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1.
Serv. soc. soc ; (145): 112-131, set.-dez. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395153

RESUMO

Resumo: O artigo aborda, a partir do método de revisão sistemática da literatura, as condições de regularização dos imigrantes em que a espera para a obtenção de uma cidadania ativa é potenciadora de vulnerabilidade social, remetendo a população migrante para os mecanismos de poder da terra de ninguém. Foram analisados 548 artigos, documentos oficiais e relatórios de políticas públicas. Concluímos que a espera é a mãe da cidadania adiada, produtora da ausência de direitos no deserto da terra de ninguém.


Abstract: Based on the systematic literature review method, this article addresses the conditions of regularization of immigrants where the wait to obtain an active citizenship is potentiator of social vulnerability, referring the migrant population to the power mechanisms of no man's land. We analyzed 548 articles, official documents, and public policy reports. We conclude that waiting is the mother of deferred citizenship, producer of the absence of rights in the desert of no man's land.

2.
Environ Res ; 215(Pt 2): 114290, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096171

RESUMO

Over two years into the COVID-19 pandemic, it is apparent that some populations across the world are more susceptible than others to SARS-CoV-2 infection and spread. Understanding how populations with varying demographic patterns are impacted by COVID-19 may highlight which factors are most important in targeting to combat global suffering. The first objective of this study was to investigate the association of various socioeconomic status (SES) parameters and confirmed COVID-19 cases in the state of Ohio, USA. This study examines the largest and capital city of Ohio (Columbus) and various small-medium-sized communities. The second objective was to determine the relationship between SES parameters and community-level SARS-CoV-2 concentrations using municipal wastewater samples from each city's respective wastewater treatment plants from August 2020 to January 2021. SES parameters include population size, median income, poverty, race/ethnicity, education, health care access, types of COVID-19 testing sites, and social vulnerability index. Statistical analysis results show that confirmed (normalized and/or non-normalized) COVID-19 cases were negatively associated with White percentage and registered hospitals, and positively associated with registered physicians and various COVID-19 testing sites. Wastewater viral concentrations were negatively associated with poverty, and positively associated with median income, community health centers, and onsite rapid testing locations. Additional analyses conclude that population is a significant factor in determining COVID-19 cases and SARS-CoV-2 wastewater concentrations. Results indicate that community healthcare parameters relate to a negative health outcome (COVID-19) and that demographic parameters can be associated with community-level SARS-CoV-2 wastewater concentrations. As the first study that examines the association between socioeconomic parameters and SARS-CoV-2 wastewater concentrations as well as confirmed COVID-19 cases, it is apparent that social determinants have an impact in determining the health burden of small-medium sized Ohioan cities. This study design and innovative approach are scalable and applicable for endemic and pandemic surveillance across the world.

3.
Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf ; 113: 103007, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090769

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to threaten global public health. Reliable assessment of community vulnerability is therefore essential to fighting and mitigating the pandemic. This study presents a framework that considers the roles of internal and external factors, including the components of social vulnerability, exposure, and sensitivity, to comprehensively and accurately assess community vulnerability to the pandemic. With respect to internal factors, we summarized the inherent social characteristics of people groups using census data and explored the roles of both overall and four major thematic social vulnerabilities in shaping community infection by COVID-19. We then designed two external factors to characterize exposure and sensitivity and implemented an aggregation by multiplying them with the internal social vulnerability to achieve a comprehensive vulnerability assessment. The role of the estimated vulnerability in shaping community infection was evaluated by statistical and spatial analysis as well as by risk factor classification using defined rules. This case study of Hong Kong demonstrated the value of our framework in vulnerability assessment and revealed the role of vulnerability in shaping community infection by COVID-19.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120165

RESUMO

Objective: The aims of the study were to examine the association between social media sentiments surrounding COVID-19 vaccination and the effects on vaccination rates in the United States (US), as well as other contributing factors to the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Method: The dataset used in this study consists of vaccine-related English tweets collected in real-time from January 4 - May 11, 2021, posted within the US, as well as health literacy (HL), social vulnerability index (SVI), and vaccination rates at the state level. Results: The findings presented in this study demonstrate a significant correlation between the sentiments of the tweets and the vaccination rate in the US. The results also suggest a significant negative association between HL and SVI and that the state demographics correlate with both HL and SVI. Discussion: Social media activity provides insights into public opinion about vaccinations and helps determine the required public health interventions to increase the vaccination rate in the US. Conclusion: Health literacy, social vulnerability index and monitoring of social media sentiments need to be considered in public health interventions as part of vaccination campaigns.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adolescents in contexts of social vulnerability experience obstacles in the development of their resilience, which compromises the development of coping/response strategies to daily adversities. This study aimed to understand the resilience process of school adolescents in situations of social vulnerability in the light of Barker's and Buchanan-Barker's Tidal Model. METHODS: This qualitative and exploratory study was carried out at a public school in the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The sample was composed of 17 adolescents. Data collection was carried out through in-depth narrative interviews. The material was analyzed with the aid of the software Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires, interpreted through the assumptions of Tidal Model. RESULTS: The dendrogram demonstrated the corpus delimited in five classes named as "Navigation Plan," "Storms," "Ocean of Experiences," "Rescue," and "Safe Harbor." CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Through learning from narratives, nurses understand the important resources of a recovery journey and take care "with" adolescents, supporting the development of resilience to face storms by taking the helm of the vessel and resuming their travel.

6.
Appl Spat Anal Policy ; : 1-18, 2022 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059605

RESUMO

Food insecurity is a major public health challenge that is associated with negative health outcomes in wealthy countries. In US urban areas, food banks and pantries played an expanded role in providing emergency food assistance and addressing food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study seeks to determine if socially vulnerable neighborhoods are more likely to receive emergency food assistance during this pandemic, after controlling for distance to emergency food distribution sites and spatial clustering. The study area is El Paso County, Texas-an urban area on the US-Mexico border. Dependent variables represent both coverage and intensity of emergency food transfers (EFTs) from local food banks and pantries during November 2020, at the census tract level. Independent variables are derived from the widely used Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Our statistical analyses are based on multivariable generalized estimating equations that account for spatial clustering and proximity to emergency food distribution sites. Results indicate that both coverage and intensity of EFTs are significantly greater in neighborhoods with higher social vulnerability and proximity to emergency food distribution sites, but lower in neighborhoods that are more vulnerable in terms of housing and transportation. Our findings highlight the significance of neighborhood-level social factors in influencing access to the emergency food network during a public health crisis and have important implications for government agencies and nonprofit organizations associated with public health and emergency preparedness in US urban areas.

7.
Front Psychol ; 13: 915314, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059745

RESUMO

Physical activity plays an important role in the well-being and development of adolescents. Physical activity habits expressed in terms of frequency and duration are consistently associated with sociodemographic factors such as age, gender, and socioeconomic status. However, there is less evidence of the relationship between the type and context of physical activity in adolescents. The aim of this article is to analyze physical activity habits and their relationship with sociodemographic factors in Chilean adolescents. The cross-sectional study consisted of 7,263 adolescents aged between 10 and 20 years old, students from both public and private schools in all regions of Chile. Physical activity habits were examined by means of a self-report questionnaire. The age groups were classified according to the three stages of adolescence (early: 10 to 13, middle: 14 to 16, and late: 17 to 20 years old). Socioeconomic level was established based on the school vulnerability index (SVI) of the school attended by each adolescent. In the study it was obvious to the level of physical activity for the adolescents was below the international recommendations. A statistically significant association can also be found between the sociodemographic factors studied and the physical activity habits reported by the young people. The multivariate regression analysis established that the risk of not achieving the physical activity recommendations was 2.8 times higher in females than in males, 2.4 times higher in the older age groups (14-16 and 17-20 years old) compared to the 10-13-year age range and 1.1 times in the medium and high vulnerability groups than in the low socioeconomic vulnerability group. These findings highlight the importance of considering all these factors holistically whenever designing programs or public policies that promote the development of healthy physical activity habits in adolescents.

8.
HERD ; : 19375867221124234, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article argues that community healthcare clinics managed by dedicated medical professionals who are familiar with the special needs of the local community may serve as effective alternatives to centralized hospitals and medical facilities, which may be disconnected from these local communities. BACKGROUND: The literature indicates that socioeconomic factors that affect an individual's ability to seek medical help when needed can cause vulnerability to public health emergencies. These factors include belonging to lower income populations, being African American, being dependent due to age (below 18 or above 65) or disability, being an immigrant, English-language ability, access to transportation means, and the strength of an individual's social network. METHOD: This study aims at developing a multifaceted methodology to identify optimal locations for deployment of temporary healthcare clinics to address health disparity issues among socially vulnerable populations, especially during pandemics and public health crises. This case study looks at the Health Enterprise Zone (HEZ) in Baltimore and ranks Census tracts based on their vulnerability, using two novel health vulnerability indices and considering their locations. RESULTS: Using the proposed methodology, the optimal tracts within the HEZ are identified as potential locations for deploying temporary healthcare clinics. CONCLUSION: The analysis of vulnerabilities to public health emergencies based on socioeconomic factors can assist in identifying potential locations for setting up temporary healthcare clinics with the goal of assisting socially vulnerable populations during outbreaks and pandemics.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016221

RESUMO

As COVID-19 vaccines are readily available and most U.S. adults who are enthusiastic about the vaccine have received it, motivating those who have not been vaccinated to accept it has become a challenge. The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanisms behind COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Asian American ethnic groups, including how sociodemographic characteristics and racism predict COVID-19 and vaccine perceptions. The study also examined associations between social vulnerability and COVID-19 and vaccine perceptions. Social vulnerability is defined as the degree to which a community is able to prepare and respond to a natural or man-made disaster. This cross-sectional study used community-based survey data collected from April to September 2021. Study measures included demographics, perceptions of COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines, and racism-related experiences. The results showed that, compared to Non-Asians, East Asians reported that they had significantly more challenges accessing COVID-19 vaccines, and South Asians reported significantly higher safety concerns about COVID-19 vaccines. Our study also found that racism experience mediates the association between race/ethnicity and safety concerns about COVID-19 vaccines. Three Asian subgroups (East Asians, South Asians, and Southeast Asians) experienced more racism (compared to Non-Asians), and more experience of racism was related to greater safety concerns. Geographical Information System (GIS) maps revealed that residents of lower social vulnerability index (SVI) areas reported fewer unfairness perceptions and that higher SVI areas had lower vaccine accessibility and trust in public health agencies. Our study advances the understanding of racism, social vulnerability, and COVID-19 vaccine-related perceptions among Asian Americans. The findings have implications for policymakers and community leaders with respect to tailoring COVID-19 program efforts for socially vulnerable populations and Asian American groups that experience greater challenges regarding vaccine safety concerns and accessibility.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960809

RESUMO

Background: Psychological stress disorders are twice as prevalent in women with ischemic heart disease compared to men. The disproportionate psychological health experience of these women is not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine whether neighborhood social factors are associated with disparities in psychological health by gender. Materials and Methods: We studied 286 patients with heart disease recruited from Emory-based hospitals in the Myocardial Infarction and Mental Stress 2 Study (n = 286). A global measure of psychological distress was calculated by taking an average of ranks across symptom scales for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, anger, and perceived stress. The social vulnerability index (SVI) was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was used to rank patients' census tracks on 14 social factors. Beta coefficients for mean ranks in psychological distress scores were estimated per 10-unit increase in SVI percentile ranking using multilevel regression models. Results: The mean age of the sample was 51 years, 49% were women, and 66% African American. After adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and antidepressant use, each 10-unit increase in SVI percentile ranking was associated with 4.65 (95% CI: 0.61-8.69; p = 0.02) unit increase in mean scores for psychological distress among women only (SVI-by-gender-interaction = 0.01). These associations were driven by the SVI themes of lower socioeconomic status and poorer access to housing and transportation. Conclusion: Neighborhood social vulnerability may be a psychosocial stressor that potentiates women's susceptibility to adverse psychological and cardiovascular health.

11.
Vaccine ; 40(37): 5471-5482, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953322

RESUMO

Vaccine hesitancy has been identified as a major obstacle preventing comprehensive coverage against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, few studies have analyzed the association between ex-ante vaccine hesitancy and ex-post vaccination coverage. This study leveraged one-year county-level data across the contiguous United States to examine whether the prospective vaccine hesitancy eventually translates into differential vaccination rates, and whether vaccine hesitancy can explain socioeconomic, racial, and partisan disparities in vaccine uptake. A set of structural equation modeling was fitted with vaccine hesitancy and vaccination rate as endogenous variables, controlling for various potential confounders. The results demonstrated a significant negative link between vaccine hesitancy and vaccination rate, with the difference between the two continuously widening over time. Counties with higher socioeconomic statuses, more Asian and Hispanic populations, more elderly residents, greater health insurance coverage, and more Democrats presented lower vaccine hesitancy and higher vaccination rates. However, underlying determinants of vaccination coverage and vaccine hesitancy were divergent regarding their different associations with exogenous variables. Mediation analysis further demonstrated that indirect effects from exogenous variables to vaccination coverage via vaccine hesitancy only partially explained corresponding total effects, challenging the popular narrative that portrays vaccine hesitancy as a root cause of disparities in vaccination. Our study highlights the need of well-funded, targeted, and ongoing initiatives to reduce persisting vaccination inequities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cobertura Vacinal , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/métodos , Hesitação Vacinal
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011730

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed health and social inequities among migrant populations. Less empirical evidence exists about the impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on migrants. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the first lockdown in France between March and May 2020 on migrants' lives and livelihoods. We adopted a social vulnerability framework to conceptualize how the pandemic and the consequential lockdown in France contributed to a 'compounded crisis' for asylum seekers and undocumented migrants. This crisis encompassed health, protection, and socio-economic challenges for migrants and exposed the shortcomings of existing government policies that exclude migrants and do not address the root causes of health inequities. The study draws on in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 75 asylum seekers and undocumented migrants during the pandemic lockdown in the French regions of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and Île-de-France. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of implementing a cohesive pandemic response approach that views health as a fundamental inclusive right for all human beings and all policies as health policies to promote well-being for all.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vulnerabilidade Social
13.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(291): 8254-8265, ago.2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1391982

RESUMO

Objetivo: Descrever a atuação e o pensar da Enfermagem no enfrentamento da pandemia da COVID-19 relacionado às condições de saúde e segurança no trabalho. Método: Trata-se de um estudo de artigo de revisão sistemática de literatura, realizado através de um levantamento de dados a partir da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde durante os meses de abril a julho de 2020. Resultados: Foram selecionados 9 artigos que afirmaram o desafio da Enfermagem no âmbito educação em saúde, trabalho com limitações existente e a sua importância na linha de frente. Conclusão: Essa pandemia permite uma reflexão sobre trabalhadores de enfermagem, suas condições de trabalho, cuidado aos pacientes com vulnerabilidades e características diversas. Pensar nos seus anseios, medos, incertezas e condições seguras de trabalho pode favorecer a implantação da política de saúde e segurança do trabalhador, implantar medidas de prevenção e controle de contaminação ocupacional, estrutura hospitalar adequada, rede integrada institucional de apoio psicológico.(AU)


Objective: To describe the performance and thinking of Nursing in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic related to health and safety conditions at work. Method: This is a study of a systematic literature review article, carried out through a data survey from the Virtual Health Library during the months of April to July 2020. Results: 9 articles were selected that stated the challenge of Nursing in the field of health edu-cation, work with existing limitations and its importance on the front line. Conclu-sion: This pandemic allows a reflection on nursing workers, their working condi-tions, care for patients with different vulnerabilities and characteristics. Thinking about their anxieties, fears, uncertainties and safe working conditions can favor the implementation of the worker's health and safety policy, implement measures to pre-vent and control occupational contamination, adequate hospital structure, integrated institutional network of psychological support.(AU)


Objetivo: Describir la actuación y el pensamiento de Enfermería frente a la pande-mia de COVID-19 en relación a las condiciones de salud y seguridad en el trabajo. Método: Se trata de un estudio de artículo de revisión sistemática de la literatura, realizado mediante levantamiento de datos de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud durante los meses de abril a julio de 2020. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 9 artículos que planteaban el desafío de la Enfermería en el campo de la salud la educación, el trabajo con las limitaciones existentes y su importancia en la primera línea. Conclu-sión: Esta pandemia permite una reflexión sobre los trabajadores de enfermería, sus condiciones de trabajo, atención a pacientes con diferentes vulnerabilidades y ca-racterísticas. Pensar en sus angustias, miedos, incertidumbres y condiciones de trabajo seguras puede favorecer la implementación de la política de seguridad y sa-lud del trabajador, implementar medidas de prevención y control de la contamina-ción ocupacional, estructura hospitalaria adecuada, red institucional integrada de apoyo psicológico.(AU)


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , COVID-19 , Vulnerabilidade Social , Cuidados de Enfermagem
14.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(291): 8364-8377, ago.2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1392117

RESUMO

Objetivo: Descrever a atuação e o pensar da Enfermagem no enfrentamento da pandemia da COVID-19 relacionado às condições de saúde e segurança no trabalho. Método: Trata-se de um estudo de artigo de revisão sistemática de literatura, realizado através de um levantamento de dados a partir da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde durante os meses de abril a julho de 2020. Resultados: Foram selecionados 9 artigos que afirmaram o desafio da Enfermagem no âmbito educação em saúde, trabalho com limitações existente e a sua importância na linha de frente. Conclusão: Essa pandemia permite uma reflexão sobre trabalhadores de enfermagem, suas condições de trabalho, cuidado aos pacientes com vulnerabilidades e características diversas. Pensar nos seus anseios, medos, incertezas e condições seguras de trabalho pode favorecer a implantação da política de saúde e segurança do trabalhador, implantar medidas de prevenção e controle de contaminação ocupacional, estrutura hospitalar adequada, rede integrada institucional de apoio psicológico(AU)


Objective: To describe the performance and thinking of Nursing in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic related to health and safety conditions at work. Method: This is a study of a systematic literature review article, carried out through a data survey from the Virtual Health Library during the months of April to July 2020. Results: 9 articles were selected that stated the challenge of Nursing in the field of health edu-cation, work with existing limitations and its importance on the front line. Conclu-sion: This pandemic allows a reflection on nursing workers, their working condi-tions, care for patients with different vulnerabilities and characteristics. Thinking about their anxieties, fears, uncertainties and safe working conditions can favor the implementation of the worker's health and safety policy, implement measures to pre-vent and control occupational contamination, adequate hospital structure, integrated institutional network of psychological support.(AU)


Objetivo: Describir la actuación y el pensamiento de Enfermería frente a la pande-mia de COVID-19 en relación a las condiciones de salud y seguridad en el trabajo. Método: Se trata de un estudio de artículo de revisión sistemática de la literatura, realizado mediante levantamiento de datos de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud durante los meses de abril a julio de 2020. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 9 artículos que planteaban el desafío de la Enfermería en el campo de la salud la educación, el trabajo con las limitaciones existentes y su importancia en la primera línea. Conclu-sión: Esta pandemia permite una reflexión sobre los trabajadores de enfermería, sus condiciones de trabajo, atención a pacientes con diferentes vulnerabilidades y ca-racterísticas. Pensar en sus angustias, miedos, incertidumbres y condiciones de trabajo seguras puede favorecer la implementación de la política de seguridad y sa-lud del trabajador, implementar medidas de prevención y control de la contamina-ción ocupacional, estructura hospitalaria adecuada, red institucional integrada de apoyo psicológico.(AU)


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , COVID-19 , Vulnerabilidade Social , Cuidados de Enfermagem
15.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(291): 8448-8463, ago.2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1392131

RESUMO

Objetivo: Descrever a atuação e o pensar da Enfermagem no enfrentamento da pandemia da COVID-19 relacionado às condições de saúde e segurança no trabalho. Método: Trata-se de um estudo de artigo de revisão sistemática de literatura, realizado através de um levantamento de dados a partir da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde durante os meses de abril a julho de 2020. Resultados: Foram selecionados 9 artigos que afirmaram o desafio da Enfermagem no âmbito educação em saúde, trabalho com limitações existente e a sua importância na linha de frente. Conclusão: Essa pandemia permite uma reflexão sobre trabalhadores de enfermagem, suas condições de trabalho, cuidado aos pacientes com vulnerabilidades e características diversas. Pensar nos seus anseios, medos, incertezas e condições seguras de trabalho pode favorecer a implantação da política de saúde e segurança do trabalhador, implantar medidas de prevenção e controle de contaminação ocupacional, estrutura hospitalar adequada, rede integrada institucional de apoio psicológico.(AU)


Objective: To describe the performance and thinking of Nursing in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic related to health and safety conditions at work. Method: This is a study of a systematic literature review article, carried out through a data survey from the Virtual Health Library during the months of April to July 2020. Results: 9 articles were selected that stated the challenge of Nursing in the field of health edu-cation, work with existing limitations and its importance on the front line. Conclu-sion: This pandemic allows a reflection on nursing workers, their working condi-tions, care for patients with different vulnerabilities and characteristics. Thinking about their anxieties, fears, uncertainties and safe working conditions can favor the implementation of the worker's health and safety policy, implement measures to pre-vent and control occupational contamination, adequate hospital structure, integrated institutional network of psychological support.(AU)


Objetivo: Describir la actuación y el pensamiento de Enfermería frente a la pande-mia de COVID-19 en relación a las condiciones de salud y seguridad en el trabajo. Método: Se trata de un estudio de artículo de revisión sistemática de la literatura, realizado mediante levantamiento de datos de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud durante los meses de abril a julio de 2020. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 9 artículos que planteaban el desafío de la Enfermería en el campo de la salud la educación, el trabajo con las limitaciones existentes y su importancia en la primera línea. Conclu-sión: Esta pandemia permite una reflexión sobre los trabajadores de enfermería, sus condiciones de trabajo, atención a pacientes con diferentes vulnerabilidades y ca-racterísticas. Pensar en sus angustias, miedos, incertidumbres y condiciones de trabajo seguras puede favorecer la implementación de la política de seguridad y sa-lud del trabajador, implementar medidas de prevención y control de la contamina-ción ocupacional, estructura hospitalaria adecuada, red institucional integrada de apoyo(AU) psicológico.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , COVID-19 , Vulnerabilidade Social , Cuidados de Enfermagem
16.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(4): 388-400, July-Aug. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394068

RESUMO

Objective: Maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has not been investigated in relation to parenting skills in adolescent mothers. This study investigated whether maternal inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms early in pregnancy predict poorer parenting skills and infant maltreatment during the first year of life in adolescent mothers living in adverse environmental conditions. Methods: The participants in this study were 80 adolescent mothers aged 14-19 years and their babies who were taking part in a randomized controlled trial on the effects of a home-visiting program on infant development. Symptoms of maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were assessed in the first trimester of pregnancy. Parenting skills (maternal competence, attachment to the baby, home environment) and child maltreatment were assessed when the infants were aged 6 and 12 months. Multilevel linear regression models were constructed to test the extent to which prenatal maternal inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms predicted these parenting variables during the first year of the infant's life. Results: Prenatal inattention symptoms significantly predicted lower maternal competence and attachment, a poorer home environment, and greater maltreatment during the first year of life. Hyperactivity did not significantly predict parenting skills or maltreatment. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that inattention symptoms may interfere with parenting abilities in adolescent mothers and should be considered in early intervention programs.

17.
Pediatr Radiol ; 52(9): 1765-1775, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imaging missed care opportunities (MCOs), previously referred to as "no shows," impact timely patient diagnosis and treatment and can exacerbate health care disparities. Understanding factors associated with imaging MCOs could help advance pediatric health equity. OBJECTIVE: To assess racial/ethnic differences in pediatric MR imaging MCOs and whether health system and socioeconomic factors, represented by a geography-based Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), influence racial/ethnic differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of MR imaging MCOs in patients younger than 21 years at a pediatric academic medical center (2015-2019). MR imaging MCOs were defined as: scheduled but appointment not attended, canceled within 24 h, and canceled but not rescheduled. Mixed effects multivariable logistic regression assessed the association between MCOs and race/ethnicity and community-level social factors, represented by the SVI. RESULTS: Of 68,809 scheduled MRIs, 6,159 (9.0%) were MCOs. A higher proportion of MCOs were among Black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino children. Multivariable analysis demonstrated increased odds of MCOs among Black/African-American (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-2.3) and Hispanic/Latino (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.7) children compared to White children. The addition of SVI >90th percentile to the adjusted model had no effect on adjusted OR for Black/African-American (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-2.2) or Hispanic/Latino (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.6) children. Living in a community with SVI >90th percentile was independently associated with MCOs. CONCLUSION: Black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino children were almost twice as likely to experience MCOs, even when controlling for factors associated with MCOs. Independent of race/ethnicity, higher SVI was significantly associated with MCOs. Our study supports that pediatric health care providers must continue to identify systemic barriers to health care access for Black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino children and those from socially vulnerable areas.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Hispânico ou Latino , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 80: 102212, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased barriers to accessing preventive healthcare. This study identifies populations disproportionately underrepresented in screening and surveillance colonoscopies during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this single-center cohort study, colonoscopy procedures were reviewed during 6-month intervals before the pandemic (July 1, 2019 - December 31, 2019) and during the pandemic (July 1, 2020 - December 31, 2020 and January 1, 2021 - June 30, 2021). 7095 patients were categorized based on procedure indication, demographics, Charlson Comorbidity Index and Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). Statistics performed using VassarStats. RESULTS: 2387 (2019) colonoscopies pre-pandemic and 2585 (2020) and 2123 (2021) during the pandemic were identified. There was a decrease in colonoscopies performed during months when COVID-19 cases peaked. The total number of average CRC risk patients presenting for first colonoscopy declined during the pandemic: 232 (10 %) pre-pandemic to 190 (7 %) in 2020, 145 (7 %) in 2021 (p < 0.001). Fewer of these patients presented from highly vulnerable communities, SVI > 0.8, during the pandemic, 39 in 2019 vs 16 in 2020 and 22 in 2021. Of all screening and surveillance patients, fewer presented from communities with SVI > 0.8 during the pandemic, 106 in 2019 versus 67 in 2020 and 77 in 2021. CONCLUSION: It is important to address the decline in CRC preventive care during this pandemic among average CRC risk first-time screeners and vulnerable community patients. An emphasis on addressing social determinants of health and establishing patients in gastroenterology clinics is imperative to promote future health in these populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Colorretais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(15): e024414, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35904206

RESUMO

Background Social and environmental factors play an important role in the rising health care burden of cardiovascular disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) from US census data as a tool for public health officials to identify communities in need of support in the setting of a hazardous event. SVI (ranging from a least vulnerable score of 0 to a most vulnerable score of 1) ranks communities on 15 social factors including unemployment, minoritized groups status, and disability, and groups them under 4 broad themes: socioeconomic status, housing and transportation, minoritized groups, and household composition. We sought to assess the association of SVI with self-reported prevalent cardiovascular comorbidities and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Methods and Results We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of adults (≥18 years) in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2016 to 2019. Data regarding self-reported prevalent cardiovascular comorbidities (including diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, substance use), and ASCVD was captured using participants' response to a structured telephonic interview. We divided states on the basis of the tertile of SVI (first-participant lives in the least vulnerable group of states, 0-0.32; to third-participant lives in the most vulnerable group of states, 0.54-1.0). Multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, race and ethnicity, sex, employment, income, health care coverage, and association with federal poverty line were constructed to assess the association of SVI with cardiovascular comorbidities. Our study sample consisted of 1 745 999 participants ≥18 years of age. States in the highest (third) tertile of social vulnerability had predominantly Black and Hispanic adults, lower levels of education, lower income, higher rates of unemployment, and higher rates of prevalent comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, hyperlipidemia, substance use, and ASCVD. In multivariable logistic regression models, individuals living in states in the third tertile of SVI had higher odds of having hypertension (odds ratio (OR), 1.14 [95% CI, 1.11-1.17]), diabetes (OR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.09-1.15]), hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.06-1.12]), chronic kidney disease (OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.12-1.23]), smoking (OR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.03-1.07]), and ASCVD (OR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.12-1.19]), compared with those living in the first tertile of SVI. Conclusions SVI varies across the US states and is associated with prevalent cardiovascular comorbidities and ASCVD, independent of age, race and ethnicity, sex, employment, income, and health care coverage. SVI may be a useful assessment tool for health policy makers and health systems researchers examining multilevel influences on cardiovascular-related health behaviors and identifying communities for targeted interventions pertaining to social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vulnerabilidade Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Children (Basel) ; 9(7)2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35884061

RESUMO

Rural residents in the United States (US) have disproportionately high rates of maternal and infant mortality. Rural residents who are Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) face multiple social risk factors and have some of the worst maternal and infant health outcomes in the U.S. The purpose of this study was to determine the rural availability of evidence-based supports and services that promote maternal and infant health. We developed and conducted a national survey of a sample of rural hospitals. We determined for each responding hospital the county-level scores on the 2018 CDC Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). The sample's (n = 93) median SVI score [IQR] was 0.55 [0.25-0.88]; for majority-BIPOC counties (n = 29) the median SVI score was 0.93 [0.88-0.98] compared with 0.38 [0.19-0.64] for majority-White counties (n = 64). Among counties where responding hospitals were located, 86.2% located in majority-BIPOC counties ranked in the most socially vulnerable quartile of counties nationally (SVI ≥ 0.75), compared with 14.1% of majority-White counties. In analyses adjusted for geography and hospital size, certified lactation support (aOR 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-0.97), midwifery care (aOR 0.35, 95% CI 0.12-0.99), doula support (aOR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.84), postpartum support groups (aOR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.68), and childbirth education classes (aOR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.69) were significantly less available in the most vulnerable counties compared with less vulnerable counties. Residents in the most socially vulnerable rural counties, many of whom are BIPOC and thus at higher risk for poor birth outcomes, are significantly less likely to have access to evidence-based supports for maternal and infant health.

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