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1.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 653-665, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35600974

RESUMO

Wound healing is one of the major global health concerns in patients with diabetes. Overactivation of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages is associated with delayed wound healing in diabetes. miR-29ab1 plays a critical role in diabetes-related macrophage inflammation. Hence, inhibition of inflammation and regulation of miR-29 expression have been implicated as new points for skin wound healing. In this study, the traditional Chinese medicine, puerarin, was introduced to construct an injectable and self-healing chitosan@puerarin (C@P) hydrogel. The C@P hydrogel promoted diabetic wound healing and accelerated angiogenesis, which were related to the inhibition of the miR-29 mediated inflammation response. Compared to healthy subjects, miR-29a and miR-29b1 were ectopically increased in the skin wound of the diabetic model, accompanied by upregulated M1-polarization, and elevated levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α. Further evaluations by miR-29ab1 knockout mice exhibited superior wound healing and attenuated inflammation. The present results suggested that miR-29ab1 is essential for diabetic wound healing by regulating the inflammatory response. Suppression of miR-29ab1 by the C@P hydrogel has the potential for improving medical approaches for wound repair.

2.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(2): e15226, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820993

RESUMO

Cutaneous homeostasis can be modulated by sleep. Although there is little evidence about the efficacy of medications topically applied in the morning compared to those administered in the evening, they are commonly prescribed to be used overnight. Poor sleep may affect the tegument, but its repercussion on dermatological therapy is not clear. This communication aims to carry out an overview on the relationship between sleep and the skin, particularly in respect of the effectiveness of topical substances during the night versus the day; and the possible impact of sleep dysregulation on these treatments. Features related to this external organ, involving hydration, blood flow, and the permeability of the superficial barrier have physiological variations in sleep period. Our hypothesis is that sleep loss could alter drug absorption in the dermis and impair the success of the treatment. This can depend on the integrity of the mechanical skin barrier, and the enzymatic process after drug penetration, which may be influenced by the circadian rhythm. We raise the role of sleep disturbance in relation to skin aging and the cutaneous microbiota. The organ integrity and local immunology can be guided by sleep distress, which can modify the control of dermatological diseases. Future comparative analyses are warranted to explore the possible changes of the integumentary system influenced by circadian rhythm, and interference in response to topical dermal treatments. We emphasize the importance of sufficient sleep to improve the clinical management of several dermatosis and cosmetic complaints that need percutaneous therapeutics.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Humanos , Regeneração , Pele , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(23): e2204852119, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648822

RESUMO

SignificanceEnabling distributed neurologic and cognitive functions in soft deformable devices, such as robotics, wearables, skin prosthetics, bioelectronics, etc., represents a massive leap in their development. The results presented here reveal the device characteristics of the building block, i.e., a stretchable elastomeric synaptic transistor, its characteristics under various levels of biaxial strain, and performances of various stretchy distributed neuromorphic devices. The stretchable neuromorphic array of synaptic transistors and the neuromorphic imaging sensory skin enable platforms to create a wide range of soft devices and systems with implemented neuromorphic and cognitive functions, including artificial cognitive skins, wearable neuromorphic computing, artificial organs, neurorobotics, and skin prosthetics.


Assuntos
Órgãos Artificiais , Robótica , Pele , Sinapses , Animais , Cefalópodes , Cognição , Pele/inervação , Transistores Eletrônicos
5.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 94: 107135, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658304

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphomas (PC-ALCL) are rare. They fall within non-Hodgkin's lymphomas spectrum. Commonly misdiagnosed, this malignancy involving the skin has favorable prognosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PC-ALCL involving the parotid gland. This clinical presentation can mislead surgeons. We highlight this diagnostic conundrum. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old gentleman presented with two painless, ulcerating nodules over the right pre-auricular and angle of the mandible. Prior to that, he had right pre-auricular swelling that enlarged over a year. Skin nodules erupted few weeks before seeking treatment. Computed Tomography scan reported homogenously enhancing masses at posterior part of parotid gland's superficial lobe with diffuse lobe enlargement and no regional lymphadenopathy. A hypodense lesion at the liver indicated metastasis. Biopsy revealed PC-ALCL. He responded well to chemotherapy. DISCUSSION: PC-ALCL commonly presents as solitary nodules that can ulcerate over the head and neck region. Reports of PC-ALCL involving the eyelids, lips, and breast were found in our literature review. Multifocal lesions occur in 20% of cases. Malignant parotid tumors are aggressive and require parotidectomy which carry the risk of facial nerve injury. Treatment of PC-ALCL however, is local excision and radiotherapy for solitary lesions; and chemotherapy for those with extracutaneous spread. The 5-year survival rate is 90% in PC-ALCL. CONCLUSION: PC-ALCL is a master of mimicry. To prevent serious morbidity, awareness regarding this entity as a differential diagnosis compared to the common malignant parotid tumors need to be raised.

6.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 881617, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662726

RESUMO

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic constituent of the Cannabis plant, with potential therapeutic properties for many physical and neuropsychiatric conditions. Isolated CBD has been suggested to have favorable safety and tolerability. Although CBD-related rash is described, few case reports are well documented in the literature, and usually, CBD was used concomitantly with other medications. Thus, we report four women who presented a skin rash after ongoing CBD use. Other causes of these skin rashes were ruled out after conducting an extensive viral and serological detection panel, and three patients had their lesions biopsied. Two patients were re-exposed to the vehicle (MCT) without developing a new skin rash. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of this potential adverse effect of CBD use.

7.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(14): 4509-4518, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and lymphoma is similar. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) or extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma was the most common lymphomatous histology in SS patients. MALT in SS patients is frequently located in the parotid gland, while MALT lymphoma of the skin with SS is an exceedingly rare entity that needs to be recognized. CASE SUMMARY: A 60-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of progressive dry mouth associated with a 1-year history of enlarging cutaneous nodules. Physical examination revealed two hard subcutaneous nodules on her right lower leg. The results of Schirmer's test were positive, despite the absence of dry eyes. Labial salivary gland biopsy revealed lymphocytic infiltration and chronic inflammation with a focus score of 2. The patient was diagnosed with SS. She underwent resection of one cutaneous nodule, and histopathological analysis identified the nodule as MALT lymphoma. Her dry mouth symptoms improved, and the nodules decreased after 6 mo of treatment with hydroxychloroquine sulfate and chemotherapy (thalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone). CONCLUSION: Lymphoma is a severe complication of SS, shown by the reported unique case of cutaneous MALT lymphoma with SS.

8.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 903904, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663405

RESUMO

Skin is the largest organ in human body, harboring a plethora of cell types and serving as the organismal barrier. Skin aging such as wrinkling and hair graying is graphically pronounced, and the molecular mechanisms behind these phenotypic manifestations are beginning to unfold. As in many other organs and tissues, epigenetic and metabolic deregulations have emerged as key aging drivers. Particularly in the context of the skin epithelium, the epigenome and metabolome coordinately shape lineage plasticity and orchestrate stem cell function during aging. Our review discusses recent studies that proposed molecular mechanisms that drive the degeneration of hair follicles, a major appendage of the skin. By focusing on skin while comparing it to model organisms and adult stem cells of other tissues, we summarize literature on genotoxic stress, nutritional sensing, metabolic rewiring, mitochondrial activity, and epigenetic regulations of stem cell plasticity. Finally, we speculate about the rejuvenation potential of rate-limiting upstream signals during aging and the dominant role of the tissue microenvironment in dictating aged epithelial stem cell function.

9.
Clin Kidney J ; 15(6): 1152-1159, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664271

RESUMO

Background: Cancer risk is increased by 2- to 4-fold in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) compared with the general population. Little attention, however, has been given to KTRs with ultra long-term survival >20 years. Methods: We studied 293 of 1241 KTRs (23.6%), transplanted between 1981 and 1999, who showed kidney allograft survival >20 years. These long-term survivors were analysed for cancer development, cancer type, cancer-associated risk factors and patient and allograft outcomes. Results: By 10, 20 and 30 years post-transplantation, these long-term KTRs showed a cancer rate of 4.4%, 14.6% and 33.2%, and a non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) rate of 10.3%, 33.5% and 76.8%, respectively. By recipients' ages of 40, 60 and 80 years, KTRs showed a cancer rate of 3.4%, 14.5% 55.2%, and a NMSC rate of 1.7%, 31.6% and 85.2%, respectively. By 30 years post-transplantation, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) showed the highest incidence of 8.5%, followed by renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with 5.1%. Risk factors associated with the development of cancer were only recipient age (P = 0.016). Smoking history was associated with the risk of lung cancer (P = 0.018). Risk factors related to the development of NMSC included recipient age (P = 0.001) and thiazide diuretics (P = 0.001). Cancer increased the risk of death by 2.4-fold (P = 0.002), and PTLD increased the risk of kidney allograft loss by 6.5-fold (P = 0.001). No differences were observed concerning the development of donor-specific antibodies (P > 0.05). Conclusions: In long-term KTRs, cancer is a leading cause of death. PTLD remains the most common cancer type followed by RCC. These results emphasize the need for focused long-term cancer surveillance protocols.

10.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24586, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664404

RESUMO

Iguratimod has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Herein, we report two cases of skin allergic reactions caused by iguratimod in our hospital. Case 1 was a woman with SS who developed diffuse pruritus erythema after three weeks of combination therapy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and iguratimod. When the patient was again prescribed iguratimod after the rash subsided, the pruritus erythema reappeared. Case 2 was a 23-year-old girl treated with prednisone, HCQ, and mycophenolate mofetil for systemic lupus erythematosus and SS. In the follow-up treatment, mycophenolate mofetil was replaced by iguratimod. On the 20th day of treatment, a pruritic erythematous maculopapular rash appeared. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the characteristics of an allergic rash caused by iguratimod. It is better to administer HCQ and iguratimod successively rather than simultaneously to a patient.

11.
JPRAS Open ; 33: 32-36, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664463

RESUMO

The choice between skin graft and local flap reconstruction depends upon the surgeon's experience and the facilities available. For skin cancers, our main objective is clear, oncologic clearance with preservation of function. For some patients, aesthetic outcome is often equally important. In our experience, majority of our trainees will often choose skin graft reconstruction as their primary choice of reconstruction due to the fact that there is a perceived idea that this is easier to perform than a local flap. However, for lower limb or head and neck reconstructions, skin graft may result in a significant contour defect which can potentially be avoided. We present a series of cases of an alternative flap, the trapezoid advancement, a very simple design that can be utilised in several areas of the body and technically very easily replicated. This technique allows for the advancement of tissue with a minimal tension closure as compared to other local flaps. Our results showed no flap loss and excellent cosmetic outcome.

13.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 848357, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664864

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and distribution of sensitization to aeroallergens in children with atopic diseases. Methods: We conducted skin prick test on 9,527 pediatric patients (aged 0-17 years) with atopic diseases in allergy department of Children's Hospital affiliated with the Capital Institute of Pediatrics. Positive rates of aeroallergens were compared among the different groups. Results: Boys (69.5%) had a higher positive rate in SPT results than girls (59.8%; χ2 = 91.7, P < 0.01), and the prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens increased from 56.1% in the 0-5 year group, to 73.0% in patients above 12 years. Japanese hop (36.2%) and D. farinae (28.1%) were the most common outdoor and indoor aeroallergens, respectively. From low to high age groups, the positive detection rates of D. farinae were 20.3, 30.6, and 33.5%, respectively, followed by D. pteronyssinus (15.7, 24.8, and 30.0%) and cat dander (8.6, 19.8, and 27.9%, respectively), while dog dander and cockroach showed the same trend. The top three positive detection rates of outdoor aeroallergens were Alternaria (30.9%), Japanese Hop (26.7%), and Artemisia (23.7%) in the preschool age group. With regard to patients aged 6 to 11 years, the three most common were Japanese hop (39.2%), Alternaria (36.4%), and Fraxinus pollen (34.4%). Japanese hop (43.8%), Sabina (41.1%), and birch pollen (39.6%) became increasingly common allergens among adolescents. There were more patients with strongly positive reactions to Alternaria in AS (χ2 = 10.2, P < 0.01) and AS with AR groups (χ2 =9.7, P < 0.01) than those in the AR group. Asthmatic patients had significantly higher multiple positive reactions than those with AR (P < 0.01). Asthmatic patients had a much higher prevalence of HDM, animal dander, and Alternaria than those with allergic rhinitis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens increased with age in children with atopic diseases in Greater Beijing Region. Alternaria was the predominant allergen before 5 years of age, and tree pollen had delayed sensitization in adolescents. Sensitization to perennial allergens such as HDM, cats, and Alternaria was more strongly associated with asthma risk. Sensitization to more than one allergen significantly affected asthmatic patients.

14.
Australas J Dermatol ; 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666757

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous tumour of neuroendocrine cell origin, which can grow rapidly and metastasise early. Localised disease is treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Disease that reaches a more advanced stage can be treated with a variety of different treatment modalities including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, radionuclide therapy, immunotherapy, and intralesional therapy. We report a case of a patient who had exhausted all local and systemic treatment options and who subsequently had an exceptional response to intralesional injection of Talimogene laherparepvec (TVEC).

15.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supra-brow and sub-brow blepharoplasty are two types of upper eyelid blepharoplasties that are commonly performed in middle-aged Asian women to correct skin laxity of the upper eyelid; the postoperative scar formation of the two procedures may be different. Therefore, we designed this retrospective study to explore the differences in postoperative scarring between patients receiving supra- or sub-brow blepharoplasty. METHODS: We identified 52 patients who underwent supra-brow blepharoplasty and 54 patients who underwent sub-brow blepharoplasty. For each patient, the scar quality was assessed using photographs, the Observer Scar Assessment Scale (OSAS), and the Patient Scar Assessment Scale (PSAS) 1 year following surgery. RESULTS: For OSAS, higher scores for pigmentation, thickness, relief, pliability, surface, and overall opinion were observed in patients who underwent supra-brow blepharoplasty (p < 0.05) except for the "vascular score" (p = 0.148). The average overall opinion scores of the supra- and sub-brow blepharoplasty were 3.90 ± 0.41 and 2.33 ± 0.48, respectively, indicating that acceptance of postoperative scars in patients who underwent supra-brow blepharoplasty was worse than that in patients who underwent sub-brow blepharoplasty. Significantly higher scores were observed in all items of PSAS items for patients with supra-brow blepharoplasty (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The postoperative scars in patients who underwent supra-brow blepharoplasty were more obvious than those in sub-brow blepharoplasty. From the perspective of postoperative scar formation, sub-brow blepharoplasty may be a more suitable choice for patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

16.
Photochem Photobiol ; 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668682

RESUMO

This aim of this study was to evaluate the penetration depth, antioxidant capacity and the clinical efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia pure essential oil and in a nanoemulsion to prevent skin photoaging. For this, 2% of pure essential oil or 2% of this essential oil in a nanoemulsion, were vehiculated in a formulation. The skin penetration was evaluated using confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The radical protection factor was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. For a clinical study, 40 male participants, aged 18 - 28 years, were enrolled, being divided into three groups: vehicle formulation, M. alternifolia pure essential oil, and M. alternifolia Nanoemulsion. All the participants received also a sunscreen SPF 50 to use during the day. Before and after 90 days of study skin hydrolipidics and morphological characteristics were performed by skin imaging and biophysical techniques. The nanoemulsion presented a lower antioxidant capacity and a higher penetration through the stratum corneum, reaching the viable epidermis, improving the stratum granulosum morphology. The groups presented an increase in the papillary depth, improving in the dermis echogenicity and the collagen fibers. M. alternifolia essential provides the potential to improve photoaged skin, being the application of nanoemulsion able to reach deeper skin layers.

17.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 15: 947-954, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642175

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has developed into a worldwide pandemic, which presents several challenges for frontline health-care workers (HCWs). HCWs are highly prone to various skin diseases due to prolonged use of personal protective equipment (PPE). The most frequently used type of PPE is facemasks. To effectively control adverse skin reactions, there is an urgent need for a range of preventive practices. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at 12 hospitals in Zhejiang province, China. HCWs were invited to participate in the web survey. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers using a predesigned data collection form and analyzed with SPSS 20.0. Results: A total of 1147 questionnaires were collected, and of these, 1090 (95.03%) were valid and returned. The incidence of chest tightness and shortness of breath and face eczema was significantly higher in HCWs wearing N95 facemasks (41.91%; 31.62%) than in the HCWs wearing medical facemasks (38.05%, P = 0.010; 21.91%, P = 0.012). The incidence of ear pain and indentation was significantly higher in HCWs wearing hang-facemasks (83.81%) than in HCWs wearing strains-facemasks (61.19%, P < 0.001). The incidence of ear pain and indentation was significantly higher in HCWs wearing undiscriminating size code facemasks (79.88%) than in the HCWs wearing discriminating size code facemasks (67.86%, P = 0.031). There was a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the incidence of HCWs without adverse reactions (ADRs) with increasing time wearing facemasks. Conclusion: Incidence of ADRs does not significantly increase with the durations of mask wear where wearing mask time exceeded 4 hours per day. The medical staff generally wore masks for more than 4 hours per day; therefore, we recommend taking 15 min of rest after 2 hours of mask-wearing. Results in this study support the conclusion that the type of strain-facemasks and discriminating size code facemasks has a lower incidence of ADRs than other type of medical facemasks.

18.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol ; 15(5): E77-E81, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642227

RESUMO

Background: Although the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is primarily responsible for respiratory symptoms, an increasing number of cutaneous manifestations have been reported. Cutaneous manifestations are reported by patients following disease recovery. Objective: We sought to document various skin lesions relating to COVID-19 symptoms either before, during, or after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Methods: This was a descriptive study with 273 patients who had cutaneous manifestations after recovering from COVID-19. Each patient provided a thorough medical history and underwent a general physical examination. Following polymerase chain reaction analysis, all participants were confirmed to be COVID-19 patients. Results: Acral lesions were the most common, accounting for 39% of all cases. An erythematous maculopapular rash was found in 21% of cases and was the second most common after urticaria, with fewer cases of erythema multiform, vesicular rash (9%), vascular livedo reticularis, figurate erythema, and flexural rash documented. Conclusion: The most common cutaneous changes seen in patients with COVID-19 were pseudo-chilblain acral lesions, which had a good prognosis. Vascular rashes within the spectrum of livedo/purpura/necrosis were seen with severe forms of COVID-19.

19.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol ; 15(5): 19-28, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642229

RESUMO

Objective: We conducted a review of topical agents currently used in melasma, discussing their mechanism of action, efficacy, safety, and tolerability, with an update on newer treatments. Methods: A systematic review from PubMed database was performed, using PRISMA guidelines. The search was limited to English and Spanish studies that were double or single blinded, prospective, controlled or randomized clinical trials, reviews of literature, and meta-analysis studies. Results: 348 studies were analyzed; 80 papers met inclusion criteria. Triple combination (TC) therapy and hydroquinone (HQ) are still the most well-studied agents with strong evidence-based recommendation. TC therapy remains the gold standard of care based on efficacy and patient tolerability. Evidence has shown ascorbic acid, azelaic acid, glycolic acid, kojic acid, salicylic acid, and niacinamide to be effective as adjuvant therapies with minimal side effects. Tranexamic acid (TA) and cysteamine have become recent agents of interest due to their good tolerability, however more trials and studies are warranted. Less evidence exists for other topical agents, such as linoleic acid, mulberry extract oil, rucinol, 2% undecylenoyl phenylalanine, and epidermal growth factors agents. Limitations: Some studies discussed represented a low sample size, and there is an overall lack of recent studies with larger populations and long-term follow up. Conclusions: TC therapy continues to be the gold standard of care. Topical cysteamine and TA are newer options that can be incorporated as adjuvant and maintenance treatments into a patient's regimen. Cysteamine and topical TA have no known severe adverse effects. Evidence comparing other topical adjuvant treatments to HQ, maintains HQ as the gold standard of care.

20.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol ; 15(5): 59-64, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642230

RESUMO

Background: Collagen protein plays a notable role maintaining firm skin. Topical creams containing collagen fibers are widely available, but their usefulness is questionable due to limited skin penetration. When applied in a cream, collagen does not penetrate the skin leaving the skin structure unaffected. Objective: We formulated micronized collagen in a cream base. Using human skin samples, we sought to investigate the ability of the micronized collagen cream to penetrate human skin. Methods: Particle sizes of micronized marine collagen were evaluated using electron microscopy. Optical profilometry was conducted to evaluate skin topography and roughness. The antioxidant activity of the collagen was evaluated using the electron paramagnetic resonance technique by measuring the changes in free radical production. Collagen penetration depth in human skin samples was monitored using a non-invasive optical technique known as iterative multiplane optical property extraction, which works based on the detection of laser light phase changes following the presence of collagen particles in deep skin layers. Results: According to the electron microscopy, collagen particles were found to be of various sizes, the smallest being about 120nm in diameter. Skin topography measurements revealed that the treated collagen cream increased skin smoothness of the samples. Our results derived from the iterative multiplane optical property extraction indicated that micronized collagen in a cream base penetrates both the stratum corneum and the deep epidermal layers toward the dermis. Conclusion: Our investigation suggests that the collagen in the studied cream formulation was able to penetrate the stratum coreum and deep epidermal layers in human skin samples.

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