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1.
J Environ Manage ; 320: 115786, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961138

RESUMO

Oxides of nitrogen are among the most dangerous emissions to human health and to the environment. In European nations, road transportation contributes to approximately 40% of emissions of oxides of nitrogen with the dominant share coming from passenger and freight transport. To help mitigate emissions of oxides of nitrogen, the European Union (EU) has implemented vehicular emissions standards. This paper studies the effect of EU vehicular emissions standards on per capita emissions of oxides of nitrogen in European nations during the period 2000 to 2017, both for on-road vehicular emissions and at the economy level. To do this, pollution is modelled as a byproduct of economic production. After controlling for economic growth, historical per capita levels of emissions of oxides of nitrogen, and a series of geographic and technological factors, it is determined that the vehicular emissions standards put in place by the EU decrease per capita levels of emissions of oxides of nitrogen. More precisely, reducing the heavy duty emissions standard by 1 g/kWh leads to as much as a 7% reduction in per capita on-road emissions of oxides of nitrogen. Reducing the passenger vehicle emissions standards for both diesel and gasoline engines enhances this effect, resulting in an even greater reduction in per capita emissions of oxides of nitrogen. These results further suggest that any rebound effect taking place is outweighed by the reduction in emissions of oxides of nitrogen from lowering emissions standards.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809172

RESUMO

Haze pollution has been addressed in extensive studies over the last few years. However, the relationship between resource dependence and haze pollution has not been fully investigated. This study focuses on addressing this problem while considering the mediating role of green technology innovation. A panel dataset of 263 prefecture-level cities in China from 2005 to 2018 is used for the analysis. The results show the following: (1) the two-way fixed-effect model reveals that resource dependence contributes significantly to haze pollution, and this finding remains robust across a series of robustness tests. (2) A mediation analysis indicates that resource dependence is unfavorable for green technology innovation, indirectly affecting the alleviation of haze pollution. (3) The results of panel threshold regression suggest that green technology innovation promotes haze reduction in the weak and medium resource dependence stages, whereas this optimization effect disappears in the strong resource dependence stage due to rebound effects. (4) The results of regional heterogeneity demonstrate that the positive effects of resource dependence on haze pollution exist in eastern and western China but not in central China. Based on these results, policy implications are given to reduce haze pollution.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35871199

RESUMO

Although the existing literature has evaluated the energy rebound effect (ERE) from various aspects, the estimates of different types of ERE obtained by different methods still deserve further discussion. For this reason, by analyzing the pros and cons of assessment methods, this study offers a comparison between the direct and economy-wide EREs based on China's transportation sector during the period of 2003-2019. Specifically, on the basis of the translog cost function, we use the dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) method with seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) to evaluate the sectoral direct ERE. Considering that the direct ERE estimation is limited by its strict assumptions, this article further assesses the sectoral ERE from a macro perspective. By constructing the dynamic two-stage panel function, the generalized method of moments (GMM) was adopted to estimate the sectoral economy-wide ERE. The empirical results demonstrate that first, capital and labor relative to energy are Morishima substitutes; second, the sectoral short-term economy-wide ERE in China was 71.60%, while the long-term economy-wide ERE was 32.00% during the study period; third, there are significant regional differences in the EREs of Chinese transportation industry both for the short and long term, and the east China demonstrated the highest sectoral economy-wide ERE.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653018

RESUMO

According to Jevon's paradox, energy efficiency leads to more energy consumption instead of low. So, calculating the size of energy rebound effect is need of the time to devise sustainable environmental and energy policies. This paper aims to analyze the impact of energy efficiency on energy consumption of transport sector in Pakistan by using time series data from 1980 to 2018. This incremental energy consumption channelizes through intensity and output effects. The study uses both Cobb-Douglas (C-D) and constant elasticity of substitution (CES) aggregate production functions to find the magnitudes of energy rebound effect. As the analysis of energy rebound effect is sensitive to the selection of data, model, and methodology. C-D production function deals with energy rebound effect, while CES provides extra information in the form of energy intensity and output effects along with energy rebound effect. The C-D function is estimated with linear estimation technique, while the CES function is estimated through nonlinear optimization method. The results indicate relatively low magnitudes of energy rebound effect in case of C-D function, e.g., 2% in the short run and about 36% in the long run while about 70% energy rebound, 63% energy intensity, and 7% output effect in the transport sector of Pakistan in the long run by using CES function. As anticipated, energy efficiency is less effective in terms of energy savings in transport sector due to energy rebound effect. Therefore, policy makers should incorporate energy rebound effect to achieve sustainable environmental goals along with economic growth path.

5.
Osteoporos Int ; 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608639

RESUMO

We investigated whether the drug denosumab modulates the inflammatory response after total hip arthroplasty in a randomized controlled trial. Significantly increased expression of RANKL was found in patients treated with denosumab. This could provide an explanation for the rebound effect with rapid loss of BMD seen after discontinuation of denosumab treatment. PURPOSE: To evaluate whether denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody directed against receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), modulates the inflammatory response after cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. METHODS: Sixty-four patients operated with cementless THA were randomized to two doses of 60-mg denosumab or placebo 1-3 days and 6 months postoperatively. Serum samples were analyzed by a multiplex extension assay detecting 92 inflammation-related proteins. Bone turnover markers were assessed. Proteins were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. Validation of conspicuous findings was performed with ELISA. RESULTS: Two proteins were significantly affected by denosumab treatment: RANKL and tumor necrosis factor receptor super family member 9 (TNFRSF9). Serum levels of RANKL were more than twice as high in the denosumab than in the placebo group 3 months after surgery (ratio 2.10, p<0.001). Six and 12 months after surgery, the expression of RANKL was still elevated in the denosumab-treated group (ratios 1.50, p < 0.001; 1.47, p =0.002). The expression of TNFRSF9 was lower in the denosumab group at 3 months (ratio 0.68, p<0.001). In the denosumab group, concentrations of bone turnover markers were substantially reduced after 3 months, remained suppressed after 6 and 12 months, but increased above baseline at 24 months after surgery. CONCLUSION: Two subcutaneous denosumab injections 6 months apart increase RANKL and depress TNFRSF9 after THA. This provides a possible explanation for the rebound effect on bone turnover markers as well as bone mineral density (BMD) upon withdrawal of denosumab. None of the other measured markers of inflammation was influenced by denosumab treatment.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576035

RESUMO

Under the guidance of carbon peak and carbon neutral targets, the industrial structure transformation is vital for carbon emissions reduction in China. However, there is a rebound effect of carbon emissions during the industrial structure transformation. Resource dependence and technological progress have significant impacts on industrial structure transformation and its carbon reduction effect. This paper explores how industrial structure transformation under resource dependence causes the rebound effect from a technological progress perspective. The key results indicate that (1) resource dependence distorts the carbon emissions reduction effect of industrial structure transformation; (2) with the development of technology, the industrial structure upgrading under resource dependence could cause an increase on carbon emissions at the beginning, but the increase would be weakened subsequently, displaying a two-stage feature; (3) the industrial structure rationalization under resource dependence reduces carbon emissions at first, but the reduction would be weakened as the technology develops, then industrial structure's rationalization shows an insignificant impact on carbon emissions, and finally reduces carbon emissions again, presenting a four-stage characteristic; (4) environmental protection technology can correct the distortion effect of resource dependence on the industrial structure rationalization and amplify the industrial structure rationalization's reduction effects on carbon emissions; (5) with the development of energy-saving technology, industrial structure rationalization has a paradoxical impact on carbon emissions, the industrial structure rationalization first reduces, then increases, and finally reduces carbon emissions, indicating an inverted "N" relationship. Finally, policy recommendations for carbon emissions reduction are proposed from the perspective of industrial structure transformation and technological progress.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 306: 119332, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489529

RESUMO

The UN Sustainable Development Goal, SDG 7.3, is to double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency by 2030. To meet this and other energy targets, countries encourage the development and adoption of energy-efficient products. An extensively researched phenomenon in this context is the energy rebound effect, especially in transportation. However, the direct relationship between the energy rebound effect and car emission levels has barely been investigated. Understanding this relationship is important, because energy-related emissions are closely linked to mortality, morbidity, and climate change. We assess the emission consequences in the private car market in Israel of a rebound effect associated with a policy promoting energy-efficient cars. We find that the baseline rebound before introduction of the policy was 40%. In the following three periods marked by policy changes, it grew to 54%, 69%, and 88%. Using household data with specific car characteristics and usage, we calculate the added greenhouse gas (GHG) emission consequences of this rebound by the end of the studied period to be about 5% of the country's per-capita target. Notably, estimates for the emission consequences using "average car" values were almost twice as high. The reason for this gap derives from the co-dependance between car usage and car efficiency. We discuss the implications of this gap in meeting emission goals.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Mudança Climática , Efeito Estufa , Israel , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 432: 128738, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35338938

RESUMO

Accidental oil leaks and spills can often result in severe soil and groundwater pollution. In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a powerful and efficient remediation technology. In this review, the applications and recent advances of three commonly applied in-situ oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, persulfate, and permanganate), and the gap in remediation efficiency between lab-scale and field-scale applications is critically assessed. Feasible improvements for these measures, especially solutions for the 'rebound effect', are discussed. The removal efficiencies reported in 108 research articles related to petroleum-contaminated soil and groundwater were analyzed. The average remediation efficiency of groundwater (82.7%) by the three oxidants was higher than that of soil (65.8%). A number of factors, including non-aqueous phase liquids, adsorption effect, the aging process of contaminants, low-permeability zones, and vapor migration resulted in a decrease in the remediation efficiency and caused the residual contaminants to rebound from 19.1% of the original content to 57.7%. However, the average remediation efficiency of ISCO can be increased from 40.9% to 75.5% when combined with other techniques. In the future, improving the utilization efficiency of reactive species and enhancing the contact efficiency between oxidants and petroleum contaminants will be worthy of attention. Multi-technical combinations, such as the ISCO coupled with phase-transfer, viscosity control, controlled release or natural attenuation, can be effective methods to solve the rebound problem.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Água Subterrânea , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água Subterrânea/química , Oxidantes/química , Oxirredução , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(4): 2096-2106, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35119259

RESUMO

The carbon intensity (CI) of travel is commonly used to evaluate transportation technologies. However, when travel demand is sensitive to price, CI alone does not fully capture the emissions impact of a technology. Here, we develop a metric to account for both CI and the demand response to price (DR) in technology evaluation, for use by distributed decision-makers in industry and government, who are becoming increasingly involved in climate change mitigation as the costs of lower-carbon technologies fall. We apply this adjusted carbon intensity (ACI) to evaluate ethanol-fueled, hybrid, and battery electric vehicles individually and against policy targets. We find that all of these technologies can be used to help meet a 2030 greenhouse gas emissions reduction target of up to 40% below 2005 levels and that decarbonized battery electric vehicles can meet a 2050 target of 80%, even when evaluated using the ACI instead of CI. Using the CI alone could lead to a substantial overshoot of emissions targets especially in markets with significant DR, including in rapidly growing economies with latent travel demand. The ACI can be used to adjust decarbonization transition plans to mitigate this risk. For example, in examining several transportation technologies, we find that accelerating low-carbon technology transitions by roughly 5-10 years would mitigate the risk associated with DR estimates. One particularly robust strategy is to remove carbon from fuels through faster decarbonization of electricity and vehicle electrification.


Assuntos
Carbono , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Eletricidade , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Tecnologia , Meios de Transporte , Emissões de Veículos/análise
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(15): 22306-22324, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782978

RESUMO

In order to effectively analyze and explore the socio-economic impact of haze pollution, the article constructs a comprehensive two-stage decomposition model to verify that technological progress plays a key role in controlling haze pollution. And for the first time, a macro-level research framework for the rebound effect of haze pollution has been constructed to compare and analyze the heterogeneity of the rebound effect of technological progress in different industries in different regions. The study found that (1) during the period 2000-2017, haze pollution situation deteriorated. Economic effects were the main reasons for haze pollution. Among these effects, technological progress was the main driving force for haze control, followed by the emission intensity during 2000-2011 and the reduction of industrial structure since 2014. (2) The significant drive of emission reduction is in the secondary industry, showing a trend of first increasing and then decreasing. Besides, there was a difference in spatial distribution, which shows an increased trend from east to west. (3) The rebound effect of haze pollution at the macro level in China presented high-level fluctuations, and there were certain spatial distribution differences. However, due to the convergence of technological development stages, regional differences have a gradual convergence trend. In the future, in the process of haze control, it is necessary to increase support for technological innovation, implement energy total control and price reform, promote technological progress, and implement differentiated haze reduction policies to solve problems according to local conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/análise
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 717168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568375

RESUMO

Background: Though denosumab is an effective treatment for osteoporosis, the rebound effect after discontinuation has drawn investigators' attention. It includes a dramatic loss of gained bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of vertebral fractures. This prospective multi-institutional randomized controlled trial aims to investigate whether zoledronate prevents loss of BMD after discontinuation of denosumab. The trial was registered as Denosumab Sequential Therapy (DST) trial in March 2019 at clinicaltrials.gov, with the identifier NCT03868033. Methods: The study is conducted at National Taiwan University Hospital and its branches. Patients who have continuously received denosumab treatment for two or more years are surveyed for eligibility. Baseline characteristics and questionnaires of life quality are recorded after recruitment. BMD, circulating levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs), including serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1NP) and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), are checked before the stratified randomization to 4 groups. Biological sex and the T-scores are used to create 4 strata. The participants in group 1 adhere to regular denosumab therapy for another 2 years. All the other patients receive on-time zoledronate treatment in the first year. The participants in group 2, 3, and 4 have on-time denosumab, on-time zoledronate and drug holiday in the second year, respectively. BMDs are checked annually. Pre-scheduled checkpoints of BTMs are also arranged. For patient safety, rescue treatment with another injection of zoledronate will be applied to the patients on drug holiday if the CTX levels raise above the pre-specified threshold, 0.573 ng/mL for women and 0.584 ng/mL for men. The primary outcomes are the percentage changes of BMDs in lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck. The secondary outcomes include the changes of serum level of the BTMs, new osteoporotic fractures, extra zoledronate injections needed in group 4 and the differences of quality of life. Discussion: We aim to provide evidence whether zoledronate prevents bone loss after denosumab cessation. To our knowledge, the study has the largest sample size. No other randomized controlled study included all the three different treatment strategies and a positive control. It is also the first associated randomized controlled trial outside Europe.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281088

RESUMO

Agricultural water use accounts for the largest proportion of water withdrawal, so improving agricultural water use efficiency is an important way to alleviate water shortage. However, the expected water saving by the improved agricultural water use efficiency may be offset by the rebound effect, which means the goal of water saving by improving agricultural water use efficiency is not achieved. Based on the definition of the rebound effect of agricultural water use, this paper first uses a fixed model to measure the causal effect of agricultural water use efficiency on agricultural water use to analyze the agricultural water rebound effect, then analyses the heterogeneity and mechanism of the effect of agricultural water use efficiency on agricultural water use with the panel data from 30 provinces or cities in China from 2000 to 2017. The results show that, firstly, the agricultural water use efficiency has a significant negative effect on agricultural water use, but the average agricultural water rebound effect is 88.81%. Secondly, the effect of agricultural water use efficiency on agricultural water use is heterogeneous, in which the improvement of agricultural water use efficiency in humid or major grain-producing areas will have a lower agricultural water rebound effect. Finally, agricultural water use efficiency can affect agricultural water use through planting area and planting structure. An increase in agricultural water use efficiency will expand the planting area to increase water use. However, this will change the planting structure to decrease water use. The implication for agricultural water management is that the irrigation agricultural scale has to be controlled under the condition of available water resource, while improving agricultural water use efficiency.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Água , Irrigação Agrícola , China , Grão Comestível , Recursos Hídricos
13.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 254(1): 57-61, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053968

RESUMO

Discontinuation of denosumab is associated with the risk of rebound in bone turnover and rebound-associated spontaneous clinical vertebral fractures. This case report presents an 86-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis who experienced rebound-associated spontaneous clinical vertebral fractures at 9 months after denosumab discontinuation. Following 5-year bisphosphonate treatment, the patient had 9 injections of 60-mg denosumab every 6 months. Because of tooth extraction, denosumab treatment was discontinued, and raloxifene was administered. At 9 months after the last denosumab injection, the patient experienced severe low back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph demonstrated clinical fracture at the fourth lumbar vertebra. MRI performed at 3 months after first fracture showed two additional fractures at the second and third lumbar vertebrae. Teriparatide was administered for management of rebound-associated spontaneous clinical, multiple vertebral fractures. Teriparatide was effective for accelerating the fracture healing and suppressing the occurrence of new fractures. However, 2-year treatment of teriparatide did not have suppressive effect of rebound in bone turnover and general bone loss. This case suggested that teriparatide was effective for suppression of new rebound-associated spontaneous clinical vertebral fractures, but not effective in prevention of general bone loss after denosumab discontinuation.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Densidade Óssea , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799843

RESUMO

The management of fungal keratitis is complex since signs and symptoms are subtle and ocular inflammation is minimal in the preliminary stages of infection. Initial misdiagnosis of the condition and consequent management of inflammation with corticosteroids is a frequent occurrence. Topical steroid use is considered to be a principal factor for development of fungal keratitis. In this review, we assess the studies that have reported outcomes of fungal keratitis in patients receiving steroids prior to diagnosis. We also assess the possible rebound effect present when steroids are abruptly discontinued and the clinical characteristics of three patients in this particular clinical scenario. Previous reports and the three clinical descriptions presented suggest that in fungal keratitis, discontinuing topical steroids can induce worsening of clinical signs. In these cases, we recommend to slowly taper steroids and continue or commence appropriate antifungal therapy.

15.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(2)2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561937

RESUMO

Abrupt withdrawal from antiepileptic drugs is followed by increased occurrence of epileptic seizures, a phenomenon known as the "rebound effect". By stopping treatment with levetiracetam (LEV 300 mg/kg/day, n = 15; vs. saline, n = 15), we investigated the rebound effect in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. LEV was continuously administered using osmotic minipumps, 7 weeks after the intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid (15 mg/kg). The effects of LEV were determined by comparing time intervals, treatments, and interactions between these main factors. Seizures were evaluated by video-electrocorticographic recordings and power band spectrum analysis. Furthermore, we assessed endogenous neurosteroid levels by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. LEV significantly reduced the percentage of rats experiencing seizures, reduced the seizure duration, and altered cerebral levels of neurosteroids. In the first week of LEV discontinuation, seizures increased abruptly up to 700% (p = 0.002, Tukey's test). The power of delta band in the seizure postictal component was related to the seizure occurrence after LEV withdrawal (r2 = 0.73, p < 0.001). Notably, allopregnanolone hippocampal levels were positively related to the seizure occurrence (r2 = 0.51, p = 0.02) and to the power of delta band (r2 = 0.67, p = 0.004). These findings suggest a role for the seizure postictal component in the rebound effect, which involves an imbalance of hippocampal neurosteroid levels.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535711

RESUMO

The rebound effect exists widely in the fields of energy, irrigation, and other resource utilizations. Previous studies have predicted the evolution of different resource utilizations under the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs), but it is still unclear whether total water use has a rebound effect. This study uses the SSPs as the basic prediction framework and evaluates the water resources and economic status of the provinces in China using the hydro-economic (HE) classification method. Then, combined with the SSPs scenario setting parameters, the conditional convergence model and the method recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are used to simulate the changes in water use efficiency of the different provinces in China under different scenarios. Based on the future GDP forecast data of China's provinces, combined with the forecast of water use efficiency changes, the total water use changes in China's 31 provinces under different pathways from 2016 to 2030 are calculated. Among them, the future GDP data is predicted based on the Cobb-Douglas production function and SSPs scenario settings. Using a comprehensive evaluation of the evolution of the efficiency and the total amount, this study reveals whether there is a rebound effect. The results showed that with the continuous growth in the water use efficiency, the total water use had a "U" type trend, which indicated that there was a rebound effect in the total water use of China under the different SSPs. Based on this information, this study proposes some suggestions for irrigation water-saving technologies and policies.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Recursos Hídricos , China , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Água
17.
Curr Eye Res ; 46(8): 1223-1226, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460537

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether cessation of MiSight contact lens (CLs) wear for myopia control produces rebound effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study recruited participants who had just completed the MASS Study, a two-year randomized clinical trial designed to assess the efficacy of MiSight® CLs versus distance single vision (SV) spectacles in myopic children. To assess the rebound effect, axial length progression was taken into account in those children that continued one more year of follow-up. At this visit, children were divided into three groups: MiSight-C group, in which children from the original study group continued MiSight CLs wear for the duration of the study; MiSight-D group, in which children from the original study group discontinued MiSight CLs wear in the last year; and SV-C group, in which children from the original control group continued wearing single-vision spectacles for the duration of the study. The last group was considered as the control group. RESULTS: Of the 74 children who completed the MASS study, 55 children completed the 1-year follow-up and were included in the analysis. Thirteen children were included in the MiSight-C group, 18 in the MiSight-D group, and 24 in the Single Vision-C group. Axial length and myopia progression in the last year were 0.15± 0.11 mm, 0.22± 0.11 mm, 0.21± 0.10 mm and -0.37±0.44D, -0.46±0.39D and -0.55±0.45D for the three groups, respectively. No significant differences in axial elongation and myopia progression were found among the three groups of participants. CONCLUSIONS: Over a one-year period, neither myopia progression nor eye growth was faster for the subjects who discontinued MiSight contact lens wear compared to those who continued to wear MiSight contact lenses or those who continued to wear single-vision spectacles, indicating no rebound effect with MiSight contact lenses for 2 years.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01917110.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/terapia , Procedimentos Ortoceratológicos , Adolescente , Comprimento Axial do Olho/fisiopatologia , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Óculos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Espanha , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Suspensão de Tratamento
18.
Environ Resour Econ (Dordr) ; : 1-4, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836832

RESUMO

The irruption of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns on sustainability issues. The pandemic has accelerated the implementation of technologies such as ICT and shifts in mobility behaviour. Such changes have the potential to reduce environmental burdens, but also to trigger large environmental rebound effects. This perspective article reflects on some emerging concerns on the socio-economic effects of a pandemic on the environment from a rebound effect perspective. Although the pandemic offers potential to improve the environmental conditions, it brings also a high risk to produce Jevons' Paradox, i.e., increase environmental burdens rather than decrease them, as initially expected. Governments should be aware of these risks and assess the possibility to implement additional measures, like environmental taxation or limiting the use of resources, to help achieving sustainability targets.

19.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 15(3): 778-793, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286932

RESUMO

The ironic effect of thought suppression refers to the phenomenon in which individuals trying to rid their mind of a target thought ironically experience greater levels of occurrence and accessibility of the thought compared with individuals who deliberately concentrate on the thought (Wegner, 1994, doi:10.1037/0033-295X.101.1.34). Ironic effects occurring after thought suppression, also known as rebound effects, were consistently detected by previous meta-analyses. However, ironic effects that occur during thought suppression, also known as immediate enhancement effects, were found to be largely absent. In this meta-analysis, we test Wegner's original proposition that detection of immediate enhancement effects depends on the cognitive load experienced by individuals when enacting thought suppression. Given that thought suppression is an effortful cognitive process, we propose that the introduction of additional cognitive load would compete for the allocation of existing cognitive resources and impair capacity for thought suppression. Studies (k = 31) consistent with Wegner's original thought-suppression paradigm were analyzed. Consistent with our predictions, rebound effects were observed regardless of cognitive load, whereas immediate enhancement effects were observed only in the presence of cognitive load. We discuss implications in light of ironic-process theory and suggest future thought-suppression research.


Assuntos
Atenção , Conscientização , Mecanismos de Defesa , Rememoração Mental , Pensamento , Humanos
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(13): 14465-14475, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939017

RESUMO

This study presents the latest results of the groundwater monitoring of a research project, which tested an innovative pump and treat method in combination with an in-situ remediation. This technique was assessed on an abandoned site in Austria, where two hot spots of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) were located. For the in-situ remediation, a strong reducing agent (sodium dithionite) was injected into the underground to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by using different injection strategies. Throughout this treatment, part of the Cr(VI) is mobilized and not instantly reduced. To prevent a further spreading of the mobilized Cr(VI), the pump and treat method, which uses zero-valent iron to clean the groundwater, was installed downgradient of the hot spots. Based on the groundwater sample analyses, it was possible to distinguish different remediation phases, characterized by excess chromate and excess sulfite. During the excess sulfite conditions, Cr(VI) was successfully removed from the system, but after terminating the sodium dithionite injection, the Cr(VI) rebounded.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áustria , Cromo
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