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1.
Build Environ ; 227: 109800, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407015

RESUMO

We developed a high-speed filterless airflow multistage photocatalytic elbow aerosol removal system for the treatment of bioaerosols such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human-generated bioaerosols that diffuse into indoor spaces are 1-10 µm in size, and their selective and rapid treatment can reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A high-speed airflow is necessary to treat large volumes of indoor air over a short period. The proposed system can be used to eliminate viruses in aerosols by forcibly depositing aerosols in a high-speed airflow onto a photocatalyst placed inside the system through inertial force and turbulent diffusion. Because the main component of the deposited bioaerosol is water, it evaporates after colliding with the photocatalyst, and the nonvolatile virus remains on the photocatalytic channel wall. The residual virus on the photocatalytic channel wall is mineralized via photocatalytic oxidation with UVA-LED irradiation in the channel. When this system was operated in a 4.5 m3 aerosol chamber, over 99.8% aerosols in the size range of 1-10 µm were removed within 15 min. The system continued delivering such performance with the continuous introduction of aerosols. Because this system exhibits excellent aerosol removal ability at a flow velocity of 5 m/s or higher, it is more suitable than other reactive air purification systems for treating large-volume spaces.

2.
JHEP Rep ; 5(1): 100605, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440259

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Liver injury with autoimmune features after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is increasingly reported. We investigated a large international cohort of individuals with acute hepatitis arising after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, focusing on histological and serological features. Methods: Individuals without known pre-existing liver diseases and transaminase levels ≥5x the upper limit of normal within 3 months after any anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and available liver biopsy were included. Fifty-nine patients were recruited; 35 females; median age 54 years. They were exposed to various combinations of mRNA, vectorial, inactivated and protein-based vaccines. Results: Liver histology showed predominantly lobular hepatitis in 45 (76%), predominantly portal hepatitis in 10 (17%), and other patterns in four (7%) cases; seven had fibrosis Ishak stage ≥3, associated with more severe interface hepatitis. Autoimmune serology, centrally tested in 31 cases, showed anti-antinuclear antibody in 23 (74%), anti-smooth muscle antibody in 19 (61%), anti-gastric parietal cells in eight (26%), anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody in four (13%), and anti-mitochondrial antibody in four (13%) cases. Ninety-one percent were treated with steroids ± azathioprine. Serum transaminase levels improved in all cases and were normal in 24/58 (41%) after 3 months, and in 30/46 (65%) after 6 months. One patient required liver transplantation. Of 15 patients re-exposed to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, three relapsed. Conclusion: Acute liver injury arising after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is frequently associated with lobular hepatitis and positive autoantibodies. Whether there is a causal relationship between liver damage and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines remains to be established. A close follow-up is warranted to assess the long-term outcomes of this condition. Impact and implications: Cases of liver injury after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been published. We investigated a large international cohort of individuals with acute hepatitis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, focusing on liver biopsy findings and autoantibodies: liver biopsy frequently shows inflammation of the lobule, which is typical of recent injury, and autoantibodies are frequently positive. Whether there is a causal relationship between liver damage and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines remains to be established. Close follow-up is warranted to assess the long-term outcome of this condition.

3.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154514, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant rapidly resulted in a steep increase in the infected population and an overloaded healthcare system. Effective medications for Omicron are currently limited. The previous observational study supports the efficacy and safety of Reyanning (RYN) mixture in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of RYN in asymptomatic and mildly infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial. We consecutively recruited 2830 patients from Shanghai New International Expo Center mobile cabin hospital and randomized them in a 1:1 ratio to receive RYN plus standard care or receive standard care alone. The primary outcomes were the negative conversion of nucleic acid. Secondary outcomes included the hospital duration, new-onset symptoms, proportion of disease progression, and the viral load measured by the cycle threshold (Ct) value. RESULTS: A total of 1393 patients in the intervention group and 1407 patients in the control group completed the study. The negative conversion time of nucleic acid was significantly shortened in the intervention group (median: 6 d vs. 7 d, Hazard ratio: 0.768, 95CI %: 0.713-0.828, p < 0.0001). The negative conversion rate of nucleic acid was significantly higher in the intervention group (Day 3: 32.4% vs. 18.3%; Day7: 65.3% vs. 55.2%, p < 0.001). The hospitalization duration was significantly shortened in the intervention group (median: 8 d vs. 9 d, Hazard ratio: 0.759, 95% CI: 0.704-0.818, p < 0.0001). The proportion of new-onset fever (2.4% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.012), coughing (12.2% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.046), and expectoration (6.0% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.032) in the intervention group was significantly lower. RYN treatment increased Ct values and reduced the viral load. No disease progression and serious adverse events were reported during the study. CONCLUSION: RYN is a safe and effective treatment that can accelerate virus clearance and promote disease recovery in asymptomatic and mild Omicron infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , China , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Mol Struct ; 1271: 133992, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36034527

RESUMO

Besides its use against HIV infection the marketed anti-retroviral drug dolutegravir attracted attention as a potential agent against COVID-19 in multiple AI (artificial intelligence) based studies. Due to our interest in accessing the impurities of this drug we report the synthesis and characterization of three impurities of dolutegravir one of which is new. The synthesis of O-methyl ent-dolutegravir was accomplished in three-steps the first one involved the construction of fused 1,3-oxazinane ring. The cleavage of -OEt ether moiety followed by methylation afforded the target compound. The second impurity i.e. N-(2,4-difluorobenzyl)-4-methoxy-3-oxobutanamide was synthesized via a multi-step method involving sequentially the keto group protection, ester hydrolysis, acid chloride formation followed by the reaction with amine and finally keto group deprotection. The synthesis of new or dimer impurity was carried out via another multi-step method similar to the previous one starting from ethyl 4-chloro acetoacetate. The methodology involved preparation of ether derivative, keto group protection, ester hydrolysis, preparation of amide derivative via acid chloride formation in situ and then keto group deprotection for a longer duration. The last step afforded the target compound for which a plausible reaction mechanism has been proposed. All three impurities were prepared in gram scale (minimum 2 g and maximum 8 g). The in silico evaluation of three selected synthesized intermediates e.g. 7, 8 and 9 (structurally similar to dolutegravir) against SARS CoV-2 O-ribose methyltransferase (OMTase) (PDB: 3R24) indicated that compound 7 could be of interest as a possible inhibitor of this protein.

5.
Neuroimaging Clin N Am ; 33(1): 69-82, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404048

RESUMO

Several neurologic disorders are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this article, clinical syndromes typically occurring in the subacute to chronic phase of illness and their neuroimaging findings are described with discussion of their COVID-19 specific features and prognosis. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms of these neuroimaging findings and challenges in determining etiology are reviewed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Síndrome , Prognóstico
6.
Ind Crops Prod ; 191: 115944, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405420

RESUMO

Due to the pandemics of COVID-19, herbal medicine has recently been explored for possible antiviral treatment and prevention via novel platform of microbial fuel cells. It was revealed that Coffea arabica leaves was very appropriate for anti-COVID-19 drug development. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory tests exhibited the most promising activities for C. arabica ethanol extracts and drying approaches were implemented on the leaf samples prior to ethanol extraction. Ethanol extracts of C. arabica leaves were applied to bioenergy evaluation via DC-MFCs, clearly revealing that air-dried leaves (CA-A-EtOH) exhibited the highest bioenergy-stimulating capabilities (ca. 2.72 fold of power amplification to the blank). Furthermore, molecular docking analysis was implemented to decipher the potential of C. arabica leaves metabolites. Chlorogenic acid (-6.5 kcal/mol) owned the highest binding affinity with RdRp of SARS-CoV-2, showing a much lower average RMSF value than an apoprotein. This study suggested C. arabica leaves as an encouraging medicinal herb against SARS-CoV-2.

7.
J King Saud Univ Sci ; 35(1): 102402, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36338939

RESUMO

Objectives: We performed a virtual screening of olive secoiridoids of the OliveNetTM library to predict SARS-CoV-2 PLpro inhibition. Benchmarked molecular docking protocol that evaluated the performance of two docking programs was applied to execute virtual screening. Molecular dynamics stability analysis of the top-ranked olive secoiridoid docked to PLpro was also carried out. Methods: Benchmarking virtual screening used two freely available docking programs, AutoDock Vina 1.1.2. and AutoDock 4.2.1. for molecular docking of olive secoiridoids to a single PLpro structure. Screening also included benchmark structures of known active and decoy molecules from the DEKOIS 2.0 library. Based on the predicted binding energies, the docking programs ranked the screened molecules. We applied the usual performance evaluation metrices to evaluate the docking programs using the predicted ranks. Molecular dynamics of the top-ranked olive secoiridoid bound to PLpro and computation of MM-GBSA energy using three iterations during the last 50 ps of the analysis of the dynamics in Desmond supported the stability prediction. Results and discussions: Predictiveness curves suggested that AutoDock Vina has a better predictive ability than AutoDock, although there was a moderate correlation between the active molecules rankings (Kendall's correlation of rank (τ) = 0.581). Interestingly, two same molecules, Demethyloleuropein aglycone, and Oleuroside enriched the top 1 % ranked olive secoiridoids predicted by both programs. Demethyloleuropein aglycone bound to PLpro obtained by docking in AutoDock Vina when analyzed for stability by molecular dynamics simulation for 50 ns displayed an RMSD, RMSF<2 Å, and MM-GBSA energy of -94.54 ± 6.05 kcal/mol indicating good stability. Molecular dynamics also revealed the interactions of Demethyloleuropein aglycone with binding sites 2 and 3 of PLpro, suggesting a potent inhibition. In addition, for 98 % of the simulation time, two phenolic hydroxy groups of Demethyloleuropein aglycone maintained two hydrogen bonds with Asp302 of PLpro, specifying the significance of the groups in receptor binding. Conclusion: AutoDock Vina retrieved the active molecules accurately and predicted Demethyloleuropein aglycone as the best inhibitor of PLpro. The Arabian diet consisting of olive products rich in secoiridoids benefits from the PLpro inhibition property and reduces the risk of viral infection.

8.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 33-38, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information regarding effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant strains on clinical manifestations and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women is limited. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted using the data from the nationwide COVID-19 registry in Japan. We identified pregnant patients with symptomatic COVID-19 hospitalized during the study period. The Delta and Omicron variants of concern (VOC) predominant periods were defined as August 1 to December 31, 2021 and January 1 to May 31, 2022, respectively. Clinical characteristics were compared between the patients in the Delta and Omicron VOC periods. In addition, logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for developing moderate-to-severe COVID-19. RESULTS: During the study period, 310 symptomatic COVID-19 cases of pregnant women were identified; 111 and 199 patients were hospitalized during the Delta and Omicron VOC periods, respectively. Runny nose and sore throat were more common, and fatigue, dysgeusia, and olfactory dysfunction were less common manifestations observed in the Omicron VOC period. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, onset during the later stage of pregnancy (OR: 2.08 [1.24-3.71]) and onset during the Delta VOC period (OR: 2.25 [1.08-4.90]) were independently associated with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, whereas two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine were protective against developing moderate-to-severe COVID-19 (OR: 0.34 [0.13-0.84]). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in pregnant women differed between the Delta and Omicron VOC periods. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was still effective in preventing severe COVID-19 throughout the Delta and Omicron VOC periods.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Gestantes , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 115-117, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183991

RESUMO

TRCReady® SARS-CoV-2 i is a reagent for transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction (TRC) to detect SARS-CoV-2 N2 gene, used with the automated rapid isothermal nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) analyzer TRCReady®-80. Sensitivity and specificity of TRCReady® SARS-CoV-2 i was assessed by comparison with the results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using nasopharyngeal swab samples. From November 2020 to March 2021, a total of 441 nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained and analyzed both with TRCReady® SARS-CoV-2 i and RT-PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of TRCReady® SARS-CoV-2 i were 94.6% (53/56) and 99.2% (382/385), respectively. Reaction time to positivity of TRCReady® SARS-CoV-2 i ranged from 1.166 to 9.805 (median: 2.887) min, and minimum detection sensitivity of TRCReady® SARS-CoV-2 i was 9 copies per test, with reaction time as 5.014 min. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 gene from nasopharyngeal swab sample using TRCReady® SARS-CoV-2 i shows comparative diagnostic test accuracy with RT-PCR, and can be used as a useful test to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Transcrição Reversa , Indicadores e Reagentes , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Nasofaringe
10.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; : 101395, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437966

RESUMO

Previous data have suggested an antiviral effect of teriflunomide, including against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent underlying the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We undertook an in vitro investigation to evaluate the inhibitory activity of teriflunomide against SARS-CoV-2 in a cell-based assay. Teriflunomide was added to Vero (kidney epithelial) cells that had been infected with SARS-CoV-2. A nucleocapsid immunofluorescence assay was performed to examine viral inhibition with teriflunomide and any potential cytotoxic effect. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) for teriflunomide against SARS-CoV-2 was 15.22 µM. No cytotoxicity was evident for teriflunomide in the Vero cells (i.e., the 50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] was greater than the highest test concentration of 100 µM). The data were supported by additional experiments using other coronaviruses and human cell lines. In the SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells, the prodrug leflunomide had an EC50 of 16.49 µM and a CC50 of 54.80 µM. Our finding of teriflunomide-mediated inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection at double-digit micromolar potency adds to a growing body of evidence for a broad-ranging antiviral effect of teriflunomide.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 3): 160023, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356735

RESUMO

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) can be used to track the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a population. This study presents the learning outcomes from over two-year long monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in Stockholm, Sweden. The three main wastewater treatment plants in Stockholm, with a total of six inlets, were monitored from April 2020 until June 2022 (in total 600 samples). This spans five major SARS-CoV-2 waves, where WBE data provided early warning signals for each wave. Further, the measured SARS-CoV-2 content in the wastewater correlated significantly with the level of positive COVID-19 tests (r = 0.86; p << 0.0001) measured by widespread testing of the population. Moreover, as a proof-of-concept, six SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern were monitored using hpPCR assay, demonstrating that variants can be traced through wastewater monitoring. During this long-term surveillance, two sampling protocols, two RNA concentration/extraction methods, two calculation approaches, and normalization to the RNA virus Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were evaluated. In addition, a study of storage conditions was performed, demonstrating that the decay of viral RNA was significantly reduced upon the addition of glycerol to the wastewater before storage at -80 °C. Our results provide valuable information that can facilitate the incorporation of WBE as a prediction tool for possible future outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 and preparations for future pandemics.

12.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366499

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron subvariant BA.5 emerged as of February 2022 and replaced the earlier Omicron subvariants BA.1 and BA.2. COVID-19 genomic surveillance should be continued as new variants seem to subsequently appear, including post-BA.5 subvariants. A rapid assay is needed to differentiate between the currently dominant BA.5 variant and other variants. This study successfully developed a high-resolution melting (HRM)-based assay for BA.4/5-characteristic spike mutation F486V detection and demonstrated that our assay could discriminate between BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 subvariants in clinical specimens. The mutational spectra at two regions (G446/L452 and F486) for the variant-selective HRM analysis was the focus of our assay. The mutational spectra used as the basis to identify each Omicron subvariant were as follows: BA.1 (G446S/L452/F486), BA.2 (G446/L452/F486), and BA.4/5 (G446/L452R/F486V). Upon mutation-coding RNA fragment analysis, the wild-type fragments melting curves were distinct from those of the mutant fragments. Based on the analysis of 120 clinical samples (40 each of subvariants BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5), this method's sensitivity and specificity were determined to be more than 95% and 100%, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that this HRM-based assay is a simple screening method for monitoring Omicron subvariant evolution.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Bioensaio , Mutação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
13.
Br J Haematol ; 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382698

RESUMO

Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients show impaired antibody (Ab) response to a standard two-dose vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 and currently a third dose is recommended as part of the primary vaccination regimen. By assessing Ab titres 1 month after a third mRNA vaccine dose in 74 allo-HCT recipients we show sufficient neutralisation activity in 77% of the patients. Discontinuation of immunosuppression before the third vaccine led to serological responses in 50% of low responders to two vaccinations. Identifying factors that might contribute to better vaccine responses in allo-HCT recipients is critical to optimise current vaccination strategies.

14.
Brain Hemorrhages ; 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36406341

RESUMO

It is news of 28 October 2022 that the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee of the European Medicines Agency has recommended to add heavy menstrual bleeding among the side effects of unknown frequency inside the package insert of nucleoside-modified messenger ribonucleic acid vaccines to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The decision has been made in the light of the numerous reports of unexpected menstrual changes or abnormal uterine bleeding following COVID-19 vaccination. Here we advance a possible involvement of the particular adenohypophyseal microcirculation in these strange and still unexplained events.

15.
J Indian Soc Periodontol ; 26(5): 512-514, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339382

RESUMO

As the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous attempts have been made to identify specific antiviral mouth rinses which may help reduce the salivary viral load of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). Although the results from in vivo well-controlled clinical studies are yet pending, many contemporary antimicrobial mouth rinses have been explored for potential antiviral properties with respect to SARS-CoV-2. The most widely used compounds such as povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, and essential oils have been known to have antiviral activity by targeting the outer lipid membrane or by denaturing the capsid proteins of enveloped virus SARS-CoV. Until now, there has been scanty scientific evidence on the molecular basis of interaction of the gold standard antimicrobial mouth rinse as an underlying mechanism of its anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect. The current communication reports the findings of our in silico docking study pertaining to understand the interactions of chlorhexidine with the most well-studied target of the SARS-CoV main protease.

16.
Biomedica ; 42(Sp. 2): 48-58, 2022 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322547

RESUMO

Introducción. El síndrome respiratorio agudo grave causado por el nuevo coronavirus SARSCoV-2 es causa de la emergencia sanitaria por la pandemia de COVID-19. Si bien el humano es el el principal huésped vulnerable, en estudios experimentales y reportes de infección natural, se han encontrado casos de zoonosis inversa de SARS-CoV-2 en animales. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la infección natural por SARS-CoV-2 en gatos y perros de propietarios con diagnóstico de COVID-19 en el Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. La circulación del SARS-CoV-2 se evaluó por RT-qPCR y RT-PCR en muestras de frotis nasofaríngeos y orofaríngeos de gatos y perros cuyos propietarios se encontraban dentro del periodo de los 14 días de aislamiento. Los casos positivos se verificaron amplificando fragmentos de los genes RdRp, N y E; se secuenció el gen RdRp y se analizó filogenéticamente. RESULTADOS: De 80 animales evaluados, seis gatos y tres perros fueron casos confirmados de infección natural por SARS-CoV-2. Los animales no presentaron signos clínicos y sus propietarios, que padecían la infección, reportaron únicamente signos leves de la enfermedad sin complicaciones clínicas. En el análisis de una de las secuencias, se encontró un polimorfismo de un solo nucleótido (SNP) con un cambio en la posición 647, con sustitución del aminoácido serina (S) por una isoleucina (I). Los casos se presentaron en los municipios de Caldas, Medellín y Envigado. CONCLUSIONES: Se infiere que la infección natural en los gatos y perros se asocia al contacto directo con un paciente con COVID-19. No obstante, no es posible determinar la virulencia del virus en este huésped, ni su capacidad de transmisión  zoonótica o entre especie.


Introducción. El síndrome respiratorio agudo grave causado por el nuevo coronavirus SARSCoV-2 es causa de la emergencia sanitaria por la pandemia de COVID-19. Si bien el humano es el el principal huésped vulnerable, en estudios experimentales y reportes de infección natural, se han encontrado casos de zoonosis inversa de SARS-CoV-2 en animales. Objetivo. Evaluar la infección natural por SARS-CoV-2 en gatos y perros de propietarios con diagnóstico de COVID-19 en el Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. La circulación del SARS-CoV-2 se evaluó por RT-qPCR y RT-PCR en muestras de frotis nasofaríngeos y orofaríngeos de gatos y perros cuyos propietarios se encontraban dentro del periodo de los 14 días de aislamiento. Los casos positivos se verificaron amplificando fragmentos de los genes RdRp, N y E; se secuenció el gen RdRp y se analizó filogenéticamente. Resultados. De 80 animales evaluados, seis gatos y tres perros fueron casos confirmados de infección natural por SARS-CoV-2. Los animales no presentaron signos clínicos y sus propietarios, que padecían la infección, reportaron únicamente signos leves de la enfermedad sin complicaciones clínicas. En el análisis de una de las secuencias, se encontró un polimorfismo de un solo nucleótido (SNP) con un cambio en la posición 647, con sustitución del aminoácido serina (S) por una isoleucina (I). Los casos se presentaron en los municipios de Caldas, Medellín y Envigado. Conclusiones. Se infiere que la infección natural en los gatos y perros se asocia al contacto directo con un paciente con COVID-19. No obstante, no es posible determinar la virulencia del virus en este huésped, ni su capacidad de transmisión zoonótica o entre especie.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2500-2503, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417954

RESUMO

Surveillance of bat betacoronaviruses is crucial for understanding their spillover potential. We isolated bat sarbecoviruses from Rhinolophus cornutus bats in multiple locations in Japan. These viruses grew efficiently in cells expressing R. cornutus angiotensin converting enzyme-2, but not in cells expressing human angiotensin converting enzyme-2, suggesting a narrow host range.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Japão/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Especificidade de Hospedeiro
18.
J Educ Health Promot ; 11: 297, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has made it difficult for older adults to utilize ordinary elder services. This cross-sectional study investigated the status of feeling the need, seek, and utilization of health promotion services among older adults in Ardabil, Iran, covered by the country's comprehensive health system during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted on 739 elderly people in Ardabil province. Cluster random sampling method was used for sampling. Data were gathered by referring trained individuals to the place of residence of the selected older adults Questionnaires were consisted of three parts: demographic information, household's economic status, and feeling the need, seek, and utilization from health promotion services. Multivariate logistic regression was used to separately model the need, seeking for, and utilization of health promotion services in STATA ver. 14. RESULTS: The mean age of the older adults in this study was 68.88 ± 4.72 years. The results indicate that men showed significantly greater need, seek for, and utilization of health promotion services during COVID- 19 than women. According to the results, people over the age of 80 had 4.08 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99-12.60) more need and utilization of health services than the older adults under 65 years. The results also indicate that use of health promotion services was significantly associated with being married (3.74, 95% CI: 1.22-2.62), having primary insurance and supplementary insurance (1.92, 95% CI: 1.21-3.12), and obesity (2.05, 95% CI: 1.13-3.76) in P < 0.05 level. Based on the results, people with chronic disease and obesity were more likely to utilize health promotion services. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the access and utilization of inpatient and outpatient health services by the elderly in the COVID-19 pandemic has somewhat decreased, which could be due to the fear of the disease being referred to health centers by the elderly. Hence, enabling conditions such as parental health care were major factors affecting health-seeking habits among the Iranian elder population.

19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 963309, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439138

RESUMO

This is a single-center prospective, open-label, single arm interventional study to test the safety and efficacy of recently described ChipEXO™ for severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The ChipEXO™ is a natural product derived from convalescent human immune plasma of patients recovered from moderate COVID-19 infection. In September 2021, 13 patients with pending respiratory failure were treated with ChipEXO™ adapted for aerosolized formulation delivered via jet nebulizer. Patients received 1-5x1010 nano vesicle/5 mL in distilled water twice daily for five days as an add-on to ongoing conventional COVID-19 treatment. The primary endpoint was patient safety and survival over a 28-day follow-up. The secondary endpoint was longitudinal assessment of clinical parameters following ChipEXO™ to evaluate treatment response and gain insights into the pharmacodynamics. ChipEXO™ was tolerated well without any allergic reaction or acute toxicity. The survival rate was 84.6% and 11 out of 13 recovered without any sequel to lungs or other organs. ChipEXO™ treatment was effective immediately as shown in arterial blood gas analyses before and two hours after exosome inhalation. During the 5 days of treatment, there was a sustainable and gradual improvement on oxygenation parameters: i.e. respiratory rate (RR) [20.8% (P < 0.05)], oxygen saturation (SpO2) [6,7% (P < 0.05)] and partial pressure of oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) [127.9% (P < 0.05)] that correlated with steep decrease in the disease activity scores and inflammatory markers, i.e. the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score (75%, p < 0.05), C-reactive protein (46% p < 0.05), ferritin (58% p = 0.53), D-dimer (28% p=0.46). In conclusion, aerosolized ChipEXO™ showed promising safety and efficacy for life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. Further studies on larger patient populations are required to confirm our findings and understand the pathophysiology of improvement toward a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Exossomos , Humanos , COVID-19/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Oxigênio
20.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 36: 3946320221142793, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36442514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Medicinal herbs are being investigated for medicationhg development against SARS-CoV-2 as a rich source of bioactive chemicals. One of the finest approaches for finding therapeutically effective drug molecules in real time is virtual screening scheme such as molecular docking in conjunction with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. These virtual techniques provide an ample opportunity for the screening of plausible inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 different target proteins from a comprehensive and extensive phytochemical library. The study was designed to identify potential phytochemicals by virtual screening against different receptor proteins. METHODS: In the current study, a library of plant secondary metabolites was created by manually curating 120 phytochemicals known to have antimicrobial as well as antiviral properties. In the current study, different potential phytochemicals were identified by virtual screening against various selected receptor proteins (i.e., viral main proteases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), ADP ribose phosphatase, nonstructural proteins NSP7, NSP8, and NSP9) which are key proteins responsible for transcription, replication and maturation of SARS-CoV-2 in the host. Top three phytochemicals were selected against each viral receptor protein based on their best S-scores, RMSD values, molecular interactions, binding patterns and drug-likeness properties. RESULTS: The results of molecular docking study revealed that phytochemicals (i.e., baicalin, betaxanthin, epigallocatechin, fomecin A, gallic acid, hortensin, ichangin, kaempferol, limonoic acid, myricetin hexaacetat, pedalitin, quercetin, quercitrin, and silvestrol) have strong antiviral potential against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the reported preeminent reliable phytochemicals also revealed toxicity by no means during the evaluation through ADMET profiling. Moreover, the MD simulation study also exhibited thermal stability and stable binding affinity of the pedalitin with SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and SARS-CoV-2 main protease which suggests appreciable efficacy of the lead optimization. CONCLUSION: The biological activity and pharmacologically distinguishing characteristics of these lead compounds also satisfied as repurposing antiviral drug contenders and are worth substantial evaluation in the biological laboratory for the recommendation of being plausible antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2.

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