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1.
Serv. soc. soc ; (145): 53-71, set.-dez. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395159

RESUMO

Resumo: O artigo aborda Programas de Transferência Monetária no Brasil; o contexto socioeconômico e político; modalidades e orientação político-ideológica dos programas; o Auxílio Emergencial e a substituição do "Bolsa Família" pelo "Auxílio Brasil". A metodologia contempla resultados de pesquisas; revisão bibliográfica e documental; dados secundários e acesso a websites. Os resultados destacam: funções; mitigação da pobreza e proliferação desses programas, deslocados do Sistema de Proteção Social.


Abstract: This article approaches Cash Transfer Programs in Brazil; socioeconomic and political context; modalities and politic-ideological orientation; the Auxílio Emergencial" and the substitution of the "Bolsa Família" by "Auxílio Brasil". The applied methodology was results of researches; bibliographic and documental studies; secondary data and access to websites. The outcomes pointed out the functions; poverty alleviation and proliferation of those programs displaced of the Social Protection System.

2.
Serv. soc. soc ; (144): 129-152, maio-set. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377366

RESUMO

Resumo: Este artigo analisa a robotização da proteção social a partir do estudo de benefícios sociais implementados como resposta à pandemia do novo coronavírus. O desenvolvimento metodológico do estudo pauta-se numa compilação de fontes primárias e secundárias referentes ao Auxílio Emergencial (federal) e à Renda Básica Emergencial (municipal). O artigo se propõe a apontar alguns desafios e impactos à atuação profissional do assistente social no contexto de robotização das políticas de proteção social.


Abstract: This article analyzes the robotization of social protection from the study of social benefits implemented in response to the new coronavirus pandemic. The methodological development is guided by a compilation of primary and secondary sources references to the Auxílio Emergencial study (federal) and to the Emergency Basic Income (municipal). The article proposes to indicate some challenges and impacts to the social worker's professional performance in the robotization of social context policies.

3.
Serv. soc. soc ; (144): 193-212, maio-set. 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377369

RESUMO

Resumo: O artigo analisa os impactos socioterritoriais provocados por desastres com barragens à luz da Vigilância Socioassistencial. Adotou-se o método qualitativo, por meio de análise documental e técnica, de cidades impactadas por desastres com barragens de mineradoras em Minas Gerais (Brasil). Concluiu-se que as condições objetivas de respostas no campo da Assistência Social estão aquém dos preceitos internacionais de Gestão Integral de Riscos e de Desastres (GIRD), destacando foco para o aprimoramento específico para uma gestão planejada e compartilhada de Redução de Riscos de Desastres (RRD).


Abstract: The article analyzes the socio-territorial impacts caused by disasters with dams in the light of Social Assistance Surveillance. We adopted the qualitative method based on documental and technical analysis of cities impacted by disasters with mining dams in Minas Gerais/BR. We concluded that the objective conditions of answers in the field of Social Assistance fall short of the international precepts of Disaster Risk Management (DRM), highlighting a focus for specific improvement for a planned and shared management of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR).

4.
Eur J Dev Res ; : 1-19, 2022 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36035643

RESUMO

While there is increasing academic analysis and policy concern regarding growing inequality and the need for more inclusive development trajectories, it is equally important to advance our understanding of the pathways to attain more inclusive development in practice. This paper serves as the introduction to a special issue examining the empirical outcomes and processes of inclusive development policies in selected countries in Africa. The paper presents a policy implementation and assessment framework as a lens that connects the different case studies. The framework links general inclusive development strategies in employment, social protection and governance, to the participation and representation of the various stakeholders as well as the monetary and non-monetary transaction costs in accessing and/or implementing these programmes on the ground in different national and sub-national contexts. Based on the findings of the 9 case studies, the paper also advances policy directions and operational frameworks to attain more inclusive development in practice.


Bien qu'il existe une analyse académique croissante, et une préoccupation politique envers la montée des inégalités et la nécessite de trajectoires de développement plus inclusives, il est tout aussi important d'avancer notre compréhension des chemins qui permettent­dans la pratique­d'atteindre un développement plus inclusif. Cet article sert d'introduction à un numéro spécial examinant les résultats empiriques et les processus de développement inclusifs dans certains pays en Afrique. L'article présente un cadre d'implémentation et évaluation des politiques, tel que un prisme qui connecte les différents études de cas. Ce cadre relie des stratégies de développement générales (dans l'emploi, la protections sociale, et la gouvernance) à la participation et la représentation de différents partis intéressés, aussi qu'aux aux couts de transaction (monétaires et autres) dans l'accès à ces programmes et à leur implémentation sur le terrain, dans des contextes nationales et sous-nationales. Nous basant sur les résultats de ces 10 études de cas, l'article avance des directions de politique et des cadres opérationnels, ayant comme but la réalisation pratique d'un développement plus inclusif.

5.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-20, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920690

RESUMO

This paper summarises evidence from a rapid review of international findings on the effects of cash transfers. The learnings were used to inform the design of urgent response social protection during the COVID-19 pandemic. The summary demonstrates that in response to widespread disruption, cash transfers have broad benefits for children, adults, and the wider economy. First, cash grants for child support have been shown to reduce hunger, increase dietary diversity, and reduce secondary school dropout. Transfers may also reduce child malnutrition. Second, there is some evidence that cash grants could encourage job search and economic activity. By contrast, there is little evidence that grants discourage adults from working, or increase spending on temptation goods (alcohol, tobacco). Third, for the wider economy, there is little evidence that grants will increase inflation, while some studies find that transfers create a fiscal multiplier and stimulate the local economy. Finally, we review evidence on design considerations and find that unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) are particularly well suited to rapid response when compared to conditional cash transfers (CCTs). Outside crisis settings, there is some evidence that getting recipients to enrol children in school or attend health check-ups improves these outcomes more than unconditional grants. However, the differences are small and the additional costs of implementing conditions outweigh these benefits in circumstances where response is required urgently. Comparing evidence on cash grants and food vouchers suggests both achieve similar improvements in nutrition; however, cash transfers are likely to be more cost-effective for governments, especially where a system to distribute grants is already set up.

6.
Glob Soc Welf ; : 1-8, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996748

RESUMO

Without a mandatory retirement age, many informal workers are exploring diverse ways of ensuring their well-being as they age. This exploratory study focuses on the retirement plans of workers in Ghana's informal sector to inform interventions to ensure their well-being. Findings from 35 in-depth interviews among self-employed informal workers in Adum-Kumasi, the largest hub of Ghana's informal work, highlight that retirement planning is centred on self-protection through investment in economic and non-economic activities. The study contributes to the discourse on extending social protection coverage to informal work settings. It further recommends an integrated policy framework for social protection to cover a broad range of domains that are important for the well-being of informal workers in later life.

7.
Int Soc Secur Rev ; 75(2): 3-24, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941920

RESUMO

Based on original evidence from the European Social Policy Network (ESPN), the article investigates the extent to which self-employed and non-standard workers, who are less protected by "ordinary" social protection, were included in "extraordinary" income protection and job retention schemes during the COVID-19 pandemic in the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom. When the crisis hit, countries quickly introduced unprecedented emergency income replacement measures for the self-employed. Nevertheless, most of these schemes provided only basic support through lump sums and were, in some cases, subject to a variety of eligibility conditions. Non-standard workers were in general included in job retention schemes, but substantial gaps remained in some countries. The article discusses how such gaps were addressed in five EU Member States. The article concludes by highlighting some policy pointers for better and more adequate "extraordinary" income protection for the self-employed and non-standard workers in times of crisis.


Sur la base de données inédites du Réseau européen de politique sociale (ESPN), l'article examine dans quelle mesure les travailleurs indépendants et atypiques, qui sont moins protégés par la protection sociale «ordinaire¼, ont été inclus dans des régimes «extraordinaires¼ de protection du revenu et de maintien dans l'emploi pendant la pandémie de COVID­19 dans l'Union européenne (UE) et au Royaume­Uni. Lorsque la crise est survenue, les pays ont rapidement mis en place des mesures d'urgence sans précédent de remplacement du revenu pour les travailleurs indépendants. Cependant, la plupart de ces régimes ne fournissaient qu'une aide de base sous forme de montants forfaitaires et étaient, dans certains cas, soumis à diverses conditions d'ouverture des droits. Les travailleurs atypiques étaient en général inclus dans les programmes de maintien dans l'emploi, mais des lacunes importantes subsistaient dans certains pays. L'article examine comment ces lacunes ont été comblées dans cinq États membres de l'UE. Il conclut en mettant en évidence quelques pistes pour améliorer et rendre plus adéquate la protection des revenus «extraordinaires¼ des travailleurs indépendants et des travailleurs atypiques en temps de crise.


Sobre la base de datos originales de la Red Europea de Política Social (REPS), en el artículo se investiga hasta qué punto se incluyó a los trabajadores por cuenta propia y a los trabajadores atípicos, menos cubiertos por los sistemas de protección social "ordinarios", en los regímenes "extraordinarios" de protección de los ingresos y de mantenimiento del empleo durante la pandemia de COVID­19 en la Unión Europea (UE) y el Reino Unido. Con la llegada de la crisis, los países adoptaron rápidamente medidas de emergencia sin precedentes para garantizar la sustitución de los ingresos de los trabajadores por cuenta propia. No obstante, la mayoría de estos regímenes solo prestaron una ayuda básica en forma de pagos únicos que, en algunos casos, estaban sujetos a diversas condiciones de elegibilidad. En general, los trabajadores atípicos fueron incluidos en los regímenes de mantenimiento del empleo, pero en algunos países siguió habiendo deficiencias importantes. En el artículo se analiza cómo se abordaron esas deficiencias en cinco Estados miembros de la UE, y concluye destacando algunas pautas políticas para que la protección de los ingresos "extraordinaria" en tiempos de crisis sea mejor y más adecuada para los trabajadores por cuenta propia y los trabajadores atípicos.


Com base em evidências originais da Rede europeia em matéria de política social (ESPN, European Social Policy Network), este artigo investiga até que ponto trabalhadores autônomos e trabalhadores não padronizados, que são menos protegidos pela proteção social "comum", foram incluídos em regimes "extraordinários" de proteção de renda e manutenção de emprego durante a pandemia de COVID­19 na União Europeia (UE) e no Reino Unido. Quando a crise chegou, os países rapidamente introduziram medidas emergenciais sem precedentes de reposição de renda para os trabalhadores autônomos. No entanto, a maioria desses regimes proporcionou apenas apoio básico por meio de parcelas únicas e, em alguns casos, estavam sujeitos a uma variedade de condições de elegibilidade. Em geral, os trabalhadores não padronizados foram incluídos em regimes de manutenção de emprego, mas lacunas substanciais se mantiveram em alguns países. Este artigo discute como essas lacunas foram abordadas em cinco Estados­membros da União Europeia. O artigo conclui destacando alguns indicadores políticos para uma proteção de renda "extraordinária" melhor e mais adequada para os trabalhadores autônomos e os trabalhadores não padronizados em tempos de crise.

8.
Indian J Labour Econ ; 65(2): 269-294, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911186

RESUMO

The right to social security has strong anchoring in international human rights law and forms a critical component of international labour standards. While social security has sometimes been portrayed as inimical to economic dynamism, there is a much larger body of work that posits a positive relationship between social welfare and economic progress. The COVID-19 crisis has revealed stark gaps in social protection. Workers in the informal economy have been particularly hard hit, as they were excluded from formal work-related protections and were not eligible for social assistance that often targets the very poor and those outside the labour force. Social assistance schemes with flat-rate benefits can be an element of a rights-based national social protection system if their eligibility criteria, benefit levels and modalities are set out in the national legislation, to ensure transparency and accountability. However, social assistance schemes should be part of a broader social protection system, which usually combines tax-financed schemes and social insurance to guarantee a social protection floor and provide higher-level benefits in line with international social security principles. Inspired by a vision that seeks to formalize all economic units, especially micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, and make the right to social protection a reality for workers in all types of employment, the paper points to a number of country examples that have extended social protection by combining contributory and non-contributory elements. This vision is particularly needed at a time when climate change adaptation, digital transition, and other drivers of transformative change call for the formalization of jobs and enterprises, while making it possible for states to mobilize the maximum available resources to build universal, comprehensive and adequate social protection systems that can facilitate inclusive transitions.

9.
EClinicalMedicine ; 50: 101503, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784437

RESUMO

Background: Empirical evidence informing policies aiming at ensuring affordability of long-term care (LTC) costs is limited. Combining system-level with individual-level data, we quantify the burden of out-of-pocket costs of LTC services on households in 13 European countries and the USA and explore how social protection systems impact affordability of care. Methods: In this observational study, we use harmonised data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), collected between 2012 and 2016, and from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, collected between 2013 and 2017. We assess the severity of LTC needs of older adults (65+) on the basis of self-reported limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). We classify countries' social protection systems in terms of affordability and progressivity using information obtained from country officials. We examine variation in individual-level out-of-pocket LTC costs by social protection systems' affordability and progressivity. Findings: Out-of-pocket LTC costs are heterogeneous across countries and increase with individuals' needs. In countries where LTC is more affordable and social protection systems less progressive, older adults incur significantly lower levels of LTC costs. Within Europe, not only are costs lower where systems are characterized by higher affordability and lower progressivity, but they also represent a lower share of households' disposable income. Interpretation: Our findings indicate that the social protection systems significantly affect the level of out-of-pocket costs faced and reported by older adults with LTC needs as well as the share of their income that is devoted to pay for care. Funding: We received funding from the National Institute on Aging (grant number R01 AG030153). The OECD programme of work on ageing and long-term care is partly funded by the European Union.

10.
J Hum Lact ; : 8903344221108090, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternity protection rights incorporate comprehensive benefits that should be available to pregnant or breastfeeding working women. RESEARCH AIM: To describe South Africa's maternity protection legal and policy landscape and compare it to global recommendations. METHOD: A prospective cross-sectional comparative policy analysis was used to review and describe national policy documents published from 1994-2021. Entitlements were mapped and compared to International Labour Organization standards. The document analysis was supplemented by interviews conducted with key national government department informants. Thematic analysis was used to evaluate policy and interview content. RESULTS: Elements of maternity protection policy are incorporated into South Africa's constitutional dispensation, and some measures are consistent with international labor and social security standards. However, the policy framework is fragmented and difficult to interpret. The fragmented policy environment makes it challenging for employees to know their maternity rights' entitlements and for employers to understand their responsibilities. Confusion regarding maternity protection rights is amplified by the complexity of ensuring access to different forms of maternal protection in pre- and postnatal stages, oversight by multiple government departments, and heterogenous working environments. CONCLUSIONS: Maternity protection in South Africa is fragmented and difficult to access. Overcoming these challenges requires legislative and implementation measures to ensure greater policy coherence and comprehensive guidance on maternity protection rights. Addressing gaps in maternity protection in South Africa may provide insights for other countries with shortcomings in maternity protection provisions and could contribute to improved breastfeeding practices.

11.
Matern Child Nutr ; 18(4): e13378, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726357

RESUMO

Investments in social assistance programmes (SAPs) have accelerated alongside interest in using SAPs to improve health and nutrition outcomes. However, evidence of how design features within and across programme types influence the effectiveness of SAPs for improving diet and nutrition outcomes among women and children is limited. To address this, we reviewed evaluations of cash, in-kind and voucher programmes conducted between 2010 and 2020 among women and children, and examined associations between design features (targeting, including household and individual transfers, fortified foods and behaviour change communication) and positive impacts on diet (diet diversity, micronutrient intake) and nutrition (anthropometric indicators, haemoglobin, anaemia) outcomes. Our review has several key findings. First, SAPs improve dietary diversity and intake of micronutrient-rich foods among women and children, as well as improve several nutrition outcomes. Second, SAPs were more likely to impact diet and nutrition outcomes among women compared with children (23/45 [51%] vs. 52/144 [36%] of outcomes measured). Third, in-kind (all but one of which included fortified foods) compared with cash transfer programmes were more likely to significantly increase women's body mass index and children's weight-for-height/length Z-score, and both women's and children's haemoglobin and anaemia. However, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of SAPs for improving micronutrient status and preventing increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for all populations and for improving diet and nutrition outcomes among men, adolescents and the elderly. Further research in these areas is urgently needed to optimize impact of SAPs on diet and nutrition outcomes as countries increase investments in SAPs.


Assuntos
Anemia , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Dieta , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 871866, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692321

RESUMO

Introduction: School meal programs operate throughout Africa, serving as a social safety net and aiming to improve children's nutrition, influence their dietary choices, and strengthen the agrifood economy through local procurement. Despite their rapid expansion in the past decade, there has been no systematic effort to comprehensively document school feeding activities across the continent. Methods: Detailed information on school feeding activities in each country was captured in the Global Survey of School Meal Programs©, which launched in 2019. An invitation to participate was extended to each government, which appointed a national-level respondent to gather information on every large-scale school meal program in the country. Results: Forty-one countries in Africa (38 in sub-Saharan Africa) responded to the survey in 2019 with information on 68 large-scale programs that together reached 60.1 million children. Across these countries, the aggregate school feeding budget was USD 1.3 billion. Diversity in school meal programs is evident across regions, country income levels, and levels of national commitment. Coverage rates tended to be highest in southern Africa, in countries with school feeding as a line item in the national budget, and in countries with the greatest domestic share of the school feeding budget. Diversity in the school menu tended to be greatest in programs that sourced food through domestic purchase rather than relying on foreign in-kind donations. To address micronutrient malnutrition, about two-thirds of the programs served fortified foods, and one-quarter included micronutrient supplements. Even as rates of overweight/obesity are rising among African school children, just 10% of school meal programs identified its prevention as an objective. Conclusion: The extent to which school meal programs in Africa are supported with domestic funding reflects a dramatic shift in favor of national ownership and domestic food procurement. At the same time, programs have grappled with inadequate and unpredictable budgets and challenges related to supply chains and logistics-impediments that need to be addressed if these programs are to achieve their objectives. Overall, the survey results underscore the important position of school meal programs within African food systems and their potential (if well-designed) to sustainably improve food security, child health, and nutrition.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Instituições Acadêmicas , África ao Sul do Saara , Criança , Humanos , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1190, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cash transfer (CT) programs are an important type of social protection meant to reduce poverty. Whether CT programs increase the risk of overweight and obesity is unclear. The objective was to characterize the relationship between CT programs and the risk of overweight and obesity in children and adults. METHODS: We searched articles in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, EconLit, Global Health, CINAHL Plus, IBSS, Health & Medical Collection, Scopus, Web of Science, and WHO Global Index Medicus in August 2021. Studies involving CT as the intervention, a control group, body mass index, overweight, or obesity as an outcome, and sample size > 300 were included. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for quality assessment. RESULTS: Of 2355 articles identified, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Because of marked heterogeneity in methodology, a narrative synthesis was used to present results. Thirteen of the studies reported that CT programs were associated with a significantly lower risk of overweight and obesity, eight studies showed no significant association, and one study reported a significantly increased risk of obesity in women. Quality assessment showed that most studies lacked sample size and power calculations, validation of exposure, descriptions of non-respondents or those lost to follow-up, and blinded outcome assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the studies were suggestive that CT programs either have no impact or decrease the risk of overweight and/or obesity in children, adolescents, and adults, but no firm conclusions can be drawn from the available evidence. This review demonstrated limitations in the available studies of CT programs and overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle
14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(9): 1601-1613, 2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581169

RESUMO

We assessed the impacts of Tanzania's adolescent-focused Cash Plus intervention on depression. In this pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial, 130 villages were randomly allocated to an intervention or control arm (1:1). Youth aged 14-19 years living in households receiving governmental cash transfers were invited to participate. The intervention included an intensive period (a 12-session course) and an aftercare period (9 months of mentoring, productive grants, and strengthened health services). We examined intervention impacts on a depressive symptoms scale (10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score (range, 0-30)) and rates of depressive symptomatology (score ≥10 points on the scale), recorded at study baseline (April-June 2017), midline (May-July 2018), and endline (June-August 2019). Using intention-to-treat methodology, we employed logistic and generalized linear models to estimate effects for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. Quantile regression was used to estimate effects across the scale. From 2,458 baseline participants, 941 intervention and 992 control adolescents were reinterviewed at both follow-ups. At endline, the intervention reduced the odds of depressive symptomatology (adjusted odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.86), with an undetectable mean scale difference (risk difference = -0.36, 95% confidence interval: -0.84, 0.11). Quantile regression results demonstrated an intervention effect along the upper distribution of the scale. Integration of multisectoral initiatives within existing social protection systems shows potential to improve mental health among youth in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Depressão , Características da Família , Adolescente , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Política Pública , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
15.
Eur J Dev Res ; 34(3): 1264-1284, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498509

RESUMO

This paper investigates the relationship between Malawi's largest and oldest public works programme (PWP) and social cohesion, specifically within-community cooperation for the common good. Using both primary and secondary data, we show that public works are associated with higher coordination activities and higher voluntary (unpaid) contributions to public goods, along both vertical ties (between community members and local leaders) and horizontal ties (among community members). Especially for school-building activities, voluntary inputs in the form of labour and other in-kind contributions are higher in the presence of the PWP. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the link between social protection programmes with community-driven features and social cohesion.


Cet article étudie la relation entre le plus grand et le plus ancien programme de travaux publics du Malawi, d'une part, et la cohésion sociale, d'autre part, et plus particulièrement la coopération au sein des communautés pour le bien commun. Grâce à des données à la fois primaires et secondaires, nous montrons que les travaux publics sont associés à des activités de coordination plus nombreuses et à une aide bénévole (non rémunérée) plus importante au niveau des biens publics, à la fois pour les liens verticaux (entre les membres de la communauté et les dirigeants à l'échelle locale) et les liens horizontaux (entre les membres de la communauté). L'aide bénévole sous forme de main-d'œuvre et d'autres contributions en nature est plus importante en présence du programme de travaux publics, en particulier pour les activités de construction d'écoles. Nos résultats contribuent à une meilleure compréhension du lien entre les programmes de protection sociale à caractère communautaire et la cohésion sociale.

16.
Int Labour Rev ; 161(2): 195-218, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35602284

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted gender inequalities, increasing the amount of unpaid care weighing on women and girls, and the vulnerabilities faced by paid care workers, often women working informally. Using a global database on social protection responses to COVID-19 that focuses on social assistance, social insurance and labour market programmes, this article considers whether and how these responses have integrated care considerations. Findings indicate that, although many responses addressed at least one aspect of care (paid or unpaid), very few countries have addressed both types of care, prompting a discussion of the implications of current policy responses to COVID-19 (and beyond) through a care lens.

17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global vision is a world free of tuberculosis (TB). Even in resource-rich TB low-incidence settings, we need more focus on the role of social risk factors to end the TB epidemic. METHODS: Nationwide, retrospective register-based, case-control study from 1990 to 2018, including all TB patients in Denmark ≥18 years old (n = 9581) matched 1:3 on sex and age with population controls. TB risk factors were assessed in logistic regression models and estimated by odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: All TB patients had considerably lower socio-economic status compared with controls (P < 0.0001). Among ethnic Danes, TB was mostly found among males, persons between 35 and 65 years, those living alone, those with low educational level, persons on social welfare benefits and those with low income. Conversely, for migrants, being younger, sex and living alone were less important, whereas having children was protective. In an adjusted multivariable regression model among Danes, key risk factors for TB were being on disability pension (OR = 2.7) and cash benefits (OR = 4.7). For migrants, fewer social risk factors increased TB risk, although low income and cash benefits did (OR = 3.1). CONCLUSION: Even today in a resourceful setting, socio-economic status drives disparities in health. In our study, multifactorial social deprivation was highly associated with TB. Especially household structure, education, employment and income were important risk factors that should be addressed in the future to accelerate TB control and end the TB epidemic.

18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 599, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expanding health insurance coverage is a priority under Sustainable Development Goal 3. To address the intersection between poverty and health and remove cost barriers, the government of Ghana established the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Government further linked NHIS with the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) 1000 cash transfer program by waiving premium fees for LEAP 1000 households. This linkage led to increased NHIS enrolment, however, large enrolment gaps remained. One potential reason for failure to enroll may relate to the poor quality of health services. METHODS: We examine whether LEAP 1000 impacts on NHIS enrolment were moderated by health facilities' service availability and readiness. RESULTS: We find that adults in areas with the highest service availability and readiness are 18 percentage points more likely to enroll in NHIS because of LEAP 1000, compared to program effects of only 9 percentage points in low service availability and readiness areas. Similar differences were seen for enrolment among children (20 v. 0 percentage points) and women of reproductive age (25 v. 10 percentage points). CONCLUSIONS: We find compelling evidence that supply-side factors relating to service readiness and availability boost positive impacts of a cash transfer program on NHIS enrolment. Our work suggests that demand-side interventions coupled with supply-side strengthening may facilitate greater population-level benefits down the line. In the quest for expanding financial protection towards accelerating the achievement of universal health coverage, policymakers in Ghana should prioritize the integration of efforts to simultaneously address demand- and supply-side factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered in the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation's (3ie) Registry for International Development Impact Evaluations ( RIDIE-STUDY-ID-55942496d53af ).


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Seguro Saúde , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
19.
Eur J Dev Res ; 34(3): 1358-1382, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35542964

RESUMO

Significant climate change mitigation policies are urgently needed to achieve emissions reduction targets. This paper shows that social protection and social cohesion play a critical role in making climate policies more acceptable to citizens by summarizing existing streams of research focusing on industrialized countries. Further, the empirical analysis explores whether these relationships also hold for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which are increasingly implementing climate change mitigation policies. The results show that vertical and horizontal trust increase acceptability in all countries. However, preferences for social protection have a positive effect only in industrialized ones. This may suggest a contrast between social and environmental goals in LMICs, where social goals are prioritized. The analysis also revealed a significant interaction between social cohesion and social protection. The paper concludes by discussing the existing research gap as to LMICs and outlines policy options to overcome the conflict between social and environmental goals.


Pour atteindre les objectifs de réduction des émissions, il est urgent de mettre en place d'importantes politiques d'atténuation du changement climatique. Cet article montre que la protection sociale et la cohésion sociale jouent un rôle essentiel pour rendre les politiques climatiques plus acceptables aux yeux des citoyen·ne·s, en faisant un résumé des courants de recherche existants axés sur les pays industrialisés. En outre, l'analyse empirique cherche à savoir si ces relations sont également valables pour les pays à revenu faible et intermédiaire (PRFI), qui mettent en œuvre de plus en plus fréquemment des politiques d'atténuation du changement climatique. Les résultats montrent que la confiance verticale et horizontale augmente l'acceptabilité dans tous les pays. Cependant, les préférences en matière de protection sociale n'ont un effet positif que dans les pays industrialisés. Cela peut suggérer un contraste entre les objectifs sociaux et environnementaux dans les PRFI, où les objectifs sociaux sont prioritaires. L'analyse a également révélé une interaction significative entre la cohésion sociale et la protection sociale. Dans sa conclusion, l'article aborde la question des lacunes qui existent en matière de recherche sur les PRFI et décrit les options, en matière de politiques, pour surmonter l'antagonisme entre objectifs sociaux et objectifs environnementaux.

20.
Eur J Dev Res ; 34(3): 1195-1215, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527722

RESUMO

While there is substantial evidence of the effect of social protection on poverty and vulnerability, limited research has focused on societal outcomes. This paper serves as introduction to a special issue (SI) examining the relationship between social protection and social cohesion in low- and middle-income countries. Over the last years, social cohesion has emerged as a central goal of development policy. The introduction and the papers in the SI use a common definition of social cohesion as a multi-faceted phenomenon, comprising three attributes: cooperation, trust and inclusive identity. This introductory article provides a conceptual framework linking social protection to social cohesion, shows the current empirical evidence for the bi-directional linkages, and highlights how the papers in the SI contribute to filling existing research gaps. In addition to this introduction, the SI encompasses seven papers, covering different world regions and social protection schemes, and using different quantitative and qualitative methods.


Il existe d'importantes données probantes concernant l'effet de la protection sociale sur la pauvreté et la vulnérabilité. Cependant, les études qui se penchent sur les effets au niveau de la société sont peu nombreuses. Cet article fait office d'introduction à un numéro spécial qui étudie la relation entre la protection sociale et la cohésion sociale dans les pays à revenu faible et intermédiaire. Au cours des dernières années, la cohésion sociale est devenue un objectif central de la politique de développement. L'introduction et les articles de ce numéro spécial utilisent une définition commune de la cohésion sociale en tant que phénomène à multiples facettes, comprenant trois attributs: la coopération, la confiance et l'identité inclusive. Cet article introductif fournit un cadre conceptuel reliant la protection sociale à la cohésion sociale, montre les preuves empiriques actuelles des liens bidirectionnels et met en lumière la façon dont les articles de ce numéro spécial contribuent à combler les lacunes de la recherche existante. En plus de cette introduction, le numéro spécial comprend sept articles qui couvrent différentes régions du monde et divers régimes de protection sociale, et font usage de différentes méthodes quantitatives et qualitatives.

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