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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2023 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37149726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nirmatrelvir/ritonavir has shown to reduce COVID-19 hospitalization and death before Omicron but updated real-world evidence studies are needed. This study aimed to assess whether nirmatrelvir/ritonavir reduces the risk of COVID-19-associated hospitalization among high-risk outpatients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of SARS-CoV-2-infected outpatients between March 15 and October 15, 2022, using data from the Québec clinico-administrative databases. Outpatients treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir were compared to infected ones not receiving nirmatrelvir/ritonavir using propensity-score matching. Relative risk of COVID-19-associated hospitalization occurring within 30 days following the index date was assessed using a Poisson regression. RESULTS: A total of 8,402 treated outpatients were matched to controls. Regardless of vaccination status, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment was associated with a 69% reduced relative risk of hospitalization (RR: 0.31 [95%CI: 0.28; 0.36], NNT=13). The effect was more pronounced in outpatients with incomplete primary vaccination course (RR: 0.04 [95%CI: 0.03; 0.06], NNT=8), while no benefit was found in those with a complete primary vaccination course (RR: 0.93 [95%CI: 0.78; 1.08]). Subgroups analysis among high-risk outpatients with a primary vaccination course showed that nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment was associated with a significant decrease in relative risk of hospitalization in severely immunocompromised outpatients (RR: 0.66 [95%CI: 0.50; 0.89], NNT=16) and in high-risk outpatients aged 70 years and older (RR: 0.50 [95%CI: 0.34; 0.74], NNT=10) when the last dose of the vaccine was received at least six months ago. CONCLUSIONS: Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir reduces the risk of COVID-19-associated hospitalization among incompletely vaccinated high-risk outpatients and among some subgroups of completely vaccinated high-risk outpatients.

2.
Virol J ; 20(1): 89, 2023 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37147711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solid-organ transplantation due to end-stage organ disease is increasingly performed in people living with HIV. Despite improved transplant outcomes, management of these patients remains challenging due to higher risk for allograft rejection, infection and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Complex regimens for multi-drug resistant HIV-viruses may cause DDIs particularly if the regimen contains drugs such as ritonavir or cobicistat. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report on a case of an HIV-infected renal transplant recipient on long-term immunosuppressive therapy with mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus dosed at 0.5 mg every 11 days due to the co-administration of a darunavir/ritonavir containing antiretroviral regimen. In the presented case the pharmacokinetic booster was switched from ritonavir to cobicistat for treatment simplification. A close monitoring of tacrolimus drug levels was performed in order to prevent possible sub- or supratherapeutic tacrolimus trough levels. A progressive decrease in tacrolimus concentrations was observed after switch requiring shortening of tacrolimus dosing interval. This observation was unexpected considering that cobicistat is devoid of inducing properties. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the fact that the pharmacokinetic boosters ritonavir and cobicistat are not fully interchangeable. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus is warranted to maintain levels within the therapeutic range.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Transplante de Rim , Humanos , Cobicistat/uso terapêutico , Cobicistat/efeitos adversos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico
3.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2023 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37173153

RESUMO

Tacrolimus is commonly used for immunosuppression in patients following solid organ transplantation. For transplant patients with COVID-19 infection, early treatment is indicated due to the risk of progression to severe disease. However, the first line agent, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, has multiple drug-drug interactions. We report a case of tacrolimus toxicity in a patient with a history of renal transplant due to enzyme inhibition related to nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. An 85-year-old woman with a history of multiple comorbidities presented to the emergency department (ED) with weakness, increasing confusion, poor oral intake, and inability to walk. She had been recently diagnosed with COVID-19 infection and was prescribed nirmatrelvir/ritonavir due to her underlying comorbidities and immune suppression. In the ED, she was dehydrated and had an acute kidney injury (creatinine 2.1 mg/dL, up from a baseline of 0.8 mg/dL). The tacrolimus concentration on initial labs was 143 ng/mL (5-20 ng/mL) and it continued to rise despite being held, to a peak of 189 ng/mL on hospital day 3. The patient was treated with phenytoin for enzyme induction and the tacrolimus concentration began to fall. She was discharged to a rehabilitation facility after a 17 day hospitalization. ED physicians must be cognizant of drug-drug interactions when prescribing nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and evaluating patients recently treated with the drug to identify toxicity due to these interactions.

4.
Ann Pharmacother ; : 10600280231169256, 2023 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37144730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past 2 years of the several strategies recommended to help fight COVID-19, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir is a novel drug shown in the EPIC-HR phase 2 to 3 clinical trial to lower COVID-19-related death or hospitalization at day 28 when compared with placebo. OBJECTIVE: Our study's aim was to explore the reported adverse events (AEs) associated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir use for COVID-19. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective analysis using the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database for AEs, listing nirmatrelvir/ritonavir as the primary drug between January and June 2022. The primary outcome was the incidence of reported AEs associated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. The OpenFDA database was queried using Python 3.10 to collect the AEs and Stata 17 was used to analyze the database. Adverse events were analyzed by associated medication, with "Covid-19" excluded. RESULTS: A total of 8098 reports were identified between January and June 2022. Most reported complaints in the AE system were COVID-19 and disease recurrence. The most common symptomatic AEs were dysgeusia, diarrhea, cough, fatigue, and headache. Event rates significantly rose between April and May. Disease recurrence and dysgeusia were the most commonly reported complaints for the top 8 concomitant drugs identified. Cardiac arrest, tremor, akathisia, and death were reported in 1, 3, 67, and 5 cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This is the first retrospective study done on reported AEs associated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir use for COVID-19. COVID-19 and disease recurrence were the most reported AEs. Further monitoring of the FAERS database is warranted to periodically reassess the safety profile of this medication.

5.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28756, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37185838

RESUMO

Chinese guidelines prioritize the use of Azvudine and nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in COVID-19 patients. Nevertheless, the real-world effectiveness of Azvudine versus nirmatrelvir-ritonavir is still lacking, despite clinical trials showing their effectiveness compared with matched controls. To compare the effectiveness of Azvudine versus nirmatrelvir-ritonavir treatments in real-world clinical practice, we identified 2118 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, with a follow-up of up to 38 days. After exclusions and propensity score matching, we included 281 Azvudine recipients and 281 nirmatrelvir-ritonavir recipients who did not receive oxygen therapy at admission. The lower crude incidence rate of composite disease progression outcome (7.83 vs. 14.83 per 1000 person-days, p = 0.026) and all-cause death (2.05 vs. 5.78 per 1000 person-days, p = 0.052) were observed among Azvudine recipients. Azvudine was associated with lower risks of composite disease progression outcome (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32-0.94) and all-cause death (HR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.16-1.04). In subgroup analyses, the results of composite outcome retained significance among patients aged <65 years, those having a history of disease, those with severe COVID-19 at admission, and those receiving antibiotics. These findings suggest that Azvudine treatment showed effectiveness in hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in terms of composite disease progression outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Antivirais/uso terapêutico
6.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28750, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37185834

RESUMO

The effect of nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir (NMV-r) on post-acute COVID-19 sequelae beyond 3 months of SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unknown. This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the TriNetX Research Network. We identified nonhospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 receiving a diagnosis between January 1 and July 31, 2022. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to create two matched cohorts: NMV-r and non-NMV-r groups, respectively. We measured the primary outcomes using a composite of all-cause emergency room (ER) visits or hospitalization and a composite of post-COVID-19 symptoms according to the WHO Delphi consensus, which also stated that post COVID-19 condition occurs usually 3 months from the onset of COVID-19, during the follow-up period between 90 days after the index diagnosis of COVID-19 and the end of follow-up (180 days). Initially, we identified 12 247 patients that received NMV-r within 5 days of diagnosis and 465 135 that did not. After PSM, 12 245 patients remained in each group. During the follow-up period, patients treated with NMV-r had a lower risk of all-cause hospitalization and ER visits compared with untreated patients (659 vs. 955; odds ratio [OR], 0.672; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.607-0.745; p < 0.0001). However, the overall risk of post-acute COVID-19 symptoms did not significantly differ between the two groups (2265 vs. 2187; OR, 1.043; 95% CI, 0.978-1.114; p = 0.2021). The reduced risk of all-cause ER visits or hospitalization in the NMV-r group and the similarities in the risk of post-acute COVID-19 symptoms between the two groups were consistent in the subgroups stratified by sex, age, and vaccination status. Early NMV-r treatment of nonhospitalized patients with COVID-19 was associated with reduced risk of hospitalization and ER visits during the period of 90-180 days after diagnosis compared with no NMV-r treatment; however, post-acute COVID-19 symptoms and mortality risk did not differ significantly between the groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ritonavir , Adulto , Humanos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Progressão da Doença
7.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 106857, 2023 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37211263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (NMVr) is a recently developed antiviral agent for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, data describing its appropriate use are scarce. This study examined the prevalence of inappropriate NMVr use in a Chinese hospital setting. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective chart review was performed for all hospitalized patients who received NMVr between December 15, 2022, and February 15, 2023, in the four university-affiliated hospitals in Hangzhou, China. A multidisciplinary team of experts developed the evaluation criteria. A group of senior clinical pharmacists examined and verified the suitability of NMVr prescriptions. RESULTS: A total of 247 patients received NMVr during the study period, of which 13.4% (n=31) met all the criteria for the appropriate use of NMVr. The leading types of inappropriate use of NMVr included delayed initiation of treatment (n=147, 59.5%), no dose adjustment for moderate renal impairment (n=46, 18.6%), use in severe-to-critical patients with COVID-19 (n=49, 19.8%), presence of contraindicated drug‒drug interactions with other medications (n=36, 14.6%), and prescriptions for patients without a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 (n=36, 14.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of inappropriate use of NMVr was particularly high in the Chinese hospital setting, highlighting the urgent need to improve the appropriate use of NMVr.

8.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28801, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37218308

RESUMO

This study assessed the clinical efficacy of nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir (NMV-r) in treating patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and substance use disorders (SUDs). This study included two cohorts: the first examined patients with SUDs, with and without a prescription for NMV-r, while the second compared patients prescribed with NMV-r, with and without a diagnosis of SUDs. SUDs were defined using ICD-10 codes, related to SUDs, including alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, opioid, and tobacco use disorders (TUD). Patients with underlying SUDs and COVID-19 were identified using the TriNetX network. We used 1:1 propensity score matching to create balanced groups. The primary outcome of interest was the composite outcome of all-cause hospitalization or death within 30 days. Propensity score matching yielded two matched groups of 10 601 patients each. The results showed that the use of NMV-r was associated with a lower risk of hospitalization or death, 30 days after COVID-19 diagnosis (hazard ratio (HR), 0.640; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.543-0.754), as well as a lower risk of all-cause hospitalization (HR, 0.699; 95% CI: 0.592-0.826) and all-cause death (HR, 0.084; 95% CI: 0.026-0.273). However, patients with SUDs had a higher risk of hospitalized or death within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis than those without SUDs, even with the use of NMV-r (HR, 1.783; 95% CI: 1.399-2.271). The study also found that patients with SUDs had a higher prevalence of comorbidities and adverse socioeconomic determinants of health than those without SUDs. Subgroup analysis showed that the benefits of NMV-r were consistent across most subgroups with different characteristics, including age (patients aged ≥60 years [HR, 0.507; 95% CI: 0.402-0.640]), sex (women [HR, 0.636; 95% CI: 0.517-0.783] and men [HR, 0.480; 95% CI: 0.373-0.618]), vaccine status (vaccinated <2 doses [HR, 0.514; 95% CI: 0.435-0.608]), SUD subtypes (alcohol use disorder [HR, 0.711; 95% CI: 0.511- 0.988], TUD [HR, 0.666; 95% CI: 0.555-0.800]) and Omicron wave (HR, 0.624; 95% CI: 0.536-0.726). Our findings indicate that NMV-r could reduce all-cause hospitalization and death in the treatment of COVID-19 among patients with SUDs and support the use of NMV-r for treating patients with SUDs and COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Teste para COVID-19 , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Resultado do Tratamento , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
9.
Pharm Res ; 2023 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37231296

RESUMO

PURPOSE: PAXLOVID™ is nirmatrelvir tablets co-packaged with ritonavir tablets. Ritonavir is used as a pharmacokinetics (PK) enhancer to reduce metabolism and increase exposure of nirmatrelvir. This is the first disclosure of Paxlovid physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. METHODS: Nirmatrelvir PBPK model with first-order absorption kinetics was developed using in vitro, preclinical, and clinical data of nirmatrelvir in the presence and absence of ritonavir. Clearance and volume of distribution were derived from nirmatrelvir PK obtained using a spray-dried dispersion (SDD) formulation where it is considered to be dosed as an oral solution, and absorption is near complete. The fraction of nirmatrelvir metabolized by CYP3A was estimated based on in vitro and clinical ritonavir drug-drug interaction (DDI) data. First-order absorption parameters were established for both SDD and tablet formulation using clinical data. Nirmatrelvir PBPK model was verified with both single and multiple dose human PK data, as well as DDI studies. Simcyp® first-order ritonavir compound file was also verified with additional clinical data. RESULTS: The nirmatrelvir PBPK model described the observed PK profiles of nirmatrelvir well with predicted AUC and Cmax values within ± 20% of the observed. The ritonavir model performed well resulting in predicted values within twofold of observed. CONCLUSIONS: Paxlovid PBPK model developed in this study can be applied to predict PK changes in special populations, as well as model the effect of victim and perpetrator DDI. PBPK modeling continues to play a critical role in accelerating drug discovery and development of potential treatments for devastating diseases such as COVID-19. NCT05263895, NCT05129475, NCT05032950 and NCT05064800.

10.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 16(5)2023 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37242504

RESUMO

Background. Several drugs which are easy to administer in outpatient settings have been authorized and endorsed for high-risk COVID-19 patients with mild-moderate disease to prevent hospital admission and death, complementing COVID-19 vaccines. However, the evidence on the efficacy of COVID-19 antivirals during the Omicron wave is scanty or conflicting. Methods. This retrospective controlled study investigated the efficacy of Molnupiravir or Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir (Paxlovid®) or Sotrovimab against standard of care (controls) on three different endpoints among 386 high-risk COVID-19 outpatients: hospital admission at 30 days; death at 30 days; and time between COVID-19 diagnosis and first negative swab test result. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to investigate the determinants of hospitalization due to COVID-19-associated pneumonia, whereas time to first negative swab test result was investigated by means of multinomial logistic analysis as well as Cox regression analysis. Results. Only 11 patients (overall rate of 2.8%) developed severe COVID-19-associated pneumonia requiring admission to hospital: 8 controls (7.2%); 2 patients on Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir (2.0%); and 1 on Sotrovimab (1.8%). No patient on Molnupiravir was institutionalized. Compared to controls, hospitalization was less likely for patients on Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir (aOR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03; 0.89) or Molnupiravir (omitted estimate); drug efficacy was 84% for Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir against 100% for Molnupiravir. Only two patients died of COVID-19 (rate of 0.5%), both were controls, one (a woman aged 96 years) was unvaccinated and the other (a woman aged 72 years) had adequate vaccination status. At Cox regression analysis, the negativization rate was significantly higher in patients treated with both antivirals-Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir (aHR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.25; 2.26) or Molnupiravir (aHR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.08; 1.94). However, COVID-19 vaccination with three (aHR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.51; 2.73) or four (aHR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.32; 4.68) doses had a slightly stronger effect size on viral clearance. In contrast, the negativization rate reduced significantly in patients who were immune-depressed (aHR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.52; 0.93) or those with a Charlson index ≥5 (aHR = 0.63; 0.41; 0.95) or those who had started the respective treatment course 3+ days after COVID-19 diagnosis (aOR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.38; 0.82). Likewise, at internal analysis (excluding patients on standard of care), patients on Molnupiravir (aHR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.21; 2.50) or Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir (aHR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.32; 2.93) were more likely to turn negative earlier than those on Sotrovimab (reference category). Nonetheless, three (aHR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.33; 2.74) or four (aHR = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.06; 4.59) doses of COVID-19 vaccine were again associated with a faster negativization rate. Again, the negativization rate was significantly lower if treatment started 3+ days after COVID-19 diagnosis (aHR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.32; 0.92). Conclusions. Molnupiravir, Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir, and Sotrovimab were all effective in preventing hospital admission and/or mortality attributable to COVID-19. However, hospitalizations also decreased with higher number of doses of COVID-19 vaccines. Although they are effective against severe disease and mortality, the prescription of COVID-19 antivirals should be carefully scrutinized by double opinion, not only to contain health care costs but also to reduce the risk of generating resistant SARS-CoV-2 strains. Only 64.7% of patients were in fact immunized with 3+ doses of COVID-19 vaccines in the present study. High-risk patients should prioritize COVID-19 vaccination, which is a more cost-effective approach than antivirals against severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Likewise, although both antivirals, especially Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir, were more likely than standard of care and Sotrovimab to reduce viral shedding time (VST) in high-risk SARS-CoV-2 patients, vaccination had an independent and stronger effect on viral clearance. However, the effect of antivirals or COVID-19 vaccination on VST should be considered a secondary benefit. Indeed, recommending Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir in order to control VST in high-risk COVID-19 patients is rather questionable since other cheap, large spectrum and harmless nasal disinfectants such as hypertonic saline solutions are available on the market with proven efficacy in containing VST.

11.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37243267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to assess the potential clinical impact of an outpatient administration of available antivirals including SOT, N/R, and MOL to COVID-19 patients at high risk for disease progression. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis on 2606 outpatient individuals with mild to moderate COVID-19 at risk for disease progression, hospitalization, or death. After receiving either SOT (420/2606), MOL (1788/2606), or N/R (398/2606), patients were followed-up with regarding primary (hospitalization rate) and secondary (treatment and side effects) outcomes by phone. RESULT: A total of 2606 patients were treated at the outpatient clinic (SOT: 420; N/R: 398; MOL: 1788). 3.2% of the SOT patients (1 ICU admission), 0.8% of the MOL patients (2 ICU admissions), and none of the N/R patients were hospitalized. 14.3% of the N/R patients reported strong to severe side effects, exceeding SOT (2.6%) and MOL (5%) patients. A reduction in COVID symptoms after the treatment was experienced by 43% of patients in both the SOT and MOL groups and by 67% of patients in the N/R group, respectively. Women had a higher chance of symptom improvement with MOL (OR 1.2, 95%CI 1.0-1.5). CONCLUSION: All antiviral treatment options effectively prevented hospitalization in high-risk COVID-19 patients and were well tolerated. Side effects were pronounced in patients with N/R.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos , Feminino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Lactamas , Leucina
12.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28732, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37183808

RESUMO

At present, there are some differences in the research results of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir compared with other antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir compared with other antiviral drugs and the impact of different antiviral drugs on the short- and long-term effects of COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Web of Science, Google Scholar, and MedRxiv were searched to identify relevant studies from inception to March 30, 2023. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the effects of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir compared with other antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 patients and safety outcomes. The RoB1 and ROBINS-I were used to assess the bias risk of the included studies. Revman 5.4 software was used for meta-analysis (PROSPERO Code No: CRD42023397816). Twelve studies were included, including 30 588 COVID-19 patients, of whom 13 402 received nirmatrelvir-ritonavir. The meta-analysis results showed that the nirmatrelvir-ritonavir group had a lower proportion of patients than the control group in terms of long-term mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.66), hospitalization (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.37-0.53, short term; OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.36-0.77, long term), and disease progression (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.38-0.83, short term; OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.48-0.74, long term), and nirmatrelvir ritonavir showed little difference in safety compared to the control group. Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir can reduce the mortality and hospitalization of COVID-19 patients compared with other antiviral drugs. Further large-scale studies remain to validate these findings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37209333

RESUMO

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, antiviral drugs (AVDs) were heavily excreted into wastewater and subsequently enriched in sewage sludge due to their widespread use. The potential ecological risks of AVDs have attracted increasing attention, but information on the effects of AVDs on sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) is limited. In this study, two typical AVDs (lamivudine and ritonavir) were selected to investigate the responses of AD to AVDs by biochemical methane potential tests. The results indicated that the effects of AVDs on methane production from sludge AD were dose- and type-dependent. The increased ritonavir concentration (0.05-50 mg/kg TS) contributed to an 11.27-49.43% increase in methane production compared with the control. However, methane production was significantly decreased at high lamivudine doses (50 mg/kg TS). Correspondingly, bacteria related to acidification were affected when exposed to lamivudine and ritonavir. Acetoclastic and hydrotropic methanogens were inhibited at a high lamivudine dose, while ritonavir enriched methylotrophic and hydrotropic methanogens. Based on the analysis of intermediate metabolites, the inhibition of lamivudine and the promotion of ritonavir on acidification and methanation were confirmed. In addition, the existence of AVDs could affect sludge properties. Sludge solubilization was inhibited when exposed to lamivudine and enhanced by ritonavir, perhaps caused by their different structures and physicochemical properties. Moreover, lamivudine and ritonavir could be partially degraded by AD, but 50.2-68.8% of AVDs remained in digested sludge, implying environmental risks.

14.
Pharmaceutics ; 15(4)2023 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37111635

RESUMO

(1) Introduction: Pharmacokinetic boosting of kinase inhibitors can be a strategy to enhance drug exposure and to reduce dose and associated treatment costs. Most kinase inhibitors are predominantly metabolized by CYP3A4, enabling boosting using CYP3A4 inhibition. Kinase inhibitors with food enhanced absorption can be boosted using food optimized intake schedules. The aim of this narrative review is to provide answers to the following questions: Which different boosting strategies can be useful in boosting kinase inhibitors? Which kinase inhibitors are potential candidates for either CYP3A4 or food boosting? Which clinical studies on CYP3A4 or food boosting have been published or are ongoing? (2) Methods: PubMed was searched for boosting studies of kinase inhibitors. (3) Results/Discussion: This review describes 13 studies on exposure boosting of kinase inhibitors. Boosting strategies included cobicistat, ritonavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, grapefruit juice and food. Clinical trial design for conducting pharmacokinetic boosting trials and risk management is discussed. (4) Conclusion: Pharmacokinetic boosting of kinase inhibitors is a promising, rapidly evolving and already partly proven strategy to increase drug exposure and to potentially reduce treatment costs. Therapeutic drug monitoring can be of added value in guiding boosted regimens.

15.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37112956

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 and the prevalence of Omicron variants have reduced the risk of the severe clinical progress of COVID-19. However, the risk of breakthrough infections has increased, and early administration of an effective antiviral treatment is significant in order to prevent the severe progression of COVID-19 in vulnerable patients with comorbidities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adults with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in a matched-pair retrospective study based on age, gender, comorbidities and vaccination status. They were divided into two groups: group A (n = 200) consisted of outpatients at increased risk of severe clinical progress who were treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and group B (n = 200) consisted of non-hospitalized patients who did not receive antiviral treatment. Demographic data, clinical outcome (death, intubation), days of hospitalization, time for recovery, adverse events and treatment compliance were reported. RESULTS: The median age (75.24 ± 13.12 years in the study group and 76.91 ± 14.02 years in the comparison group) and the proportion of males (59% vs. 60.5%, respectively) were similar between the two groups. A total of 6.5% of patients in group A and 10.5% in group B were unvaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Three patients from group A (1.5%) and one hundred eleven (55.5%) from group B required hospitalization. The duration of hospitalization (3 days vs. 10 days in group B, p < 0.001) and the total time needed for recovery (5 days vs. 9 days, p < 0.001) was shorter in the study group. A rebound of SARS-CoV-2 infection within 8-12 days after diagnosis was documented in 6.5% of patients in group A and 8% of patients in group B. CONCLUSION: Oral treatment with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir in high-risk non-hospitalized patients was safe and effective in preventing the severe clinical progress of COVID-19 pneumonia. Early administration of antiviral agents in vulnerable outpatients combined with a full vaccination scheme is significant in order to avoid hospitalization and severe clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Antivirais/uso terapêutico
16.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37113006

RESUMO

In 2022, three antiviral drugs-molnupiravir, remdesivir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir-were introduced for treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in high-risk patients. The aim of this study is the evaluation of their effectiveness and tolerability in a real-life setting. A single-center observational study was set up, with the involvement of 1118 patients, with complete follow-up data, treated between the 5th of January and the 3rd of October 2022 at Santa Maria Goretti's hospital in Latina, Central Italy. A univariable and a multivariable analysis were performed on clinical and demographic data and composite outcome, the persistence of symptoms at 30 days and time to negativization, respectively. The three antivirals showed a similar effectiveness in containing the progression of the infection to severe COVID-19 and a good tolerability in the absence of serious adverse effects. Persistence of symptoms after 30 days was more common in females than males and less common in patients treated with molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir/r. The availability of different antiviral molecules is a strong tool and, if correctly prescribed, they can have a significant role in changing the natural history of infection for frail persons, in which vaccination could be not sufficient for the prevention of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Antivirais/uso terapêutico
17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(4): ofad154, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37096144

RESUMO

The factors contributing to the rapid emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) BA.4 and BA.5 subvariants in populations that experienced recent surges of BA.2 and BA.2.12.1 infections are not understood. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are likely to protect against severe disease if present in sufficient quantity. We found that after BA.2 or BA.2.12.1 infection, NAb responses were largely cross-neutralizing but were much less effective against BA.5. In addition, individuals who were infected and treated early with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid) had lower NAb levels than untreated individuals.

18.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 185: 106440, 2023 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37004961

RESUMO

Hot-melt extrusion (HME) is a technology increasingly common for the commercial production of pharmaceutical amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs), especially for poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). However, recrystallization of the APIs during dissolution must be prevented to maintain the supersaturation state enabled by ASD. Unfortunately, the amorphous formulation may be contaminated by seed crystals during the HME manufacturing process, which could lead to undesirable crystal growth during the dissolution process. In this study, the dissolution behavior of ritonavir ASD tablets prepared using both Form I and Form II polymorphs was examined, and the effects of different seed crystals on crystal growth rates were investigated. The aim was to understand how the presence of seed crystals can impact the dissolution of ritonavir, and to determine the optimal polymorph and seeding conditions for the production of ASDs. The results showed that both Form I and Form II ritonavir tablets had similar dissolution profiles, which were also similar to the reference listed drug (RLD). However, it was observed that the presence of seed crystals, particularly the metastable Form I seed, led to more precipitation compared to the stable Form II seed in all formulations. The Form I crystals that precipitated from the supersaturated solution were easily dispersed in the solution and could serve as seeds to facilitate crystal growth. On the other hand, Form II crystals tended to grow more slowly and presented as aggregates. The addition of both Form I and Form II seeds could affect their precipitation behaviors, and the amount and form of the seeds had significant effects on the precipitation process of the RLD tablets, as are the tablets prepared with different polymorphs. In conclusion, the study highlights the importance of minimizing the contamination risk of seed crystals during the manufacturing process and selecting the appropriate polymorph for the production of ASDs.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Extrusão por Fusão a Quente , Ritonavir , Ritonavir/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Solubilidade , Tecnologia de Extrusão por Fusão a Quente/métodos , Comprimidos/química
19.
BMC Nephrol ; 24(1): 99, 2023 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37061677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite vaccination coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated mortality caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains high in kidney transplant recipients. Nirmatrelvir is a protease inhibitor with activity against SARS-CoV-2. Nirmatrelvir reduces the risk for mortality and hospitalization, which is approved for treating adults at risk for severe disease. Nirmatrelvir is metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4 isozyme CYP3A4 and is therefore co-administered with the irreversible CYP3A4 inhibitor ritonavir, which results in a drug interaction with tacrolimus. A limited number of patients with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and tacrolimus therapy after kidney transplantation have been reported to date. It has been reported that tacrolimus was paused during the five-day nirmatrelvir/ritonavir therapy and subtherapeutic tacrolimus levels were observed after finishing nirmatrelvir/ritonavir in two patients. Therefore, optimization of tacrolimus dosing is urgently needed in transplant recipients receiving nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present our first-hand experience with four patients receiving tacrolimus therapy following kidney transplantation and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir therapy due to COVID-19. Tacrolimus was paused during nirmatrelvir/ritonavir therapy in all patients, which resulted in stable therapeutic tacrolimus levels. Tacrolimus was continued directly after finishing nirmatrelvir/ritonavir to avoid subtherapeutic levels in the first patient treated. This patient received his usual tacrolimus maintenance dose, which resulted in toxic levels. Based on this observation, tacrolimus therapy was continued 24 h after finishing nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment at a reduced dose in the subsequent patients. In these patients, therapeutic to supratherapeutic tacrolimus levels were observed despite the therapeutic break and dose reduction. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Based on altered CYP3A4 metabolism, tacrolimus levels have to be closely monitored after treatment with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. Our study suggests that tacrolimus treatment should be paused during nirmatrelvir/ritonavir medication and be continued 24 h after completing nirmatrelvir/ritonavir therapy at a reduced dose and under close monitoring. Based on the limited number of patients in this study, results must be interpreted with caution.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transplante de Rim , Adulto , Humanos , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , SARS-CoV-2 , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Transplantados , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Antivirais/uso terapêutico
20.
SAGE Open Med Case Rep ; 11: 2050313X231168304, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37113391

RESUMO

COVID-19 emerged in 2019 and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. COVID-19 is highly transmissible and can lead to bilateral pneumonia with severe respiratory failure. COVID-19 has led to more than 6.5 million deaths worldwide. The significant morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 have resulted in the development of treatment modalities, such as novel antivirals, to reduce hospitalizations and progression of disease. In 2021, the US Food and Drug Administration authorized nirmatrelvir/ritonavir for emergency use in nonhospitalized patients with COVID-19. Nirmatrelvir is a newly developed protease inhibitor and is combined with a commonly used pharmacokinetic boosting agent, ritonavir. Given the novelty of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, potential adverse effects remain uncertain. In this case, we describe a patient who was initiated on a course of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and developed symptomatic bradycardia.

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