Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.658
Filtrar
1.
Front Psychol ; 13: 944151, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941950

RESUMO

COVID-19 caused a serious increase in competition due to limited resources. Obviously, it influenced the entrepreneurs' motivation. The entrepreneurial intention, social capital, and resource bricolage ability of individuals were important issues. Thus, exploring an individual's mindset from a psychological perspective of high performance was the advanced issue to deal with social capital promotion. This study developed an instrument adapted from related scales that consisted of 27 items and four factors: social capital, entrepreneurial attitude, resource bricolage, and entrepreneurial intention. The data was collected through an online survey in China and Taiwan by purposive sampling. A total of 692 valid samples provided data for the statistical process. A multiple regression technique was employed in the data process. The instrument passed the validity and reliability test. Data analysis results showed that social capital can positively predict entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial intention. Furthermore, entrepreneurial attitude will affect entrepreneurial intention dramatically. Yet, resource bricolage ability has no moderating effect on social capital and entrepreneurial intention. In addition, resource bricolage ability plays a moderating role between entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial intention. Moreover, it was found that participants demonstrated a high entrepreneurial intention when there was a high entrepreneurial attitude with high resource bricolage ability when the moderating effect was examined. In this study, some practical suggestions are provided for researchers, educators, and entrepreneurs.

2.
Polit Stud (Oxf) ; 70(3): 701-718, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941966

RESUMO

How do successful deliberations unfold? What happens when they unravel? In this article, I propose that we think of the dynamics of participant engagement within deliberation as series of self-interested and reciprocal investments in and divestments from deliberative capital. This article has three parts. First, I draw on the literatures on deliberative democracy and social capital to outline a theory of deliberative capital. I highlight the important role self-interest plays in the process of those initial investments - instances of engagement in positive deliberative behaviours. Second, drawing from my experience as a facilitator, I give an account of the particular indicators of investments and divestments that we might expect to see in a given deliberative engagement. Third, I briefly outline two innovative facilitation techniques that can be utilized at the beginning or during a deliberative process that trigger self-interest, which incentivizes investments and discourages divestments.

3.
Aust J Soc Issues ; 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942301

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests COVID lockdowns have not only increased the social problem of loneliness but widened the 'loneliness gap' between the most and least lonely people. Qualitative investigation can reveal why this gap might have increased, for whom, and whether the loneliness gap will remain long term. Using multi-wave qualitative survey data conducted during Australia's 2020 lockdown period and beyond, we examine personal experiences of interaction transitioning out of lockdown. We find substantial and uneven impacts of COVID lasting well beyond lockdown. Participants reported heightened loneliness attributable to: physical isolation, health anxieties, ceased activities, reduced connection quality, and poor motivation. COVID also created new interactive difficulties for singles, those with physical and mental disabilities, their carers, and those with low social capital. There was also reported 'pruning' of social networks (i.e. reduced bridging, increased bonding social capital), and evidence that increased digital interaction did not substitute for lost physical contact. Younger people also experienced isolating COVID-induced life disruptions (e.g. travel, university attendance etc). Findings suggest COVID has increased potential long-term inequalities in loneliness, highlight the post COVID risks faced by vulnerable groups, and suggest caution in advocating digital solutions as a panacea for diminished physical interaction in the post-pandemic world.

4.
Soc Indic Res ; : 1-20, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937979

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that individual happiness is not, or not solely, related to material possessions, at least once basic needs are fulfilled. It has been demonstrated that interpersonal relationships and social capital matter too, and people whose values are more centred on material possessions have a greater probability of being less happy. Is this still true during the COVID-19 pandemic, when interpersonal relations, health and economic security are threatened and feelings of insecurity emerge? This is the issue that we address in this paper. We exploited the unique natural situation of the pandemic and lockdown in Italy to investigate the relationship between happiness and relational and material goods. Data collected by questionnaire during the lockdown suggests that the main direct effect of the pandemic on the happiness of respondents was related to the effect of the pandemic and lockdown on interpersonal relationships. Those who declared that COVID and lockdown had jeopardized their interpersonal relationships were significantly less likely to report higher levels of happiness, especially when controlling for other personal and contextual covariates. An important gender, religious and town size effect also emerged. Moreover, relational goods and good health were considered to be the most important determinants of happiness, though people were not so worried about their own health.

5.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917022

RESUMO

Though autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits are associated with depression, it is unclear if school social capital mediates their association. We examined whether school social capital mediates the association between ASD traits and depression, and moderation effect of sex on the mediation effect among adolescents in a general population sample (1750 males, 1779 females; equivalent 12-15 years old). The results of this study indicate that ASD traits are associated with depression among adolescents, and that this association is partly mediated by school social capital. Furthermore, the results of the moderated mediation analysis suggest that lower level of school social capital can lead to more increase level of depression for females than for males.

6.
Front Psychol ; 13: 938905, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928424

RESUMO

To better understand the positive impact of sports events on host cities, this study uses social capital and social identity theories combined with structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain the psychic income that sports events may bring to residents. The investigation and analysis of the Qingdao Marathon in 2021 show that (1) sports events can generate social capital; (2) social capital can positively influence social identity; and (3) social identity can significantly impact event excitement, city attachment, and city pride in psychic income.

7.
Front Psychol ; 13: 962373, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923727

RESUMO

Objective: This paper studies the mediating and interactive effects of social capital on psychological capital and the feeling of happiness from the impact of COVID-19. Since its emergence, the COVID-19 pandemic has taken a toll on people's mental health and affected their hopes for the future. Lifestyle and economic conditions have also been affected and have subsequently impacted people's sense of confidence in life. This could increase the likelihood of many people developing mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression. Therefore, it is vital to study the influence of psychological capital and social capital on people's subjective psychology and happiness experiences. Materials and Methods: Using an ordered probit model, this paper studied the independent influence and interaction between psychological capital and social capital on people's happiness. The ordered probit model was chosen because subjective well-being (SWB) is an ordered variable. We further used structural equation modeling (SEM) to study the mediating effects of social capital on psychological capital and happiness. Results: The regression results showed that both psychological capital and social capital were significantly positively correlated with happiness when controlling for other factors. In addition, psychological and social capital significantly interacted, in which the psychological capital promotes the effect of social capital on happiness. Moreover, the effect of psychological capital on happiness was greater than that of social capital, demonstrating that happiness is more greatly influenced by subjective psychological experience. The interaction coefficient of psychological and social capital was also significant, showing that the two have mutually reinforcing effects on happiness. Finally, health, income class, real estate, stranger trust, age, and urban household registration had significant positive effects on happiness, while the view of money, being female, education had a negative relationship with happiness. The SEM results showed that the mediating effect of psychological capital on happiness was partly transmitted through social capital: the total effect of psychological capital on happiness was highly significant (p < 0.0001), as was the total effect of social capital on happiness (p < 0.0001); however, the coefficient for psychological capital was greater than that for social capital. Through heterogeneity analysis, we found that the relationship between psychological capital, social capital, and happiness was significantly positive in each sub-sample group. There was also a significant interaction between psychological and social capital for men, women, urban and rural residents, and higher education background sample groups. However, the interaction was not significant in the sample group without higher education. In addition, the relationship between the happiness of rural residents and their educational background and gender was not significant. Conclusion: We found that psychological and social capital have significant positive relationships and effects on happiness. Psychological capital demonstrated both direct and indirect influences on happiness, and further strengthens the influence of social capital on happiness. These results support a scheme to emphasize psychological support during the COVID-19 pandemic period to enhance the mental health of citizens.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 947569, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923950

RESUMO

Background: Social capital is a well-known health determinant with both relational and geographic aspects. It can help mitigate adverse events and has been shown to impact behaviors and responses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health has declined during the COVID-19 pandemic, and social capital, may serve to buffer those declines. Methods: Building from this, we assessed whether pre-pandemic social capital and contemporaneous social policy, which included indicators of social trust, civic participation, and presence of mask mandates, affected pandemic mental health, measured as the percent of the population experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety at the state level. Results: Generalized social trust and state mask mandates were significantly associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety. Conversely, states with greater civic engagement prior to the pandemic experienced more anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Findings suggest that existing social capital, particularly social trust, may protect against anxiety and depression and contribute to community resilience during times of adversity. States should invest in policies and programs that increase social trust.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Capital Social , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Apoio Social
9.
Health Place ; 77: 102870, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933852

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic has stimulated new appraisals of how social cohesion, including neighborhood-level social capital, fosters resilience in the face of crisis. Several studies suggest better health outcomes in neighborhoods with higher level of social capital, in general and during the pandemic. Building on a growing body of research which suggests that those who live in close-knit neighborhoods have fared better during the pandemic, this article analyzes how social capital influences individual and collective perceptions and attitudes about the experiences of the Covid-19 pandemic in Tucumán, Argentina. To assess this question, we used a mixed-methods approach, combining focus groups, semi-structured interviews, and an online survey (n = 701 respondents) conducted in September 2021. We find widespread experiences of resilience in response to the Covid-19 pandemic, in spite of difficult socioeconomic conditions and perceived poor government performance. Results from logistic regression analysis indicate that perceptions of high neighborhood social capital are associated with more positive outcomes in many dimensions, including personal resilience, ability to cope with uncertainty, perceptions of community solidarity, and reported compliance with public health measures. We further argue that conceptualizations of social cohesion need to be adjusted to local or national-level cultural norms to accurately capture the experience of countries of the Global South.

10.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 42: 100508, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934322

RESUMO

We examined whether race/ethnic-specific social cohesion is associated with race/ethnic-specific HIV diagnosis rates using Bayesian space-time zero-inflated Poisson multivariable models, across 376 Census tracts. Social cohesion data were from the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey, 2008-2015 and late HIV diagnosis data from eHARS system, 2009-2016. Areas where trust in neighbors reported by Black/African Americans was medium (compared to low) had lower rates of late HIV diagnosis among Black/African Americans (Relative Risk (RR)=0.52, 95% credible interval (CrI)= 0.34, 0.80). In contrast, areas where trust in neighbors reported by Black/African Americans were highest had lower late HIV diagnosis rates among Whites (RR=0.35, 95% CrI= 0.16, 0.76). Race/ethnic-specific differences in social cohesion may have implications for designing interventions aimed at modifying area-level social factors to reduce racial disparities in late HIV diagnosis.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Infecções por HIV , Teorema de Bayes , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Características de Residência , Coesão Social , Brancos
11.
J Econ Struct ; 11(1): 8, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915843

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to determine how internet access affects social capital in Indonesia's community, based on the data from the fifth wave of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) with the instrumental variable (IV) method. The results showed that the use of the Internet plays a significant role in strengthening social capital in Indonesia, especially for male heads of households that have a relationship with neighbors with strong internal cohesion and mutual trust. Internet users in Java and Bali are more affectial in strengthening social capital compared to users outside the islands located in eastern Indonesia. This disparity is because most Indonesian internet users live in the western part of the country. Furthermore, there is a development disparity in regard to internet infrastructure and internet connection service availability throughout the country.

12.
Front Psychol ; 13: 885616, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936339

RESUMO

Individuals in brokerage positions are vital when further developing complex organizations with multiple subgroups only loosely coupled to each other. Network theorists have conceptualized an individual's brokerage as the degree to which a person occupies a bridging position between disconnected others. Research outside the school context has indicated for quite some time that an individual's social capital in the form of brokerage is positively associated with professional development-not only on a collective but also on an individual level. Schools are without any doubt complex organizations with multiple loosely connected stakeholders involved when further developing their educational practice. Thus, it is not surprising that in recent years, the concept of brokerage has gained interest in research on school improvement as well. Up to now, in school improvement research brokerage has been operationalized in different ways: as individuals' formal entitlement to act as intermediaries (formal brokerage), their position within a social network (structural brokerage), or their behavior when linking disconnected groups of staff members (behavioral brokerage). As these perspectives have often been examined separately, this study, as a first step, aimed to simultaneously assess school staff members' formal, structural, and behavioral brokerage, and examine their degree of interrelatedness. In a second step, associations of brokerage with professional well-being were analyzed. Even though there is evidence for the positive impact of brokerage on professional development, only little is known about its associations with professional well-being. In a third step, interaction effects were examined when formal brokerage is congruent or incongruent with other facets of brokerage. Based on a sample of 1,316 school staff members at 51 primary schools in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, we conducted both bivariate correlational and multiple-group structural equation modeling analyses. The findings revealed that formal, structural, and behavioral brokerage are interrelated facets. However, formal entitlement did not determine either structural position or behavior. Moreover, brokerage within schools was only partially related to professional well-being. In the discussion section, the study's key contributions and practical implications are presented in detail.

13.
Aggress Behav ; 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912451

RESUMO

Traditional bullying perpetration explicates the importance of a power differential between the bully and the victim-predominantly physical and/or social status. The application of power from traditional to cyberbullying is unclear. The current research utilized a longitudinal study to examine the relationships between four different derivations of power-belief in the irrelevance of muscularity for online bullying (BIMOB), social capital, harmful computer skills, and popularity motivation-and cyberbullying attitudes and perpetration. Participants (185 US emerging adults) completed self-report assessments of the aforementioned power constructs, cyberbullying attitudes, and cyberbullying behavior twice-6 months apart. Results showed only Wave 1 BIMOB predicted cyberbullying attitudes to yield subsequent cyberbullying perpetration.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912778

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine whether older adults' financial status moderated the association between neighbourhood environment (i.e. physical and social environment) and loneliness among older adults in urban China. A cross-sectional survey was collected from urban communities of Shanghai in mid-2020. The final analytic sample was 459 older adults (age range = 60-91 years; proportion of women: 55.8%). Multiple group analysis was applied to test the hypothesised model. A measurement model of community social capital (i.e. cognitive and structural dimensions of social capital), a crucial indicator of neighbourhood social environment, was first established in both high-income and low-income groups. Factor loading invariance was established in these two groups. The results show that structural social capital (i.e. organisation memberships, volunteering, social participation and citizenship activities) was negatively associated with loneliness among older respondents from the high-income group only, whereas better community security was significantly associated with lower levels of loneliness among low-income older respondents only. The findings imply that both structural social capital and household income should be considered as important indicators in needs assessment among lonely older adults. Future social policies and interventions should pay attention to enhancing the role of both social and physical neighbourhood environment among older adults.

15.
Front Psychol ; 13: 861447, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35783804

RESUMO

The research aims to explore the influence mechanism of proactive personality on the entrepreneurial intentions of college students. Adopting proactive personality scale, social capital scale, human capital scale, and entrepreneurial intention scale, this research tested valid samples of 300 Chinese college students. The results revealed that proactive personality exerted a significant and positive impact on the entrepreneurial intentions. Social capital played a partial mediating role between the proactive personality and the entrepreneurial intentions. Human capital also played a partial mediating role between proactive personality and entrepreneurial intentions. Social capital and human capital exerted a chain mediation effect between proactive personality and entrepreneurial intentions. The result of this research offers valuable insights to the study of the influence of college students' proactive personality on entrepreneurial intentions and provides entrepreneurship education management in colleges with specific practical suggestions so as to improve entrepreneurial intentions among college students.

16.
Voluntas ; : 1-13, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789636

RESUMO

Pro-refugee philanthropy is beneficial for refugee integration and an important contributor to intergroup relations in a South African context. No study, however, has provided an in-depth quantitative analysis of what factors drive this type of behaviour. This article investigates what cultural, social and religious factors may predict participation in charitable behaviour towards refugees in South Africa. Three types of behaviours were examined: (i) material donations; (ii) volunteer activities; and (iii) information sharing. Using data from a 2019 Ipsos Migration Survey, the study found that intergroup threat was a robust predictor of charitable behaviour of all kinds. Friendship contact with a pro-refugee volunteer was also positively associated with philanthropic behaviour. Institutional trust and religious orientation were correlated with volunteer activities and information sharing but not donations. Study findings can be utilised to design interventions that increase public participation in actions that help refugees in an African context.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805253

RESUMO

Ecological protection of farmland is an important means to reduce agricultural non-point source pollution and improve the quality of agricultural products. As the main body of current agricultural production and operation, the aging labor force has insufficient cognitive ability and low ability to learn actively, which is not conducive to transforming the green output. However, non-cognitive abilities closely related to the acquired environment can promote the elderly farmers' farmland ecological protection behavior by improving life satisfaction and social adaptability. Based on the above background, using the survey data of 964 farmers in China, the bivariate Probit model was used to empirically test the influence mechanism of non-cognitive ability on the ecological protection behavior of farmland. The study found that non-cognitive ability significantly promoted farmer's ecological protection of farmland in China. Specifically, the variables of non-cognitive ability, social communication ability, active learning ability, self-efficacy, stress resistance, altruistic tendency and individual resilience were found to significantly promote ecological protection of farmland. Mechanism analysis showed that non-cognitive ability promoted the ecological protection behavior of farmland by expanding social capital, information channels and improving technical value perception. A heterogeneity analysis revealed that non-cognitive ability had a greater impact on ecological protection behavior of farmland in the elderly and low-income groups. Therefore, government should attach importance to improving farmers' non-cognitive abilities, further increase technical publicity, and build a communication platform for farmers in order to promote the ecological protection of farmland.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendeiros , Idoso , China , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Fazendas , Humanos , Chá
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805571

RESUMO

Social prescribing can promote the creation of new relationships, which may then promote the building of social capital in communities. One example of a social prescribing tool in Japan is Osekkai conferences, which increase social participation and mitigate the degree of loneliness in rural communities. A clarification of the changes in social interaction and intensity of connections among people through Osekkai conferences could contribute to better social prescribing in rural communities. This social network study was conducted among people who have participated in an Osekkai conference. The primary outcomes of degrees and centrality were measured as the degree of social capital. The primary outcomes were compared between April and September 2021 and between October 2021 and March 2022. The continuous performance of Osekkai conferences as social prescribing tools led to an increase in conference participation, mainly by middle-aged women in the communities. Based on a social network analysis, the average direct connection with each person did not increase; the network density decreased gradually; the network diameter decreased from 6 to 5. Regarding the node-level statistics, harmonic closeness centrality and eccentricity decreased, and modularity increased. Social prescribing initiatives should focus on improving social capital in communities, which may improve the number and meaningfulness of the collaborations among organizations and indigenous communities.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Análise de Rede Social , Participação Social , Apoio Social
19.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-13, 2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787237

RESUMO

ABSTRACTSocial capital predicts many positive health outcomes, including food and water access and sufficiency. Hence, increasing social capital has emerged as one potential strategy to improve food and water security. In this study, we investigate whether social capital generated through participation in a community-based microlending programme based in semi-rural Kenya is associated with water and food insecurity, and explore the interconnectedness of water and food insecurity through mediation analysis. Randomly-selected women participants of the community-based programme (n = 400) were interviewed in June 2018 and again in June 2019. Survey measures included water insecurity, food insecurity and an index of social capital constructs, namely group cohesion, trust, expectations of mutual support, sense of belonging and frequency of attendance in the programme. Random effects linear regression showed that an increase the social capital index was associated with lower water and food insecurity. The mediation analysis indicated that the association between social capital and food insecurity was completely mediated by water insecurity. This study demonstrates the need for further investigation into how social capital-generating programmes can contribute to systems approaches for collaborative food and water security programmes, especially among rural communities in low- and middle-income countries.

20.
J Consum Policy (Dordr) ; 45(3): 537-559, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35812162

RESUMO

Trust is a valuable resource that varies between countries. This paper suggests that consumers' trust in retailers and service providers, facilitating interactions and transactions between sellers and buyers in impersonal markets, is best understood as generalized trust. The paper is based on 28 037 respondents' evaluations of consumer conditions in 30 European countries. The material reveals large country-to-country variations in the percentages of residents who trust public authorities to protect their consumer rights. Moreover, there are large differences in the percentages who trust retailers and service providers to respect their rights as consumers. A multilevel path analysis supports the paper's main hypothesis that fair and effective consumer authorities enhance generalized trust in the markets. The analyses also demonstrate that fair and effective consumer institutions contribute to more equality in the markets. It is argued that consumer markets are important arenas for the maintenance and production of trust and social capital. And that generalized trust produced in markets will probably extend to, and be valuable for, the wider society.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...