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1.
Int J Behav Med ; 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes-related multi-morbidity and cultural factors place Latinas with diabetes at increased risk for stress, which can threaten illness management. Families provide an ideal focus for interventions that seek to strengthen interpersonal resources for illness management and, in the process, to reduce stress. The current study sought to examine whether participating in a dyadic intervention was associated with reduced perceived stress and, furthermore, whether this association was mediated by persuasion and pressure, two forms of health-related social control. METHOD: Latina mothers with diabetes and their at-risk adult daughters participated in either (1) a dyadic intervention that encouraged constructive collaboration to improve health behaviors and reduce stress, or (2) a usual-care minimal control condition. Actor-partner interdependence model analysis was used to estimate the effect of the intervention on dyads' perceived stress, and mother-daughter ratings of health-related social control as potential mediators. RESULTS: Results revealed that participating in the intervention was associated with significantly reduced perceived stress for daughters, but not for mothers (ß = - 3.00, p = 0.02; ß = - 0.57, p = 0.67, respectively). Analyses also indicated that the association between the intervention and perceived stress was mediated by persuasion, such that mothers' who experienced more health-related persuasion exhibited significantly less post-intervention perceived stress (indirect effect = - 1.52, 95% CI = [- 3.12, - 0.39]). Pressure exerted by others, however, did not evidence a mediating mechanism for either mothers or daughters. CONCLUSION: These findings buttress existing research suggesting that persuasion, or others' attempts to increase participants' healthy behaviors in an uncritical way, may be a driving force in reducing perceived stress levels.

2.
Health Psychol Open ; 10(1): 20551029221143670, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36632353

RESUMO

Using data from 148 middle-aged and older adult spouses whose partners had type 2 diabetes, we sought to examine spouses' motives for involvement in their partners' diabetes management and whether these motives were related to common types of diabetes-related spousal involvement; we also sought to understand gender differences in these dynamics. Spouses indicated being motivated to be involved in their partners' diabetes management due to altruistic motives to the greatest extent and egoistic motives to the least extent. Results from multivariable regression analyses that controlled for gender, marital quality, and spouses' own conditions requiring dietary changes revealed that all types of motives were related to the frequency of providing diet-related spousal support, whereas only egoistic motives were related to the frequency of exerting diet-related spousal control. We did not find gender differences in any motives nor in associations with spousal involvement. Findings have potential implications for couples-oriented chronic illness interventions.

3.
Patient Educ Couns ; 107: 107578, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the role of social support in veterans' diabetes self-management and examine gender differences. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews among veterans with diabetes from one Veterans Health Administration Health Care System. Participants described how support persons influenced their diabetes self-management and perspectives on a proposed self-management program incorporating a support person. We used thematic analysis to identify salient themes and examine gender differences. RESULTS: Among 18 women and 18 men, we identified four themes: 1) women felt responsible for their health and the care of others; 2) men shared responsibility for managing their diabetes, with support persons often attempting to correct behaviors (social control); 3) whereas both men and women described receiving instrumental and informational social support, primarily women described emotional support; and 4) some women's self-management efforts were hindered by support persons. Regarding programs incorporating a support person, some participants endorsed including family/friends and some preferred programs including other individuals with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Notable gender differences in social support for self-management were observed, with women assuming responsibility for their diabetes and their family's needs and experiencing interpersonal barriers. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Gender differences in the role of support persons in diabetes self-management should inform support-based self-management programs.

4.
Nurse Educ Today ; 120: 105627, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skills to promote advocacy, a nursing competency, are vital to today's cohorts of nursing students, who often struggle with discourse. Opportunities to develop, defend, and rebut science-based arguments enhance resilience and self-efficacy when advocating for health policy. A community health discussion activity was developed to enhance advocacy skills in undergraduate and graduate nursing students at a midwestern university. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to explore students' perceptions of the benefits of a discussion activity about a controversial health issue, and to describe the impact of the opportunities to form valid arguments using empirical evidence on students' perceptions of their ability to be advocates. DESIGN: Cross-sectional post-activity survey evaluation. SETTINGS: Enrollment in a community health nursing course. PARTICIPANTS: Students from two undergraduate (n = 110) and one graduate (n = 20) nursing cohorts. METHODS: Following completion of the online discussion activity, students were invited to provide feedback on their perceptions of activity benefits. Descriptive analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Undergraduate and graduate nursing students reported the activity helped them learn to form a valid argument using scientific evidence (88.6 %), use credible sources when forming their own opinions (91.7 %), and begin to see themselves as advocates for improving the health of individuals and communities (87.1 %). CONCLUSIONS: Online discussion boards are potential venues for development of advocacy skills.

5.
Rev. CES psicol ; 15(3): 21-41, sep.-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406716

RESUMO

Abstract Law can shape individual and social behavior in different ways including through perceived control and legitimacy of authorities. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether legitimacy of authorities, social and personal control, and social cohesion influence antisocial behaviors in juvenile offenders. The study, included a sample of two hundred juvenile offenders in Mexico, used structural equation modeling to test the relationship between the perception of just treatment by police and judges (i.e., legitimacy) and social and personal control and outcomes of antisocial behaviors and tendencies (self-report and probability of antisocial behavior as well as reports of peer antisocial behavior). Results indicate legitimacy of authorities and personal control had a negative effect while social control showed a positive effect on these behaviors. Social cohesion had a positive effect on social control. Our results suggest that legitimacy of authorities and personal control act as protective factors against antisocial behaviors whereas, contrary to the expected results, social control may be a risk factor. This research highlights the importance of preventative protective efforts in juvenile offenders such as just treatment and development of personal control rather than the use of punitive processes. In this sense, it is important to consider alternatives for judicial involvement and punishment such as community programs as well as cognitive and emotional prevention and intervention efforts to reduce antisocial behaviors. Programs such as the Reasoning and Rehabilitation Program, other cognitive skill interventions as well as developmental prevention programs have shown efficacy.


Resumen La ley puede modelar la conducta de diferentes maneras, consecuentemente, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los efectos de la legitimidad, el control social y personal, y la cohesión social en la conducta antisocial de jóvenes infractores. Doscientos menores infractores en México contestaron un cuestionario realizado para este estudio. Los datos fueron analizados a través de ecuaciones estructurales. Cuatro factores fueron especificados: Legitimidad de las autoridades, relacionada con la percepción de tratamiento justo por parte de policías y jueces. Disuasión y norma social conformaron la variable de control social. Orientación al futuro, normas personales y autodeterminación integraron la variable de control personal. La variable conducta antisocial resultó del autoreporte respecto a la conducta antisocial y la probabilidad de conducta antisocial, y del reporte de la conducta antisocial de los amigos. Los resultados indicaron un efecto negativo de la legitimidad y el control personal y uno positivo del control social en la conducta antisocial. La cohesión social tuvo un efecto positivo en el control social. Contrario a lo esperado el control social tuvo un efecto positivo en la conducta antisocial. Por lo tanto, se deben considerar alternativas al "tratamiento" en internamiento (cárcel), ya que la disuasión y el castigo no producen los efectos esperados de retraer a los adolescentes de que cometan delitos. La alternativa pudiera ser los programas de tratamiento comunitarios, así como programas de prevención e intervención que contemplen aspectos emocionales y cognitivos.

6.
Ann Gastroenterol Surg ; 6(6): 746-752, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36338596

RESUMO

Aim: The National Health Insurance system has reimbursed robotic gastrointestinal surgery since April 2018 in Japan. Additionally, strict facility and surgeon standards were established by the government and the academic society. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and safety of robotic surgery using a Japanese nationwide web-based database. Methods: Patients who underwent the following robotic surgeries for malignant tumors in 2018 were included: esophagectomy (RE), total gastrectomy (RTG), distal gastrectomy (RDG), proximal gastrectomy (RPG), low anterior resection (RLAR), and rectal resections other than RLAR (RRR). The number of cases and surgical mortality rates each month were calculated to evaluate the prevalence and safety of robotic procedures. Results: A total of 3281 patients underwent robotic gastrointestinal surgery. The monthly number of robotic surgeries nearly doubled in April 2018 when they were initially reimbursed by the National Health Insurance system. Operative mortality rates were 0.9%, 0.4%, 0.2%, and 2.8% for RE (n = 330), RTG (n = 239), RDG (n = 1167), and RPG (n = 109), respectively. No mortality was observed in RLAR (n = 1062) or RRR (n = 374). Conclusion: Robotic surgery for gastrointestinal malignant tumors was safely introduced into daily clinical practice along with rigorous surgeon and facility standards in Japan.

7.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115477, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Going beyond the effects of individual planning ("I-for-me"), we investigate the associations of dyadic ("we-for-me") and collaborative ("we-for-us") planning with automatic, conscious, and social process variables that may elucidate the differences through which these three types of planning operate. We tested the effects of three planning interventions on: (1) habit strength, representing an automatic process, (2) the use of individual planning, representing a conscious process, (3) the use of collaborative planning, representing conscious and social processes, and (4) collaborative social control, representing a social process. METHODS: N = 320 adults were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1) the active control condition, (2) the individual planning condition, (3) the dyadic planning condition, or (4) the collaborative planning condition. Self-reported data on habit strength, the use of individual planning, the use of collaborative planning, and collaborative social control were assessed at baseline and at the 9-week follow-up. Analyses used linear mixed modelling. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, participants in the individual planning condition had stronger habits at the 9-week follow-up. Those in the dyadic planning condition reported higher levels of the use of collaborative planning and higher levels of collaborative social control at the follow-up. Finally, compared to those assigned to the control group, participants in the collaborative planning condition reported stronger habits, higher levels of the use of both individual and collaborative planning, and higher levels of collaborative social control at the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Individual, dyadic, and collaborative planning interventions may result in distinct patterns of changes in the variables representing automatic, conscious, and social processes. In particular, changes in automatic, conscious and social process variables, evoked by the collaborative "we-for-us" planning intervention may reflect the major regulatory effort of forming joint plans and subsequently integrating regular joint exercise into the weekly schedule.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Resolução de Problemas , Adulto , Humanos , Exercício Físico , Autorrelato , Controle Social Formal
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have widely reported that social and cultural values serve as constraints in controlling the spread of an epidemic. However, I argue that a social and cultural value system is a double-edged sword and can motivate people's preventive health behaviors. Few studies have examined the positive role of social and cultural values in promoting epidemic control. METHODS: Using the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in 2003 and the COVID-19 pandemic that began in 2020 in Hong Kong as examples, the present study performed participant observation in Hong Kong from January to June 2003 and from January 2020 to May 2022; in-depth individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 70 participants between February 2021 and March 2022. RESULTS: Social and cultural values serve as informal social control mechanisms in manipulating people's adoption of preventive health behaviors that can assist in epidemic control. Specifically, the construction and stigmatization of the "others" groups and the traditional cultural values based on the capitalist ideology were noted to facilitate control measures against the two outbreaks in Hong Kong. CONCLUSION: These two outbreaks reinforced the embedded social and cultural values of the capitalist ideology of Hong Kong, which increased the vulnerability of disadvantaged social groups to stigmatization.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estereotipagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle
9.
J Community Psychol ; 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301307

RESUMO

Neighborhood collective efficacy is associated with lower internalizing and externalizing problems. There is evidence that neighborhood factors may moderate associations between child adversity and behavior problems (e.g., Riina et al., 2014). There is a limited understanding of whether neighborhood collective efficacy moderates the associations between adversity (threat/deprivation) and internalizing and externalizing problems. Our study tested these associations in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 2666). Parental disengagement (deprivation) and parental harshness (threat) severity scores from ages 1-9 years were calculated by using caregiver report. Neighborhood collective efficacy, including its components informal social control and social cohesion, was reported at age 9. Internalizing and externalizing problems were reported at age 15. The lowest level of internalizing problems was reported for adolescents living in neighborhoods with high neighborhood collective efficacy who also experienced low parental disengagement. Among adolescents who lived in neighborhoods with high neighborhood collective efficacy or high informal social control at age 9, higher parental disengagement was associated with higher externalizing problems at 15. Further research is needed to understand complex associations between adversity, neighborhood collective efficacy, and adolescent behavior problems.

10.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(3): 28241, out. 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1399069

RESUMO

Introdução:A legislação do Sistema Único de Saúde confere aos Conselhos de Saúde, enquanto órgãos colegiados deliberativos, a competência para fiscalizar as ações de saúde e deliberar sobre as temáticas de interesse da gestão em saúde e do controle social.Objetivo:Analisar a atuação do Conselho Nacional de Saúde no enfrentamento à pandemia de COVID-19.Metodologia:Trata-se de uma análise documental, de natureza descritiva e com abordagem qualitativa, realizada entre outubro e novembro de 2021. Os atos normativos foram recuperados do sitedo Conselho Nacional de Saúde e analisados à luz do referencial teórico-metodológico da Análise de Conteúdo.Resultados:Entre 86 atos normativos expedidos pelo Conselho Nacional de Saúde, 20 foram incluídos no estudo por apresentarem relação direta com as medidas de enfrentamento à emergência de saúde pública de importância internacional provocada pelo vírus SARS-COV-2. A partir do teor e das aproximações temáticas dos documentos selecionados, eles foram organizados em três categorias: Atenção à Saúde; Gestão Orçamentária e Financeira; e Saúde e Segurança nos Serviços de Saúde.Conclusões:Apesar da não observância da edição de resoluções, instrumento com maior poder de vinculação ao ato do gestor da saúde, restringindo-se a emissão de recomendações, o Conselho Nacional de Saúde desenvolveu seu papel institucional e político, necessário na atual conjuntura, principalmente num cenário que ao longo dos últimos anos vem mitigando a legitimidade dos espaços de controle e participação social no Brasil (AU).


Introduction:The legislation of the Unified Health System grants the Health Councils, as deliberative collegiate bodies, the competence to supervise health actions and deliberate on topics of interest to health management and social control.Objective:To analyze the performance of the National Health Council in coping with the COVID-19 pandemic.Methodology:This is a documentary analysis, with a descriptive nature and a qualitative approach, carried out between October and November 2021. The normative acts were retrieved from the website of the National Health Council and analyzed in the light of the theoretical-methodological framework of Content Analysis.Results:Among 86 normative acts issued by the National Health Council, 20 were included in the study because they were directly related to measures to cope with the public health emergency of international importance caused by the SARS-COV-2 virus. Based on the content and thematic approaches of the selected documents, they were organized into three categories: Health Care; Budget and Financial Management; and Health and Safety in Health Services.Conclusions:Despite the non-compliance with the issue of resolutions, an instrument with greater power of linking to the act of the health manager, restricting the issuing of recommendations, the National Health Council has developed its institutional andpolitical role, necessary in the current situation, mainly in a scenario that over the last few years has been mitigating the legitimacy of spaces for social control and participation in Brazil (AU).


Introducción: La legislación del Sistema Único de Salud otorga a los Consejos de Salud, como órganos colegiados deliberativos, la competencia para inspeccionar las acciones de salud y deliberar sobre los temas de interés de la gestión en salud y el control social. Objetivo: Analizar el desempeño del Consejo Nacional de Salud en el enfrentamiento de la pandemia de COVID-19. Metodología: Se trata de un análisis documental, de carácter descriptivo y con enfoque cualitativo, efectuado entre octubre y noviembre de 2021. Los actos normativos fueron recuperados del sitio web del Consejo Nacional de Salud y analizados a la luz del marco teórico-metodológico del Análisis de Contenido. Resultados: De los 86 actos normativos emitidos por elConsejo Nacional de Salud, 20 fueron incluidos en el estudio porque estaban directamente relacionados con las medidas para enfrentar la emergencia de salud pública de relevancia internacional provocada por el virus SARS-COV-2. Con base en el contenido y las aproximaciones temáticas de los documentos seleccionados, estos fueron organizados en tres categorías: Atención a la Salud; Gestión Presupuestaria y Financiera; y Salud y Seguridad en los Servicios de Salud.Conclusiones: A pesar del incumplimiento en relación con la edición de las resoluciones, un instrumento con mayor poder para vincular el acto del gestor de la salud, limitándose a emitir recomendaciones, el Consejo Nacional de Salud ha desarrollado su rol institucional y político, necesario en la situación actual, especialmente en un escenario que en los últimos años ha mitigado la legitimidad de los espacios de control y participación social en Brasil (AU).


Assuntos
Controle Social Formal , Normas Jurídicas , Conselhos de Saúde/organização & administração , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Gestão em Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde
11.
J Interpers Violence ; : 8862605221123280, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154516

RESUMO

Larger households, involving more children, are theorized as potential risk factors for child maltreatment-resource dilution theory. But qualitative evidence shows that in collective societies, like Ghana, more adult family members may act against neglect, through protective informal social control, which helps to reduce the frequency of neglect. Family members intervention in neglect situations will be more consistent and sustained due to the sanctioned collective responsibility to care for children in the community. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that having more adult family members in the household, who have the will and agency to intervene, will predict less chronic neglect. A three-stage probability proportional to size cluster sample of Ghana was collected from 1,100 primary caregiving mothers. One mother was interviewed in each household, and responses were limited to one focal child. When sample was restricted to those with chronic neglect (neglect > 1), 596 mothers remained in the data. The children have experienced 11 times neglect in the past year, and lived in households with average size of 6 members. Chronic neglect was measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale. Dose-response protective informal social control by family members was measured using the newly developed context-based scale for measuring protective informal social control of child neglect (ISC_CM2). Results from the random effects regressions models showed a negative relationship between dose-response protective informal social control and chronic neglect, and the interaction with household size was negative and significant. Ghanaian families should be sensitized to take advantage of the communal living practices, extended family systems and compound housing structures, as traditional mechanisms to promote collectivity and interventions in observed acts of neglect to protect children. The evidence contradicts the resource dilution theory's conceptualization of large household as risks factors of neglect.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124633

RESUMO

Evidence of the protective role of informal social control by community members (family members, friends, and neighbours) in child neglect has received considerable attention. Likewise, the protective effects of informal social control interventions in neglect are theorised to be common and highly efficacious in communities that have sanctioned informal interventions through collective social values and norms. Yet, no research has examined this theoretical postulation within the field of community/neighbourhood research in child maltreatment. We tested the theory-driven hypothesis by examining the interaction effects of protective informal social control of neglect and the collective value of Abiriwatia (a collective value based on lineage with norms on collective childcare duties) against the frequency of child neglect. Data consist of 616 caregivers' self-report of child neglect in the past year, from the Ghana Families and Neighbourhood Study. Hypotheses were tested using random effects regression models with standard errors corrected for settlement/community clusters. Protective informal social control of child neglect was significantly associated with fewer neglect in the past year (B = -0.79, p < 0.05). The interaction between protective informal social control of child neglect and the collective value of Abiriwatia was negative (B = -0.07, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that strengthening the collective normative commitment to childcare would promote family members' intervention to protect against neglect situations, and their intervention can deter further acts of neglect. Community neglect prevention programmes should take advantage of the findings to strengthen community norms that sanction collective childcare duties. Community child protection committees of the Department of Social Welfare should develop social groups and informal associations to strengthen Abiriwatia in Ghana.

13.
Child Abuse Negl ; 133: 105848, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rational choice deterrence theory suggests that caregiving behavior, which includes abusive and neglectful behavior, can be influenced or manipulated via informal social control strategies enacted by neighbors, family members and friends in the social network. The literature identifies two forms of informal social control that have the potential to influence maltreating caregiver behavior, protective vs punitive, with the latter having more contrasting evidence related to its influence on maltreating caregiving practices. OBJECTIVE: To examine the perceptions and meanings female caregivers associate with protective and punitive informal social control strategies that have been enacted against them. METHODS: 17 female caregivers from Ghana, who self-reported their involvement in neglectful acts, were purposively selected to engage in river of life oral history narrative interviews. Narrative accounts from the caregivers were analyzed thematically using Taguette software package. RESULTS: The findings showed that protective informal social control in child neglect are interpreted via values and norms of childcare that have been institutionalized in the community. Caregivers perceived protective informal social control to have impact on their level of respect/influence, authority in the family or community, and to elicit internal consequences: shame, guilty feelings and embarrassment. Punitive informal social control approaches were considered as misplaced interventions that had ulterior motives of satisfying the neighbors' hatred/dislike of the perpetrator and quest for revenge. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the development of a fruitful theoretical framework to explain the effectiveness of informal social control should prioritize the social values and legitimate norms of the community. Implications for practice and theory development are discussed.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Apoio Social
14.
Preprint em Português | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-4449

RESUMO

The text discusses the monitoring and evaluation of the National Education Plan (2014-2024), whose core is the concept of participation and social control underlying its formulation logic in the context of Education Conferences. It presents data on the External Control exercised by the Federal Court of Auditors, whose indications in the Monitoring Reports show extreme weaknesses in the Union action scope, especially regarding federative relations in general, and particularly in materialization of the ten-year education plans, given the attacks on democracy and the instances of social control.


El texto discute el monitoreo y la evaluación del Plan Nacional de Educación (2014-2024), teniendo como eje el concepto de participación y control social que subyace su lógica de formulación en el contexto de las Conferencias de Educación. Presenta datos sobre el Control Externo ejercido por el Tribunal de Cuentas Federal, cuyos indicios en los Informes de Seguimiento muestran demasiadas debilidades en el ámbito de actuación Federal, especialmente en lo que se refiere a las relaciones federativas en general, y en particular en la materialización de los planes decenales de educación, ante los ataques a la democracia y las instancias de control social. 


O texto discute o monitoramento e a avaliação do Plano Nacional de Educação (2014-2024), tendo como cerne a concepção de participação e controle social subjacente à sua lógica de formulação, no contexto das Conferências de Educação. Apresenta dados relativos ao Controle Externo exercido pelo Tribunal de Contas da União, cujas indicações nos Relatórios de Acompanhamento evidenciam demasiadas fragilidades no âmbito de atuação da União, sobretudo no que concerne as relações federativas em geral e, em particular, na materialização dos planos decenais de educação, haja vista os ataques à democracia e as instâncias de controle social.

15.
Ann Behav Med ; 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both the close relationship processes and health model and the dyadic health influence model posit that beliefs about the relationship (e.g., relationship satisfaction) and influence strategies (e.g., social control) serve as mediators of health behavior change. The evidence for such mediation is limited. PURPOSE: This study investigated two competing hypotheses that arise from these models: (1) perceived use of positive and negative social control (attempts to influence the partner's behaviors) predict sedentary behavior (SB) indirectly, via relationship satisfaction; or (2) relationship satisfaction predicts SB indirectly, via positive and negative social control. METHODS: Data from 320 dyads (target persons and their partners, aged 18-90 years), were analyzed using mediation models. SB time was measured with GT3X-BT accelerometers at Time 1 (T1; baseline) and Time 3 (T3; 8 months following baseline). Relationship satisfaction and social control were assessed at T1 and Time 2 (T2; 2 months following baseline). RESULTS: Higher T1 relationship satisfaction among target persons predicted target persons' reporting of higher T2 negative control from partners, which in turn predicted lower T3 SB time among target persons. Lower T1 relationship satisfaction among partners predicted target persons' reporting of higher T2 perceived negative control from partners, which predicted lower T3 SB time among target persons. On average, both members of the dyad reported moderate-to-high relationship satisfaction and low-to-moderate negative control. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to very low levels of negative control, its low-to-moderate levels may be related to beneficial behavioral effects (lower SB time) among target persons reporting moderate-to-high relationship satisfaction.

16.
Front Robot AI ; 9: 885319, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35875705

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that the assumed conflict-avoidant programming of autonomous vehicles will incentivize pedestrians to bully them. However, this frequent argument disregards the embedded nature of social interaction. Rule violations are socially sanctioned by different forms of social control, which could moderate the rational incentive to abuse risk-avoidant vehicles. Drawing on a gamified virtual reality (VR) experiment (n = 36) of urban traffic scenarios, we tested how vehicle type, different forms of social control, and monetary benefit of rule violations affect pedestrians' decision to jaywalk. In a second step, we also tested whether differences in those effects exist when controlling for the risk of crashes in conventional vehicles. We find that individuals do indeed jaywalk more frequently when faced with an automated vehicle (AV), and this effect largely depends on the associated risk and not their automated nature. We further show that social control, especially in the form of formal traffic rules and norm enforcement, can reduce jaywalking behavior for any vehicle. Our study sheds light on the interaction dynamics between humans and AVs and how this is influenced by different forms of social control. It also contributes to the small gamification literature in this human-computer interaction.

17.
Sex Abuse ; : 10790632221112656, 2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35786224

RESUMO

Sexual violence severity has long been viewed as a critical factor of sex offending. However, the criminological viewpoints on sexual violence severity have not received much attention, especially in the Chinese context. By integrating general-criminogenic (inhibitory mechanisms) and specific sex offending (learning mechanisms and contextual factors) perspectives, the current study links the propositions of social control (bonds) theory, self-control theory, differential association theory, and the integrated theory of sex offending, proposing a general-specific model for sexual violence severity. Survey data was collected from 250 Chinese offenders who committed sexual offenses against adults. The mediation analysis found that deviant peer association fully mediates the effects of social control and low self-control on sexual violence severity. The moderation analysis showed that substance abuse exaggerates the impact of deviant peer association on sexual violence severity, while sex purchasing mitigates this relationship. This general-specific model may expand our current understanding of sexual violence severity from both criminological and psychological perspectives.

18.
Soc Sci Res ; 106: 102722, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680359

RESUMO

Research evaluating the relationship between work and crime has paid little attention to behavior in the workplace. We evaluate four hypotheses regarding the work-crime relationship: (1) Employment and crime are negatively related, (2) Employment displaces offending from the street to the workplace, (3) Work offending emboldens street offending, and (4) Work offending has no association with street offending. Drawing on longitudinal data from a high-risk sample of young adults from The Pathways to Desistance study, we use hybrid fixed effects models with measures of street property offending and workplace property offending to test the hypotheses. Our findings indicate a positive association between work property offending and street property offending with the inclusion of fixed effects. Findings also provide evidence that job quality moderates this relationship. We elaborate on the role of workplace behavior in the broader work-crime relationship and explore the mechanisms underlying the associations we identify.


Assuntos
Crime , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Salários e Benefícios , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 30(2): 234-246, abr.-jun. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387741

RESUMO

Resumo Este trabalho apresenta fatos históricos que resultaram na primeira normalização de pesquisa em saúde no Brasil e busca salientar a importância da participação social no seu controle. Ao percorrer os marcos regulamentadores do país, é evidente que as movimentações sociais foram responsáveis por mudanças no sistema formado pelos comitês de ética em pesquisa e pela Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa. Entretanto, existem entraves no que concerne aos padrões de análise nos diversos comitês, às dificuldades de acompanhamento dos projetos em andamento e ao cadastro na Plataforma Brasil. Porém, o sistema brasileiro é referencial para outros países quanto a respeito e proteção de participantes de pesquisa e à inserção da sociedade no âmbito dos comitês.


Abstract This work presents historical facts that resulted in the first health research normalization in Brazil and seeks to highlight the importance of social participation in its control. Going through the Regulatory marks of the countries, the social movements were evidently responsible for changes in the system formed by the research ethics committees and by the National Committee of Research Ethics. However, there are hindrances regarding the standards of analysis in the diverse committees, the difficulties of following the projects in course, and the register on the Plataforma Brasil. The Brazilian system is, nonetheless, a referential for other countries regarding respect and protection of research participants and the insertion of society in the committees.


Resumen Este trabajo presenta los hechos históricos que resultaron en la primera regulación de la investigación en salud en Brasil y busca señalar la importancia de la participación social en su control. Los marcos de regulación en el país ponen en evidencia que los movimientos sociales fueron los responsables de los cambios en el sistema conformado por los comités de ética en investigación y la Comisión Nacional de Ética en Investigación. Sin embargo, existen obstáculos con respecto a los estándares de análisis en los diversos comités, a las dificultades de seguimiento de los proyectos en curso y al registro en la Plataforma Brasil. A pesar de esto, el sistema brasileño es una referencia para otros países con relación al respeto y protección de los participantes en investigación y la inclusión de la sociedad en el ámbito de los comités.


Assuntos
Controle Social Formal , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Ética em Pesquisa
20.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 309, 2022 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35624474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preschool-aged children's physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) are important health-related behaviours likely influenced by PA opportunities, parental perceptions of neighbourhood safety and parenting practices pertaining to PA and ST. How these factors interact to impact on young children's PA and ST, and whether their effects are generalisable across cultures and geographical location is not known. This study addressed these knowledge gaps by conducting pooled analyses of comparable data from two culturally and geographically diverse samples - Chinese parent-child dyads from an ultra-dense city (Hong Kong, China) and Latino parent-child dyads from a low-density city (Houston, USA). METHODS: The analytical sample consisted of 164 Hong Kong Chinese and 84 US Latino parent-child dyads with data on socio-demographic characteristics, parent-perceived neighbourhood destinations and facilities for children's PA, physical and social safety-related neighbourhood attributes, PA-related parenting practices and child's ST and accelerometer-assessed PA. Generalised linear models with robust standard errors accounting for neighbourhood-level clustering were used to estimate associations and interaction effects. RESULTS: Hong Kong Chinese children accumulated less PA than US Latino children, although the latter had more ST. Hong Kong Chinese parents reported more parenting practices promoting inactivity. Neighbourhood PA opportunities were positively related to children's PA only if parental perceptions of neighbourhood safety were favourable, and the associations of physical neighbourhood environment characteristics with children's PA and ST depended on PA-related parenting practices. Community cohesion was positively related to children's PA and negatively related to ST, while parental promotion of ST was positively associated with children's ST. Correlates of children's PA and ST did not differ by city. CONCLUSIONS: The substantial differences in activity patterns between Hong Kong Chinese and US Latino preschool-aged children observed in this study are likely due to a combination of cultural and built environmental factors. However, the fact that no between-city differences in correlates of PA and ST were detected indicates that both populations of children are equally affected by parent-perceived neighbourhood environmental characteristics and parenting practices. Overall, this study highlights the importance of considering how various individual-, home- and neighbourhood physical and social factors interact to influence young children's health-promoting activity levels.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Tempo de Tela , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pais
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