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1.
Med Vet Entomol ; 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958518

RESUMO

Co-invasion, characterized by the simultaneous introduction of hosts and parasites with the latter establishing themselves in native hosts, is a phenomenon of ecological concern. Rattus rattus, a notorious invasive species, has driven the extinction and displacement of numerous avian and mammalian species and serves as a key vector for diseases affecting both humans and wildlife. Among the parasites hosted by R. rattus are fleas, which exhibit obligate parasitic behaviour, a generalist nature and high prevalence, increasing the likelihood of flea invasion. Simultaneously, invasive species can serve as hosts for native parasites, leading to potential amplification or dilution of parasite populations in the environment. In Chile, R. rattus has been present since the 17th century because of the arrival of the Spanish colonizers through the ports and has spread throughout urban, rural and wild Chilean territories. This study aims to evaluate whether co-invasion of native fleas of invasive rats occurs on native rodents in Chile and to determine whether black rats have acquired flea native to Chile during their invasion. For this, we captured 1132 rodents from 26 localities (20° S-53° S). Rattus rattus was found coexisting with 11 native rodent species and two species of introduced rodents. Among the native rodents, Abrothrix olivacea and Oligoryzomys longicaudatus exhibited more extensive sympatry with R. rattus. We identified 14 flea species associated with R. rattus, of which only three were native to rats: Xenopsylla cheopis, Leptopsylla segnis and Nosopsyllus fasciatus. These three species presented a higher parasite load in black rats compared to native fleas. Leptopsylla segnis and N. fasciatus were also found associated with native rodent species that cohabit with R. rattus. The remaining species associated with R. rattus were fleas of native rodents, although they were less abundant compared to those associated with native rodents, except for Neotyphloceras pardinasi and Sphinctopsylla ares. Although there has been evidence of flea transmission from rats to native species, the prevalence and abundance were relatively low. Therefore, it cannot be definitively concluded that these fleas have established themselves in native rodent populations, and hence, they cannot be classified as invasive fleas. This study underscores R. rattus' adaptability to diverse environmental and geographical conditions in Chile, including its capacity to acquire fleas from native rodents. This aspect has critical implications for public health, potentially facilitating the spread of pathogens across various habitats where these rats are found.

2.
Exp Parasitol ; 259: 108726, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428664

RESUMO

Cysticercus fasciolaris is a parasitic helminth that usually infects feline and canine mammal hosts. The intermediate hosts (rodents, occasionally lagomorphs, and humans) get infected by the consumption of feed or water contaminated with eggs. Rodents are vectors of disease and reservoirs of various zoonotic parasites. The current survey was aimed at determining endoparasitic helminth infections in rodents in central Morocco. Sampled rodents after specific identification were sacrificed and examined to identify parasitic helminths following ethical guidelines. Parasites were identified using morphological characteristics. A total of 197 specimens of rodents were collected and examined in this study. Ten rodent species were identified morphologically as Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus musculus, M. spretus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Meriones shawi, M. libycus, Gerbillus campestris, and Lemniscomys barbarus. The parasitological results showed that metacestode of tapeworms was found encysted in the liver, the larval stage of Taenia taeniaeformis develops large multinodular fibrosarcomas which envelope the tapeworm cysts in the liver of the R. rattus and R. norvegicus. Based on morphological data, the metacestode was identified as C. fasciolaris in 23 (23/80) R. rattus 2 (2/8) and R. norvegicus with a prevalence of 11.7 % and 1.0 %, respectively. Rodents are major vectors of human and domestic animal diseases worldwide, and therefore, important parasitic zoonotic agents (C. fasciolaris), which are transmitted by black rats (R. rattus) and brown rats (R. norvegicus), must be considered to prevent the infectivity of humans, domestic animals, and livestock such as cattle, sheep, and rabbits.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Doenças dos Roedores , Taenia , Camundongos , Ratos , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Coelhos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Cysticercus , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais Domésticos , Gerbillinae
3.
Integr Zool ; 19(1): 66-86, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37431721

RESUMO

The black rat (Rattus rattus) poses a severe threat to food security and public health in Madagascar, where it is a major cause of pre- and post-harvest crop losses and an important reservoir for many zoonotic diseases, including plague. Elsewhere, ecologically based rodent management (EBRM) strategies have been developed using ecological information to inform decisions on where and when to target control. EBRM could deliver improved health and well-being outcomes in Madagascar if adapted to the local ecological context. Using data collected from removal studies, we explored spatio-temporal patterns in the breeding activity of the black rat (R. rattus) in domestic and agricultural habitats across Madagascar and investigated to what extent these trends are influenced by rainfall and rat density. We identified clear spatio-temporal variation in the seasonality of R. rattus reproduction. Reproduction was highly seasonal both inside and outside of houses, but seasonal trends varied between these two habitats. Seasonal trends were explained, in part, by variation in rainfall; however, the effect of rainfall on reproductive rates did itself vary by season and habitat type. A decline in breeding intensity with increasing rat density was recorded outside of houses. This has important implications for control, as populations may compensate for removal through increased reproduction. We recommend that sustained control initiated before the main breeding season, combined with improved hygiene and adequate rodent-proofing in homes and grain stores, could curtail population growth and reduce pre- and post-harvest losses provided that these measures overcome the compensatory response of rodent populations.


Assuntos
Peste , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Ratos , Madagáscar , Zoonoses
4.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2023 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rat eradication from islands is a very effective tool that can free entire ecosystems from the pressure of alien predators. In this study we present the case study of Ventotene (Ponziane Archipelago, central Italy), which to date is the island with by far the greatest number of human inhabitants ever freed from the negative implications of rats. Rat eradication was carried out in the framework of the Life PonDerat project, co-financed by the European Union. Besides considering the conservation benefits due to the removal of rats, we also considered the socio-economic and pathogenic impacts from introduced rats. RESULTS: The overall economic cost of the rats was quantified to be at least €18 500 per year to the residents of the island. Several zoonotic pathogens were detected in the rat population prior to eradication. A reduction in the rodenticide distributed over time on the island was also estimated. Identifying the origin of the rat population allowed for the development of more targeted and effective biosecurity measures. The eradication effort was challenged by the presence of domestic animals and variability in support for baiting in urbanised areas. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study open up new perspectives on island restoration projects. We demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of the action, including ecosystem restoration, reduction of rat impacts in agricultural systems, and improving overall health and food safety. Our findings will have implications for similar interventions on other islands, potentially bringing significant benefits. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.

5.
Microorganisms ; 11(7)2023 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37512903

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is an emerging disease among people and dogs in Sydney, Australia. However, the routes of Leptospira transmission in these cases, and in particular the possible role of rats as reservoirs of infection in Sydney, are unknown. Rats were collected within the City of Sydney Council area and their kidneys were tested for pathogenic Leptospira DNA by real-time (q)PCR. A subset of rats also had qPCR testing performed on whole blood and urine, and Microscopic Agglutination Testing (MAT) that included a panel of 10 Leptospira serovars from nine different Leptospira serogroups was performed on a subset of serum samples. Based on qPCR testing, the proportion of rats with Leptospira DNA in their kidneys was 9/111 (8.1%). qPCR testing of blood samples (n = 9) and urine (n = 4) was negative. None of the 10 serum samples tested MAT positive. A primary cluster of qPCR-positive locations was detected based on six infected rats, which partially overlapped with a previously identified cluster of canine leptospirosis cases in Sydney. These findings suggest that rats in Sydney might play a role in the transmission of leptospirosis to dogs and people. Further testing of rats in Sydney and investigation into other possible wildlife reservoirs of infection and environmental sources of leptospires are needed.

6.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(12)2023 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37370479

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode and the etiologic agent of angiostrongyliasis, a disease characterized by eosinophilic meningitis. This emerging zoonotic parasite has undergone great expansion, including in some regions of Europe and America. In the Canary Islands, the parasite was first discovered parasitizing Rattus rattus on the island of Tenerife in 2010. To date, the distribution of this parasite in the Canary Islands has been restricted to the northern zone and the main cities of Tenerife. Using molecular tools for the sentinel species present in the Canary Islands, this study confirmed the presence of the nematode on two other islands in the Canary Archipelago: La Gomera and Gran Canaria. Furthermore, this emerging parasite was detected, besides in the common definitive host R. rattus, in wild Mus musculus and Felis catus and in four terrestrial gastropod species, Limacus flavus, Milax gagates, Insulivitrina emmersoni, and Insulivitrina oromii, two of them endemic to La Gomera, for the first time, increasing the number of non-definitive host species. This study reinforces the expansion character of A. cantonensis and highlights the importance of knowledge about sentinel species for identifying new transmission locations that help prevent and control the transmission of the parasite and, thus, prevent public health problems.

7.
Pathogens ; 12(4)2023 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37111453

RESUMO

The rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is an emerging parasite that can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Over the past 60 years, the worm has greatly expanded its original Asian distribution to most tropical and subtropical areas of the world, mostly by traveling on ships with its definitive hosts, rats. Angiostrongylus cantonensis was recently found for the first time in Continental Europe, specifically in 3 (2 Rattus norvegicus and 1 Rattus rattus) out of 27 rats trapped in the sewer system of the city of Valencia, Spain. Updating the investigation, the parasite has subsequently been found in 8 (5 R. norvegicus and 3 R. rattus) out of 94 rats analyzed. The highest prevalence of infection (20%) was obtained in rats trapped in the orchards that surround the city, where both snails and slugs (intermediate hosts) abound, and where vegetables consumed in Valencia, other parts of Spain, and abroad, are produced. The presence of the parasite in rats does not necessarily mean that the disease it causes becomes a relevant public health concern since it strongly depends on the food habits of the population at risk. If proper precautions are taken, the risk of acquiring neuroangiostrongylosis should be minimal.

8.
Biol Invasions ; 25(6): 1723-1738, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36777104

RESUMO

Clear delimitation of management units is essential for effective management of invasive species. Analysis of population genetic structure of target species can improve identification and interpretation of natural and artificial barriers to dispersal. In Aotearoa New Zealand where the introduced ship rat (Rattus rattus) is a major threat to native biodiversity, effective suppression of pest numbers requires removal and limitation of reinvasion from outside the managed population. We contrasted population genetic structure in rat populations over a wide scale without known barriers, with structure over a fine scale with potential barriers to dispersal. MtDNA D-loop sequences and microsatellite genotypes resolved little genetic structure in southern North Island population samples of ship rat 100 km apart. In contrast, samples from major islands differed significantly for both mtDNA and nuclear markers. We also compared ship rats collected within a small peninsula reserve bounded by sea, suburbs and, more recently, a predator fence with rats in the surrounding forest. Here, mtDNA did not differ but genotypes from 14 nuclear loci were sufficient to distinguish the fenced population. This suggests that natural (sea) and artificial barriers (town, fence) are effectively limiting gene flow among ship rat populations over the short distance (~ 500 m) between the peninsula reserve and surrounding forest. The effectiveness of the fence alone is not clear given it is a recent feature and no historical samples exist; resampling population genetic diversity over time will improve understanding. Nonetheless, the current genetic isolation of the fenced rat population suggests that rat eradication is a sensible management option given that reinvasion appears to be limited and could probably be managed with a biosecurity programme. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10530-023-03004-8.

9.
Vet Res Commun ; 47(1): 291-296, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412180

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne parasitic disease caused in Italy only by the species Leishmania infantum of the Leishmania donovani complex, which is the causative agent of the zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and the sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans, and of the canine leishmaniasis (CanL). The disease is considered endemic in southern, central, and insular Italian regions and recognizes phlebotomine sand flies as vector and dogs as main reservoir. Among northern Italian region, Emilia-Romagna shows peculiar epidemiological situation and recent studies are questioning the role of dog as main reservoir of L. infantum. Due to their synanthropic relationship with humans, rodents have been tested for Leishmania spp. in several European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Leishmania spp. in peridomestic rodents in the Emilia-Romagna. The study was carried out on 136 peridomestic rodents collected by professional pest control services: 47 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus), 39 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 50 mice (Mus musculus). Specimens of earlobe skin, spleen, liver and prescapular lymph nodes were tested with a real-time PCR. Fifteen (11%) rodents, tested positive for Leishmania spp. in particular five brown rats (10.6%), five black rats (12.8%) and five mice (10%). Positivity was obtained from different target organs. These findings revealed the presence of Leishmania spp. in peridomestic rodents of Emilia-Romagna Region, also in two species never tested before in Italy, namely R. norvegicus and M. musculus.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose Visceral , Humanos , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Cães , Roedores , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/veterinária , Itália/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia
10.
Vet Res Commun ; 47(1): 29-38, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380357

RESUMO

Rodents and shrews live in close proximity to humans and have been identified as important hosts of zoonotic pathogens. This study aimed to detect Group A rotavirus (RVA) and its potential risk factors in rodents and shrews in Bangladesh. We captured 417 small mammals from 10 districts with a high degree of contact between people and domestic animals and collected rectal swab samples between June 2011 and October 2013. We tested the swab samples for RVA RNA, targeting the NSP3 gene segment using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Overall, RVA prevalence was the same (6.7%) in both rodents and shrews. We detected RVA RNA in 5.3% of Bandicota bengalensis (4/76; 95% CI: 1.4-12.9), 5.1% of B. indica (4/79; 95% CI: 1.4-12.4), 18.2% of Mus musculus (4/22; 95% CI: 5.2-40.3), 6.7% of Rattus rattus (6/90; 95% CI: 2.5-13.9), and 6.7% of Suncus murinus (10/150; 95% CI: 3.2-11.9). We found significantly more RVA in males (10.4%; OR: 3.4; P = 0.007), animals with a poor body condition score (13.9%; OR: 2.7; P = 0.05), during wet season (8.3%; OR: 4.1; P = 0.032), and in urban land gradients (10.04%; OR: 2.9; P = 0.056). These findings form a basis for understanding the prevalence of rotaviruses circulating among rodents and shrews in this region. We recommend additional molecular studies to ascertain the genotype and zoonotic potential of RVA circulating in rodents and shrews in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Roedores , Rotavirus , Humanos , Ratos , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Rotavirus/genética , Musaranhos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , RNA , Filogenia
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(1): 20-25, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573519

RESUMO

Seoul orthohantavirus (SEOV) is not considered a major public health threat on the continent of Africa. However, Africa is exposed to rodentborne SEOV introduction events through maritime traffic after exponential growth of trade with the rest of the world. Serologic studies have already detected hantavirus antibodies in human populations, and recent investigations have confirmed circulation of hantavirus, including SEOV, in rat populations. Thus, SEOV is a possible emerging zoonotic risk in Africa. Moreover, the range of SEOV could rapidly expand, and transmission to humans could increase because of host switching from the usual brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) species, which is currently invading Africa, to the more widely installed black rat (R. rattus) species. Because of rapid economic development, environmental and climatic changes, and increased international trade, strengthened surveillance is urgently needed to prevent SEOV dissemination among humans in Africa.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hantavirus , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal , Orthohantavírus , Vírus Seoul , Animais , Ratos , Humanos , Comércio , Seul , Internacionalidade , Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Hantavirus/veterinária
12.
Pathogens ; 13(1)2023 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38251336

RESUMO

When the zoonotic parasite of rodents that can cause human neuroangiostrongyliasis, i.e., Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is found in its natural definitive hosts, it is usually reported in isolation, as if the rat lungworm were the only component of its parasite community. In this study, we report the coinfections found in rats naturally infected by A. cantonensis in urban populations of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus in Valencia, Spain. In addition to the rat lungworms, which were found in 14 of the 125 rats studied (a prevalence of 11.20%), 18 other parasite species (intestinal and tissular protists, microsporidia and helminths) were found, some of them with high burdens. Fourteen of these nineteen species found are potential zoonotic parasites, namely Blastocystis, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon hellem, Toxoplasma gondii, Brachylaima spp., Hydatigera taeniaeformis s.l. larvae, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Calodium hepaticum, Gongylonema neoplasticum and Moniliformis moniliformis. The total predominance of coinfected rats as well as their high parasite loads seem to indicate a trend towards parasite tolerance.

13.
Anim Welf ; 32: e2, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38487454

RESUMO

Population control of the house mouse (Mus musculus), Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and black rat (Rattus rattus) is common practice worldwide. Our objective was to assess the impact on animal welfare of lethal and non-lethal control methods, including three dispatch methods. We used the Sharp and Saunders welfare assessment model with eight experts scoring eleven control methods and three dispatch methods used on the three species. We presumed the methods were performed as prescribed, only taking into account the effect on the target animal (and not, for example, on non-target catches). We did not assess population control efficacy of the methods. Methods considered to induce the least suffering to the target animal were captive-bolt traps, electrocution traps and cervical dislocation, while those with the greatest impact were anticoagulants, cholecalciferol and deprivation. Experts indicated considerable uncertainty regarding their evaluation of certain methods, which emphasises the need for further scientific research. In particular, the impact of hydrogen cyanide, chloralose and aluminium phosphide on animal welfare ought to be investigated. The experts also stressed the need to improve Standard Operating Procedures and to incorporate animal welfare assessments in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The results of our study can help laypeople, professionals, regulatory agencies and legislators making well-informed decisions as to which methods to use when controlling commensal rodents.

14.
Zoolog Sci ; 39(6): 554-561, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495490

RESUMO

Rats (Rattus species) are the most notorious vertebrate pests in Malaysian oil palm plantations. Although many studies have been conducted on Asian rats, little attention has been paid to their species composition and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia. We determined the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence (708 bp) for 216 individual rats collected from five oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia. Phylogenetic analysis in conjunction with comparison with sequences from the nucleotide sequence database revealed five distinct lineages in the Malaysian oil plantations: Rattus tiomanicus, Rattus argentiventer, Rattus exulans, Rattus tanezumi, and a taxon corresponding to the Malayan house rat, which was most frequently observed (∼50%). The last taxon has traditionally been classified as a synonym of Rattus rattus (Rattus rattus diardii) or Rattus tanezumi, but our phylogenetic analysis placed it as an independent lineage, which is not particularly closely related to R. rattus or R. tanezumi, and which we refer to as Rattus diardii. The construction of the network showed that there is considerable genetic variation within the lineages of R. diardii and R tiomanicus, suggesting that these two species are native to the Malay Peninsula.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Genes Mitocondriais , Ratos , Animais , Filogenia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Malásia , Variação Genética
15.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(11)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355878

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is an anthropozoonosis disease of worldwide distribution caused by mobile spirochetes of the genus Leptospira and rodents, mainly rats, are described as its primary reservoir. In Algeria, there is limited data about the prevalence of Leptospira spp. in humans and animals, as well as Leptospira carriage in wild rodents. The study aimed to highlight the importance of rodents as a reservoir of Leptospira bacterium in Blida city in Algeria by detecting and identifying circulating Leptospira species in the rodent population. A total of 101 rodents, 95 Rattus Norvegicus, 5 Rattus Rattus, and 1 Mus Musculus were captured and tested for pathogenic Leptospira spp. byreal-time PCR targeting the Leptospira 16S rRNA (rrs) gene, revealing a total prevalence of 40.6%, 95% IC [30.9-50.8%]. Positive samples were subjected to species-specific real-time PCR assays targeting L. interrogans, L. noguchii, L. borgpetersenii, and L. kirschneri for species identification. However, positive samples for which Leptospira-species could not be determined were subjected to conventional PCR targeting the partial 16S rRNA (rrs) gene, and amplified DNA was subjected to sequencing. Leptospira spp. was detected in 36 kidney, 16 urine, and three lung specimens. L. interrogans was identified in 39 rodents and L. borpetersenii in one rodent; however, one rodent with renal carriage could not be typed due to poor DNA quality. This study provides the first description of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in wild rodents in Algeria. These findings suggest a high potential risk of leptospirosis transmission from rodents to humans and animals in Algeria and therefore imply the adoption of prophylactic measures. In addition, further studies, including different animals and rodent species, should be conducted to clarify the epidemiology of this disease in Algeria.

16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2564-2567, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418005

RESUMO

To determine the role of rats as potential reservoirs of zoonotic parasites, we examined rats trapped in urban sewers of Valencia, Spain, in 2021. Morphologic and molecular identification and sequencing identified autochthonous Angiostrongylus cantonensis nematodes, the most common cause of human eosinophilic meningitis, in pulmonary arteries of Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus rats.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Infecções por Strongylida , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/genética , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
17.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(10)2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36290430

RESUMO

A barrier to successful ecological restoration of urban green spaces in many cities is invasive mammalian predators. We determined the fine- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics associated with the presence of five urban predators (black and brown rats, European hedgehogs, house mice, and brushtail possums) in three New Zealand cities, in spring and autumn, in three green space types: forest fragments, amenity parks, and residential gardens. Season contributed to variations in detections for all five taxa. Rodents were detected least in residential gardens; mice were detected more often in amenity parks. Hedgehogs were detected least in forest fragments. Possums were detected most often in forest fragments and least often in residential gardens. Some of this variation was explained by our models. Proximity of amenity parks to forest patches was strongly associated with presence of possums (positively), hedgehogs (positively), and rats (negatively). Conversely, proximity of residential gardens to forest patches was positively associated with rat presence. Rats were associated with shrub and lower canopy cover and mice with herb layer cover. In residential gardens, rat detection was associated with compost heaps. Successful restoration of biodiversity in these cities needs extensive, coordinated predator control programmes that engage urban residents.

18.
Microorganisms ; 10(8)2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014050

RESUMO

Invasive Rattus species are carriers of haemotropic Mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas) globally, but data from Africa are lacking. Using a PCR-sequencing approach, we assessed haemoplasma prevalence and diversity in kidney and buccal swabs collected from three invasive Rattus species (Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi) in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Whilst the overall sequence-confirmed haemoplasma prevalence was 38.4%, infection rates in R. rattus (58.3%) were significantly higher (χ2 = 12.96; df = 2; n = 99 p < 0.05) than for R. tanezumi (14.3%). Differences between host sex (χ2 = 3.59 × 10−31; df = 1; n = 99; p = 1.00) and age (χ2 = 4.28; df = 2; n = 99; p = 0.12) were not significant. Whilst buccal (1.01%) and ectoparasite positivity (2.13%) were low, these results suggest that multiple transmission routes are possible. Three phylogenetically distinct lineages, consistent with global rat-associated strains described to date, were detected, namely, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. Ratti', and two Rattus-specific haemoplasmas that are yet to be formally described. These results expand the known distribution of invasive rat-associated haemoplasmas and highlight the potential for pathogen co-invasion of new territories together with invading rodent hosts.

19.
Acta Parasitol ; 67(3): 1260-1264, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687275

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The tumbu fly, Cordylobia anthropophaga (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is widely distributed in continental tropical and subtropical Africa, being the most common cause of furuncular myiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the present work was to analyze the role of rodents as possible reservoirs of C. anthropophaga in Cape Verde, considering the zoonotic character of this fly species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 150 peridomestic rodents were studied in Santiago island. For the obtained larvae, morphological and molecular characters were analyzed. RESULTS: Cordylobia anthropophaga was found in 6.4% of the peridomestic Rattus rattus analyzed. The present work unveils the presence of C. anthropophaga in rodents of the African archipelago of Cape Verde, introduced probably with West African humans and/or animals. CONCLUSION: The presence in peridomestic animals, and the wide range of species that this fly can affect, entails a zoonotic risk of myiasis by tumbu fly.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Miíase , Animais , Cabo Verde , Calliphoridae , Humanos , Larva , Miíase/veterinária , Roedores
20.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 183: 105052, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430058

RESUMO

Rodent control is mainly done using anticoagulant rodenticides leading to the death of rodents through internal bleeding by targeting the VKORC1 protein. However, mutations in VKORC1 can lead to resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides that can cause treatment failure in the field. This study provides the first insight into the distribution, frequency and characterization of Vkorc1 mutations in roof rats (Rattus rattus) in France and in three administrative areas of Spain. The roof rat is present in France while it was thought to have almost disappeared with the expansion of the brown rat. Nevertheless, it has been found mainly in maritime areas. 151 roof rats out of 219 tested presented at least one missense mutation in the coding sequences of Vkorc1 gene (i.e. 69.0% of the rat). Nine Vkorc1 genotypes were detected (Y25F, A26P, R40G, S57F, W59C, W59R, H68N, Y25F/K152T and Y25F/W59R. Biochemical characterization of the consequences of these different genotypes proved that these various genotypes did not induce severe resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides. Even if many mutations of the Vkorc1 gene are present in roof rat populations in France, their management may be based in a first approach, considering the low levels of resistance induced, on the use of first-generation anticoagulants less dangerous for wildlife. The use of second-generation may be considered when treatment failure is observed or when bait consumption is limited.


Assuntos
Rodenticidas , Animais , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , França , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Ratos , Rodenticidas/farmacologia , Espanha , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética
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