaire service platform. Targeted strategies were developed based on the survey results. In addition, periodic monitoring of the vaccination rate was provided in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies. Results: A total of 2231 (73.22%) of 3047 participants were willing to accept the vaccine, while 2.53% refused and 24.25% were not sure. Frontline port workers (133/152, 87.50%) and healthcare workers (999/1155, 86.49%) had higher intentions to accept, while public places and commercial service staff (584/1011, 57.76%) had the lowest. The reasons for refusal and hesitation were mainly "doubt of safety or effectiveness" (661/816, 81.00%) and "hearing previous news about vaccines" (455/816, 55.76%). Multilevel strategies such as adequate organizations, health education and promotion, and easy access to vaccination were promoted by local authorities in collaboration with schools, hospitals, enterprises and institutions. The study showed a significant increase in vaccination rate among these occupations after the implementation of these strategies (p<0.001), reaching 87.96%. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among high-risk occupations was unsatisfactory before the stage of emergency vaccination. An advanced understanding of vaccine attitudes and acceptance can aid in the development of focused immunization promotion programs. It is worth emphasizing that wide strategies with the strong support and enthusiastic cooperation of the government and the industry executive can contribute to increasing occupations' acceptance of the ongoing COVID-19 immunization project.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 737, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries relied, until recently, solely on import duties for tobacco products. The agreement for the introduction of an excise and value added tax (VAT) in 2016 and 2017, respectively, in most GCC countries, was a major breakthrough for public health. There is, however, ample room for improvement. METHODS: The study examines the outcomes of tax reforms, for both public health and public finances, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and best practices worldwide. Tax simulations were performed using the WHO TaXSiM model. The study is based on data from Saudi Arabia, the only GCC country for which sufficient data existed. RESULTS: We recommend a stepwise tax reform, which involves increasing the current ad valorem excise tax rate, phasing out import duties keeping total tax share constant and introducing a minimum excise, and finally switching to a revenue-neutral specific excise. Specific excises must be adjusted for inflation and income increases. If implemented, cigarette tax reform simulations show that the recommended reforms would lead to a higher than 50% increase in cigarette prices, 16% reduction in cigarette sales and almost 50% increase in total cigarette tax revenue. A significant number of cigarette-related deaths would be averted. CONCLUSIONS: The recommended tax reforms are expected to lead to significant improvements in both public health and tobacco tax revenues. Our results provide useful insights that are of relevance to the whole GGC region. The effectiveness of the reforms, however, requires a strong tax and customs administration, including the establishment of a good database to monitor and advance public health.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco , Comércio , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Impostos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 834: 155514, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472344

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that cold exposure is to some extent a potential risk factor for ischemic stroke. At present, although the mechanism by which cold exposure induces ischemic stroke is not fully understood, some potential mechanisms have been mentioned. First, the seasonal and temperature variability of cerebrovascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation) may be involved. Moreover, the activation of sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system and their downstream signaling pathways (pro-inflammatory AngII, activated platelets, and dysfunctional immune cells) are also major contributors. Finally, the influenza epidemics induced by cold weather are also influencing factors that cannot be ignored. This article is the first to systematically and comprehensively describe the underlying mechanism of cold-induced ischemic stroke, aiming to provide more preventive measures and medication guidance for stroke-susceptible individuals in cold season, and also provide support for the formulation of public health policies.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Temperatura Baixa , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
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