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1.
AI Soc ; : 1-9, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093031

RESUMO

At first thought, iteration seems banal. It is about repeating the existing; nothing is changing. But this special issue shows that, in an era obsessed with the new, it is often the repetition of the old that creates social change. Iteration fosters persuasion. It affords opportunities for critical and creative engagement with meaning, values and knowledge. It invites collaboration, though its apparent simplicity often belies a tremendous amount of individual and collective labour involved in the practices of iteration. Through its repetition of the existing, however, iteration also can be a mechanism for reproducing the status quo. Its pervasiveness and banality naturalises power, and its mimetic qualities shrink spaces for critical distance and care. The editors of this special issue have brought together a delightful and fascinating diversity of articles focussed on iteration in cultural production in the digital age. We hop across geographies to examine lockdown diaries, artists' books, socialist memes, fake news, the design of social media platforms and artificial intelligence, activism, film, social media forum moderation, news website reader comments and more. Iterating through the collection as a whole, across its many disciplines, is a commitment to theorising through empirical evidence, to explaining with critique, and to providing pathways to praxis. These characteristics of this special issue, and the many concepts and arguments it puts forward, make this collection of work exceptionally rich material for seeing iteration and how it shapes the world we live in today, as well as the world we want it to be. In this preface, I take a media sociology approach to show how iteration can be usefully understood as collaborative communication for change. I see this understanding of iteration, whose ascendancy is related to the ascendancy of computer science, as baked into the form of communication technologies-and thus as shaping the kinds of iteration that are possible when we use these technologies. This understanding also prompts us to focus on the connection between iteration and social change. To explore how this works, I analytically slow down the practice of iteration to show that it is a communication practice of transmission. That transmission practice is itself constituted of cognate communication practices-the reception, evaluation and production of knowledge-in which visibility and persuasion are key. In the latter parts of the preface, I illustrate this through the example of witnessing as iteration, as the high-stakes nature of witnessing make it a canary in the coalmine, more generally, for mediated communication in the digital age. I show how breaking the witnessing practice down into its various parts allows us to see how power enters and inflects who and what are iterated, when-and who and what are not. Thinking critically with iteration and against unequal power relations, the praxis this preface suggests is one-much in line with the rest of this special issue-of explaining how iteration might move the grassroots towards their goals.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 318: 70-79, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a key indicator to measure the mental health status, psychological security level of Chinese college students and its changes over time are of great value to examine. METHODS: A cross-temporal meta-analysis was performed using papers that measured the psychological security level of Chinese college students using the Security Questionnaire between 2006 and 2019. In addition, a time lag analysis was conducted to define whether the selected macro social indicators can explain the changes in the psychological security level. RESULTS: A total of 58 papers involving 28,352 Chinese college students were included in the final sample. The results revealed that scores of psychological security and its two factors were significantly negatively correlated with the year. Scores of psychological security and its two factors were significantly associated with five social indicators of economic condition (residents' consumption level), social connectedness (divorce rate, urbanization level) and overall threat (college enrollment rate, crime rate), suggesting that social change may account for the decline in psychological security level of Chinese college students. LIMITATIONS: The underlying mechanism is only discussed at a theoretical level. Thus, future studies can collect the relating empirical evidence to test the proposed theoretical model. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed a decreasing trend of Chinese college students' psychological security level across time, which was associated with macro-social changes in diverse areas. In addition, combined with the corresponding macro-social indicators, a three-dimensional theoretical framework is proposed to explain the psychological security for college students as a group.

3.
Body Image ; 43: 34-40, 2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007310

RESUMO

Previous research has indicated that outcomes of collective action can occur at the individual, group, and societal levels. Taken together, we argue that multi-level outcomes can influence sustained involvement in social movements. We aimed to examine the multi-level outcomes of fat activism across two studies. In our first study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with fat activists (N = 20) to learn what they believe are the multi-level outcomes of fat activism. At the individual level, activists reported greater health, well-being, and self-esteem; at the group level, they reported a sense of community and increased clothing options; and at the societal level, they reported change in toxic cultures around dieting. By building on the findings of Study 1, Study 2 (N = 464) aimed to understand how fat individuals' past collective action participation may predict their future collective action participation through individual-, group-, and societal-level gains. Results indicate that greater collective action participation in the past predicts greater willingness to engage in collective action through the pathway of higher beliefs in individual and societal gains of fat activism, but not through group-level gains, even after we control for identification with fat and fat activist identities. We discuss these findings in relation to the importance of multi-level outcomes in collective action and sustained involvement in social movements.

4.
Mar Policy ; 144: 105239, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911785

RESUMO

The responses of small-scale coastal fisheries to pauses in effort and trade are an important test of natural resource management theories with implications for the many challenges of managing common-pool resources. Three Covid-19 curfews provided a natural experiment to evaluate fisheries responses adjacent a marine reserve and in a management system that restricted small-mesh drag nets. Daily catch weights in ten fish landings were compared before and after the curfew period to test the catch-only hypothesis that the curfew would reduce effort and increase catch per unit effort, per area yields, and incomes. Interviews with key informants indicated that fisheries effort and trade were disrupted but less so in the gear-restricted rural district than the more urbanized reserve landing sites. The expected increase in catches and incomes was evident in some sites adjacent the reserve but not the rural gear restricted fisheries. Differences in compliance and effort initiated by the curfew, changes in gear, and various negative environmental conditions are among the explanations for the variable catch responses. Rates of change over longer periods in CPUE were stable among marine reserve adjacent landing sites but declined faster after the curfew in the gear-restricted fisheries. Two landing sites nearest the southern end of the reserve displayed a daily 45 % increase in CPUE, 25-30 % increase in CPUA, and a 45-56 % increase in incomes. Results suggest that recovering stocks will succeed where authorities can achieve compliance, near marine reserves, and fisheries lacking additional environmental stresses.

5.
Qual Health Res ; 32(12): 1907-1914, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998362

RESUMO

In this article, we present new insights to the application of photovoice as a tool for empowerment of the marginalized and an antecedent for social change. Special attention is directed to the use of photovoice in raising critical consciousness of the stigmatized and marginalized youth living with HIV/AIDS as a catalyst for empowerment through both the process and content of the research. The article also expounds on the practical execution of photovoice that is not adequately elaborated in projects within resource limited settings.

6.
Front Psychol ; 13: 961373, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35959062

RESUMO

While the assumption that the sociopolitical and economic situation affects adolescents' well-being, encompassing life satisfaction and a positive sense of self, is plausible, few studies have confirmed such macrosocial influences. The case of the Czech Republic offers an example of a society transitioning from totalitarian government (from 1989) to western democracy. Our study provides statistical description of Czech adolescents' well-being over the past 30 years in association with the subjective perception of everyday problems. These daily hassles represent experiences and conditions of daily living that have been appraised as salient and harmful or threatening to adolescents' well-being. We analyzed four samples of adolescents aged 14-17 years surveyed at four time points over the last three decades-1992, 2001, 2011, and 2019, total N = 4,005 (1992: 255, 2001: 306, 2011: 363, 2019: 3081; 54.6% females). The results show that life satisfaction, self-esteem, and self-reported daily hassles changed only marginally from 1992 to 2019 with small differences related to the post-revolution 1992 cohort. Adolescents reported increasing problems in school, relationships with parents, sports, and leisure time over the study period. A model linking daily hassles and self-esteem to life satisfaction across four cohorts showed that daily hassles strongly predicted life satisfaction except in the post-revolution cohort of 1992 when life satisfaction was also the lowest. The effect was slightly higher in females. Across the cohorts, gender differences in life satisfaction changed from males being more satisfied in 1992 to females being more satisfaction in 2019. Limitations stemming from sampling differences across cohorts are discussed.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971663

RESUMO

Subjective well-being is a crucial index measuring the mental health of medical staffs, and it is necessary to examine the changes in subjective well-being (SWB) level of Chinese medical staffs with time. A cross-temporal meta-analysis was performed using papers that measured the SWB level of Chinese medical staffs between 2004 and 2020. Moreover, a time-lag analysis was conducted to define whether the macro-social indicators can explain the changes in SWB. A total of 47 papers were included in the final sample. The results revealed that score of SWB was significantly negatively correlated with the year. Score of SWB was significantly associated with six social indicators of economic condition (the residents' consumption level, housing prices, and old-age dependency ratio), social connectedness (the divorce rate and the urbanization level), and overall threat (the crime rate), which indicated that social change may account for the decline of Chinese medical staffs' SWB level. Our study revealed a decreasing trend of Chinese medical staffs' SWB level over time, which was associated with macro-social changes in diverse areas. In addition, combined with the corresponding macro-social indicators, a three-dimensional theoretical framework is proposed to explain the SWB for medical staffs as a group.

8.
Eval Program Plann ; 94: 102116, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868114

RESUMO

Worldwide, there is currently an increasing demand for an active connection between the generation of innovations and the achievement of their escalation. Between 2015 and 2018 the scaling up of three varieties of yellow potatoes was carried out in Colombia within the framework of the "More Nutritious Potatoes" project, which had results beyond the objectives and goals proposed in a period of 28 months. One of the results of the project was the design of a Scaling-up model of innovations that linked agriculture with nutrition. This article answers the question: Which were the elements of the scaling-up model that allowed the results obtained in the More Nutritious Potatoes Project? To respond, a set of reference criteria was constructed from the literature. These criteria were contrasted with the theoretical project scaling-up model and its subsequent implementation in the field, using focus groups as a methodology and the model design analysis and its execution by the leaders and the evaluator of the project. The project's Scaling-up Model (SM) was found to include all benchmarks, in addition to identify three key elements that made the results possible: (i) the characteristics of the innovation, (ii) the trans-disciplinary work and (iii) facilitating elements of the process. The results of this exercise complement the evaluated scaling-up model and become benchmarks in the design of innovation scaling-up processes.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
9.
Br J Sociol ; 73(4): 706-753, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35855502

RESUMO

The alleged homogenization of material consumption patterns in Western societies in the end of the twentieth century has been a central argument of scholars who predicted a general flattening of class inequalities. However, divisions in material consumption practices and their evolution have largely been neglected in studies of the social stratification of lifestyles. Drawing on six waves of the French Households Budget Surveys from 1985 to 2017 and Geometric Data Analysis, this article shows that the two main structuring oppositions in the French space of material consumption remained unchanged over 32 years. Those two divides are strongly but not exclusively associated with social class. The first persistently opposes integration with and exclusion from mass consumption. The second opposes connected and autonomous consumption styles. However, between 1989 and 2011, the practices associated with these divides have changed and households have experienced a major shift in their position toward the most integrated and connected poles. This study paves the way for comparisons to assess the permanence of those two polarities in material consumption-not only across periods, but also in different countries.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Meio Social , Características da Família , Humanos , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Injury ; 53(10): 3201-3208, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Claimants with chronically painful injuries sustained in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) undergo assessment and management influenced by insurance and medico-legal processes defined by a biomedical paradigm which is discordant with best evidence. We aim to demonstrate the impact of biopsychosocial factors on post-MVA sequelae which contribute to non-recovery. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of medico-legal documents and reports on 300 consecutive claimants referred to a pain medicine physician over 7 years (2012-2018) for assessment of painful musculoskeletal injuries post-MVA. One hundred data items were extracted from the medico-legal documents and reports for each claimant and entered into an electronic database. Post-MVA sequelae were analysed using chi-square analysis (OR >2) for significant associations with demographic, pre-MVA and post-MVA variables. Factors with significant associations were entered into a logistic regression model to determine significant statistical predictors of post-MVA sequelae contributing to non-recovery. RESULTS: The claimants were aged 17 to 80 years (mean age 42 years), and approximately half (53%, n=159) were female. The time from MVA to interview averaged 2.5 years. Widespread pain was present in 18% (n=54), and widespread somatosensory signs implying central sensitisation (OR=9.85, p<.001) was the most significant multivariate association. Long-term opiate use post-MVA (32%) was predicted by pre-MVA sleep disturbance (OR=5.08, p=.001), post-MVA major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR=3.02, p=.003) and long-term unemployment (OR=2.22. p=.007). Approximately half (47%, n=142) required post-MVA support from a psychologist or psychiatrist. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was diagnosed by a psychiatrist or psychologist in 20% (n=59), yet early identification of risk of PTSD was rare. Pre-MVA, 89.4% (n=268) were studying or employed. Permanent unemployability post-MVA occurred in 35% (n=104) and was predicted by MDD (OR=3.59, p=.001) and antidepressant use (OR=2.17, p=.005). Major social change post-MVA (70%) was predicted by older age (OR=.966, p=.003), depressive symptoms (OR=3.71, p<.001) and opiate use (OR=2.00, p=.039). CONCLUSIONS: Biomedical factors, including older age, impaired sleep and indicators of widespread central sensitisation, and psychological factors, including stress, anxiety and depression, were the most prominent multivariate associations as statistical predictors of major adverse sequelae contributing to non-recovery for claimants with chronic pain post-MVA.

11.
Front Psychol ; 13: 911654, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35814107

RESUMO

Minority influence research was sparked by Moscovici's observation about the power of active minorities to instigate social change. This idea invigorated research on social influence, which is evident in a subsequent outburst of studies on minority influence up to the 1990s, followed by a decrease and stabilization in the 2000s and 2010s. In spite of a remarkable scientific output, research on minority influence has not addressed its original question about social change. Rather, it has focused dominantly on the cognitive processes and attitudinal change in response to a minority advocacy or minority mere presence, and, to a lesser degree, to the role of minority influence in decision-making and task groups. To orient research toward social change, a research agenda is presented, along with a few illustrative studies. The proposed agenda focuses on time, interactive (minority ↔ majority), and motivated influence as critical explanatory variables to address in the next phase of research on minority influence in the pursuit of social change.

12.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 849085, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815010

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 is widely considered one of the worst pandemics in history, resulting in worldwide lockdowns, social isolation, unemployment, and economic recession. With the prolongation of COVID-19, numerous people experience stress, depression, and other mental health challenges. Recently, several studies have been documented in the literature on mental health issues among students (related to medical or other fields), teachers, medical personnel, and nurses in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, social entrepreneurs (SEs) have received insufficient attention. This study aims to conduct an online survey in Pakistan's five major cities to investigate more about the mental health status of social entrepreneurs. Materials and Methods: An online survey which included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) was employed to collect data. The data analyses were carried out employing descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and multiple regression analyses. Results: A total of 840 social entrepreneurs from Pakistan participated in the survey. Among these, 366 (43.6%) were female and 474 (56.4%) were male. The findings revealed that 709 (84%) social entrepreneurs were suffering from depression symptoms, and 600 (80%) were suffering from anxiety symptoms. The majority of social entrepreneurs with depression (N = 546) and anxiety (N = 567) had mild and moderate stages. In addition, optional open-ended questions were asked from SE participants that help to understand their perception and response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: The study concluded that several SEs in major cities of Pakistan were experiencing depression and anxiety symptoms. Based on data analysis, male SEs were highly suffering from depression and anxiety than female SEs. Limited resources and changes in customers' behavior were one of the major problems that lead SEs to depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 epidemic. In addition, SEs revealed that the lack of a social business execution policy is the most distressing factor for them. Therefore, a local government must take rigorous precautionary measures to prevent mental health issues among social entrepreneurs. Moreover, the Government of Pakistan needs to adopt supportive policies to assist social entrepreneurs in stressful circumstances.

13.
J Pers ; 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35837853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This psychobiography analyzes the life of Khali Sweeney from Detroit's Downtown Boxing Gym to understand his motivation for and methods as a social change agent. In doing so, the project also considers how to prepare the next generation of youth development leaders as social change agents. METHOD: We conducted a nine-step psychobiography based on recommendations from Ponterotto (2017) and du Plessis (2017). Using a team-based, thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2016) approach we analyzed contextual, first-, second-, and third- person data from the perspective of Phenomenological Variant of Ecological Systems Theory (PVEST; Spencer et al., 1997). RESULTS: Results suggest Khali is an effective social change agent due to five interrelated factors. Analyzing Khali's life through the lens of PVEST also revealed his experiences resulted in two realizations central to him becoming a social change agent: the people and services that are supposed to serve youth at times do not, and; individuals like him can step up to meet youth needs. CONCLUSIONS: Results point to several important lessons related to transformational leadership theory that can enable YDP leaders to serve as social change agents.

14.
J Homosex ; : 1-22, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856608

RESUMO

Gender and sexuality are context-specific constructions. Yet, among the increasing volume of quantitative studies on changing attitudes toward homosexuality, scholars have failed to understand the role of gender in shaping attitudinal change. This study sheds light on the hitherto overlooked aspect of gender in analyzing changing attitudes toward homosexuality in a non-Western context. Drawing on Japanese data from the World Values Survey, I use a linear decomposition technique to estimate relative contributions of cohort replacement and intracohort change effects on overall change and examine the difference in changes between men and women. The results show clear gendered patterns in attitudinal change over the past four decades. Including the Japanese case in the literature allows for theoretical arguments on how persistent patriarchy and deeply embedded heteronormative practices perpetuate hegemonic masculinity and associated homophobia. Although the recent rapid liberalization of attitudes among men might shine a light on the emergence of inclusive masculinity, I argue that hegemonic masculinity is still at play, especially among older generations. Future research may address whether changing attitudes can be a catalyst for social change or merely a vestige of hegemonic masculinity that legitimizes a more subtle form of homophobia in the contemporary era.

15.
Philos Stud ; : 1-25, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35875326

RESUMO

I propose a new concept of solidarity, which I call "solidarity from below," that highlights an aspect of solidarity widely recognized in popular uses of the term, but which has hitherto been neglected in the philosophical literature. Solidarity from below is the collective ability of otherwise powerless people to organize themselves for transformative social change. I situate this concept with respect to four distinct but intertwined questions that have motivated extant theorizing about solidarity. I explain what it means to conceptualize solidarity from below as a form of power, rather than as a feeling, disposition, duty, or scheme of social arrangements. Finally, I suggest that the moral-relational aspects of solidarity emerge secondarily from the process of collective power, and not the other way around.

16.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903992

RESUMO

Collective victimhood and collective resilience are two sides of the same coin. However, most literature to date has focused on the experiences and consequences of collective victimhood. In the present research, we focused on the experiences of Black Americans, a group that has a legacy of victimization and resilience. As a part of Black Americans' collective memory, we explored the nature of historical collective resilience and examined its role in explaining collective responses to present-day oppression, over and above any effect of historical collective victimhood. When they were asked to reflect on their group's history, across Studies 1 (N = 272) and 2 (N = 294), we found that Black Americans generated narratives of collective resilience. In both studies, we also found evidence that perceived historical collective resilience was linked to a greater sense of collective continuity, which, in turn, explained greater support for the ongoing Black Lives Matter movement. Our findings underscore the importance of considering narratives of resilience in a group's history and point to the way such collective resilience narratives can serve as a resource for the group in the present.

17.
Front Psychol ; 13: 875848, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734462

RESUMO

We apply the dynamic dual pathway model of approach coping to understanding the predictors of future collective action among a sample of advantaged group allies and disadvantaged group members who were attending a protest. We propose that problem-focused approach coping (i.e., group efficacy beliefs) would be a stronger predictor of future collective action among disadvantaged compared to advantaged group members, and emotion-focused approach coping (i.e., group-based anger) would be a stronger predictor of future collective action among advantaged compared to disadvantaged group members. Data was collected from LGBTIQ+ and heterosexual people (N = 189) protesting as part of the 2019 Christopher Street Day Parade in Cologne, Germany. We found that increased group efficacy predicted intentions to engage in future collective action for the rights of sexual minorities among LGBTIQ+ but not heterosexual participants. Increased group-based anger was a predictor of future collective action intentions regardless of which group the participants belonged to. Our findings extend the dynamic dual pathway model by applying it to a sample of advantaged group allies and disadvantaged group members attending a protest using a multiple perspectives approach.

18.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 47: 101354, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661946

RESUMO

Conspiracy belief intersects with the politics of social change in complex and sometimes contradictory ways. On one hand, social change is experienced as stressful by many, and it can generate feelings of uncertainty, insecurity, and loss of control that elicit beliefs that may impede needed change and even generate new problems. On the other hand, conspiracy belief and conspiratorial thinking, by shedding doubt on the benevolence of powerful individuals and institutions, may fuel radical resistance to the status quo on both the political left and right. In this article, I explore recent theory and research on these two seemingly-opposed ways of thinking about the connection between conspiracy theories and the politics of social change.

19.
Cogn Sci ; 46(6): e13146, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665531

RESUMO

Gender associations have been a long-standing research topic in psychological and social sciences. Although it is known that children learn aspects of gender associations at a young age, it is not well understood how they might emerge through the course of development. We investigate whether gender associations, such as the association of dresses with women and bulldozers with men, are reflected in the linguistic communication of young children from ages 1-5. Drawing on recent methods from machine learning, we use word embeddings derived from large text corpora including news articles and web pages as a proxy for gender associations in society, and we compare those with the gender associations of words uttered by caretakers and children in children's linguistic environment. We quantify gender associations in childhood language through gender probability, which measures the extent to which word usage frequencies in speech to and by girls and boys are gender-skewed. By analyzing 4,875 natural conversations between children and their caretakers in North America, we find that frequency patterns in word usage of both caretakers and children correlate strongly with the gender associations captured in word embeddings through the course of development. We discover that these correlations diminish from the 1970s to the 1990s. Our work suggests that early linguistic communication and social changes may jointly contribute to the formation of gender associations in childhood.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Linguística , Masculino , Fala
20.
J Pers ; 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714055

RESUMO

In this psychobiographical study, we examined the life and times of social change agent Harvey Milk, one of the first openly gay public officials in the United States. Milk is remembered as a gay hero who fought for the rights of marginalized people, often by invoking the importance of hope. Milk was assassinated less than one year after his election. In this psychobiography, we adopted a structural approach foregrounding social, cultural, political, and historical forces that intersected with personal factors to explain Milk's ascension to the status of social change agent. This psychobiography tells the story of a man not destined to become a social change agent but of a man who became one anyway because of shifting tides in the political climate of San Francisco in the 1970s, because of a series of catalytic events that started him down this path, because of a history of persecution as a gay Jew, and because of his enduring need for a stage upon which he could express his generative concern. Our analysis raises questions about the story that 'belongs' to the agent of social change, and the story that 'belongs' to the rest of us, as we remember him.

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