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1.
Autism ; : 13623613221123734, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065837

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Research shows that moving schools can be a challenging time for autistic children and young people. One factor that has been found to support successful transition is friendships. However, there is little research exploring how transition between schools affects autistic children's friendships, and even less on how children's relationships during transition have been impacted by COVID-19. Fourteen parents of autistic children and young people were interviewed about their child's move to a new school and the impact they felt this had on their friendships. Parents described how moving with existing friends helped some children to find the transition less challenging. Others had differing experiences, with their children's friendships playing a much smaller role in the move. Differences were also seen with regard to the impact of COVID-19, with some parents speaking of how hard being away from friends was for their child, while others found the social restrictions a welcome break from interacting with peers. The study highlights how different the experiences of autistic individuals, and their parents, can be and the importance of a child-centred approach to transition support.

2.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604161, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090840

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the relationships among exclusion from PE, gender, and bullying in adolescents with specific developmental disorder of scholastic skills (SDDSS) aged 11, 13, and 15 years in Czechia. Methods: In total, the final research sample consisted of 13,953 students (49.4% boys) from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. Chi-square tests and regression models stratified by presence of SDDSS diagnosis were used to assess the relationships between non-involvement in PA and bullying. Results: Students diagnosed with SDDSS (12.4% of the sample) were more likely to be excluded from physical education (PE) than students without this diagnosis. This exclusion was associated with higher odds of bullying victimization and perpetration. Our findings further showed that male gender plays a significant role for bullying perpetration for both groups (with and without SDDSS) investigated in the present study. Conclusion: Higher likelihood of aggressive behavior occurs in students who are excluded from PE, including students with SDDSS.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Estudantes
3.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106693

RESUMO

The enhanced choice model of skill-based treatment (ECM-SBT; Rajaraman et al., 2021) is a package of behavioral treatment procedures with modifications designed to reduce risks associated with extinction of problem behavior. The skill-based treatment component of this package (Hanley et al., 2014) has been investigated thoroughly in clinical settings, though fewer studies have been conducted in public schools. In this investigation, we systematically replicated Rajaraman et al.'s (2021) demonstration of the ECM-SBT with 3 children enrolled in a public special day school for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Intervention procedures were associated with increases in targeted alternative responses (i.e., communicative response, tolerance response, and cooperation with instructions) and decreased precursor behavior relative to baseline. Severe problem behavior was rare in both assessment and treatment. Participants chose to spend most appointment time participating in ECM-SBT, indicating preference for treatment procedures over alternative contexts (i.e., free access to a break area with preferred activities; regular classroom instruction). These outcomes suggest ECM-SBT has promise for safely teaching alternatives to problem behavior to children with emotional and behavioral disorders in school settings.

4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 902791, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35991013

RESUMO

Background: Since the implementation of inclusive education in China, students with special education needs (SEN) have increasingly been integrating into mainstream schools, like physical education classes. However, inclusive physical education (IPE) in China has developed slowly, and gaps can be found in the knowledge of the factors that inhibit or promote the participation in IPE of students with SEN. Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive summary of the factors related to inclusion in IPE of students with SEN, by applying a socio-ecological model (SEM). Five databases were searched: ERIC, SPORTDiscus with Full Text, Education Full Text (H.W.Wilson), PsychINFO and CNKI in March 2022, to find studies that identify factors regarding IPE in China. Two researchers independently screened studies and summarized relevant data. Results: Fourteen studies were included in the detailed review. By applying the SEM, multi-level factors were identified, ranging from intrapersonal to societal levels that positively or negatively influenced IPE participation in students with SEN. This review indicates that multi-level factors affect the IPE participation of students with SEN in China. Conclusion: The findings will help assist educators and policymakers to develop effective IPE for Chinese students with SEN.


Assuntos
Educação Física e Treinamento , Estudantes , China , Escolaridade , Humanos
5.
Children (Basel) ; 9(8)2022 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36010046

RESUMO

(1) Background: There has been significant recent interest in the potential role of social robots (SRs) in special education. Specific Learning Disorders (SpLDs) have a high prevalence in the student population, and early intervention with personalized special educational programs is crucial for optimal academic achievement. (2) Methods: We designed an intense special education intervention for children in the third and fourth years of elementary school with a diagnosis of a SpLD. Following confirmation of eligibility and informed consent, the participants were prospectively and randomly allocated to two groups: (a) the SR group, for which the intervention was delivered by the humanoid robot NAO with the assistance of a special education teacher and (b) the control group, for which the intervention was delivered by the special educator. All participants underwent pre- and post-intervention evaluation for outcome measures. (3) Results: 40 children (NAO = 19, control = 21, similar baseline characteristics) were included. Pre- and post-intervention evaluation showed comparable improvements in both groups in cognition skills (decoding, phonological awareness and reading comprehension), while between-group changes favored the NAO group only for some phonological awareness exercises. In total, no significant changes were found in any of the groups regarding the emotional/behavioral secondary outcomes. (4) Conclusion: NAO was efficient as a tutor for a human-supported intervention when compared to the gold-standard intervention for elementary school students with SpLDs.

6.
Contemp Sch Psychol ; : 1-16, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36039319

RESUMO

Despite rapidly increasing cultural and linguistic diversity in US schools, the majority of psychoeducational evaluations will be conducted by monolingual, English-speaking school psychologists. As such, the appropriate use of interpreters has been identified as a critical skill in working with emergent bilinguals and their families. Surveys of practicing school psychologists conducting assessments with emergent bilinguals indicate a lack of knowledge and training in the use of interpreters; however, few studies have examined the extent to which school psychology graduate students are trained in the appropriate use of interpreters. Utilizing survey methodology, this study examined school psychology graduate students' training in and preparedness to work with interpreters, as well as their knowledge of best practices in the use of interpreters. Current graduate students and interns enrolled in school psychology master's, specialist, and doctoral programs in 36 states throughout the USA (n = 364) responded to the survey. The majority of participants were White (61.5%), monolingual (70.3%), and seeking a master's or specialist degree (71.2%). Survey responses suggest that graduate students and interns' training, knowledge, and preparedness to work with interpreters is lacking. A qualitative analysis of the open-ended question revealed that first-hand experience working with interpreters was among the most beneficial types of training experiences for graduate students and interns. Implications for how program directors and graduate-level faculty can provide better training for their students in the use of interpreters are discussed.

7.
Int J Dev Disabil ; 68(4): 547-557, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937161

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to examine assistive technology (AT) use, elements teachers take into consideration when selecting AT, and barriers from the standpoint of teachers of students with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities. To answer the research questions, the researcher employed a sequential explanatory mixed-methods design. A self-administered online survey and interviews were conducted to collect data. A total of 92 special education teachers from four special education institutes were surveyed, and five teachers were interviewed to provide interpretations for the analysed quantitative data. Results demonstrated there were cultural factors that could influence AT use with students. Findings revealed there was a lack of AT use, with teachers reporting higher use of low-tech than mid-tech and high-tech. The most reported barriers were lack of AT devices and lack of training. The results also revealed there were statistical differences in AT use between the four special education institutes and between teachers with previous AT training. Four major themes and several sub-themes emerged from the interviews. The themes were (a) AT use, (b) considerations, (c) barriers, and (d) professional development. These themes made it possible to interpret and elaborate on the quantitative data. The findings suggest the necessity of professional development for teachers, an increase in financial support, and provision of appropriate curriculum for successfully using AT in classrooms.

8.
J Sch Psychol ; 93: 28-40, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934449

RESUMO

Children with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) are at an increased risk for neurocognitive and behavioral disorders that may interfere with academic success, including early developmental delays, learning disabilities, executive function problems, and social communication deficits. The present national survey aimed to update and extend our understanding of school supports and educational outcomes for students with these increasingly common genetic diagnoses. Parents of children with a diagnosed SCA, birth to 21 years, living in the United States (N = 248), responded to an electronic survey with questions focused on school support plans, academic accommodations, educational therapies, school completion, and perceptions of educator awareness of SCAs. Results revealed high rates of delayed kindergarten, grade retention in primary years, and educational support plans (IEPs = 71%; Section 504 Plans = 26%). A majority (73%) of respondents with children over age 18 years (N = 41) reported their children successfully completed high school, and nearly half (46%) pursued post-secondary education opportunities. Many parents reported their children's educators had little to no knowledge of SCA conditions, justifying a need to train teachers and policy makers in the unique educational needs of children and adolescents with SCAs. School psychologists should be aware of the frequent need for accommodations and individualized support plans in this population so they can support children and families by advocating for early and comprehensive evaluations and intervention plans.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Sexuais , Estudantes , Adolescente , Aneuploidia , Criança , Escolaridade , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
9.
J Pediatr ; 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare academic attainment at age 12 years in preterm children born below 30 weeks of gestation with matched term-born peers, using standardized, nationwide and well-validated school tests. STUDY DESIGN: This population-based, national cohort study was performed by linking perinatal data from the nationwide Netherlands Perinatal Registry with educational outcome data from Statistics Netherlands and included 4677 surviving preterm children born at 250/7-296/7 weeks of gestational age and 366 561 controls born at 40 weeks of gestational age in 2000-2007. First, special education participation rate was calculated. Subsequently, all preterm children with academic attainment test data derived at age 12 years were matched to term-born children using year and month of birth, sex, parity, socioeconomic status, and maternal age. Total, language, and mathematics test scores and secondary school level advice were compared between these 2 groups. RESULTS: Children below 30 weeks of gestation had a higher special education participation rate (10.2% vs 2.7%, P < .001) than term-born peers. Preterm children had lower total (-0.37 SD; 95% CI -0.42 to -0.31), language (-0.21 SD; 95% CI -0.27 to -0.15), and mathematics (-0.45 SD; 95%CI -0.51 to -0.38) z scores, and more often a prevocational secondary school level advice (62% vs 46%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of children born before 30 weeks of gestation need special education at the end of elementary schooling. These children have significant deficits on all measures of academic attainment at age 12 years, especially mathematics, compared with matched term-born peers.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886602

RESUMO

Taipei has been ranked as the most vulnerable city to a wider combination of risks. Although the Special Education Law addresses the consideration of disaster preparedness for students with disabilities enrolling in Special Education Schools, more attention needs to be given to the far larger number of students with disabilities enrolling in normal schools. These schools need to consider the care for students with different types and severe degrees of disabilities. The aim of the research is to investigate challenges of earthquake preparation and response for students with different severe degrees of disabilities who enrol in the special education classes in general primary schools. The objectives of the research include the following: (1) investigating the challenges and requirements for support of students with different severe degrees of disabilities; (2) examining the need and support for students with different degrees of disabilities during the earthquake response process; and (3) exploring the best practice in the curriculum building for students with different severity of disabilities. The purposive sampling was used to select four primary schools in Taipei as participant groups in the research. The research team used semi-structured interviews to interview eight participants: one special education class teacher and one administrator of each school were invited. Findings include the following: (1) ensuring the appropriate design of physical environment for earthquake response in schools, including rapid response, evacuation, and assembly points for students with different severe degrees of disabilities; (2) proposing suitable staff to student ratio to be planned for the response phase; (3) identifying the appropriate individualised curriculum and learning objectives to suit students with different severe degrees of disabilities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Terremotos , Educação Especial , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
11.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 193: 107659, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835373

RESUMO

Twice-exceptional children (2e) identified as having a disability and areas of high ability require a diverse range of support and enrichment services. However, services associated with special education and gifted programs present numerous barriers to the appropriate education of 2e students. In this manuscript, the author briefly recounts his experiences as a 2e child and shares experiences of 2e students and their families presented at the 2021 Summit on the Neuroscience of Twice Exceptionality. Challenges associated with the provision of special and gifted education to 2e students are also described. The role of neuroscience in education, as it relates to 2e students, is also discussed. Although many of the barriers to effective education for 2e children are systemic in nature, school-level reforms, as well as scientific advances, have the potential to improve services for this population.


Assuntos
Criança Superdotada , Criança , Criança Superdotada/educação , Humanos , Estudantes
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805548

RESUMO

Overcoming participation barriers of students with disabilities in physical education is of great importance and an internationally recognized goal. Research highlights that students with disabilities have mixed feelings about their inclusion experiences in physical education. Physical education teachers often do not feel prepared to appropriately support all students. In German-speaking countries in particular, there is a strong tradition of segregation, with varying interpretations of inclusion. In this light, an instrument to reliably assess the inclusive potential of physical education is needed, thereby providing data on the efficacy of teachers' practices. Such an assessment scale would be important to identify barriers to inclusive physical education while providing teachers with data that could potentially enhance the learning environment. The purpose of this study was to outline initial insights into the cross-cultural translation process of the Lieberman/Brian Inclusion Rating Scale for PE in German-speaking countries. The translation process followed suggestions for transcultural validation. Expert review was provided to check content and face validity. Major item challenges centered around paraeducators, gym management, and conceptual differences regarding physical education.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897479

RESUMO

The article discusses issues associated with the manifestations of aggressive behavior in an individual diagnosed with moderate intellectual disability and behavioral disorders (according to ICD-10; F7; F711-moderate intellectual disability, significant impairment of behavior requiring attention or treatment). In the research survey, we focused on a client corresponding with relevant features. The research was carried out at the beginning of hospitalization, ongoing hospitalization, and the end of hospitalization, followed by a recommendation to limit the legal capacity of the client and his placement in a residential care home. The case study points out individual approaches to special education and psychology and outlines the key steps in the cooperation of selected helping professions suggesting conclusions and recommendations for practice regarding these selected issues. Upon the termination of our investigation, there was a rapid deterioration of the client being admitted to the intensive care unit with a follow-up treatment in a long-term intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Agressão , Hospitalização , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
14.
Front Psychol ; 13: 899696, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846683

RESUMO

Off-seat behaviour refers to students leaving their seats and walking out of a classroom without the teacher noticing. This behaviour occurs in special education for students with certain special needs, which would lead to serious safety problems. This study carried out an inattentional blindness test to explore whether the location of seats in classrooms would impact teachers' detection rate regarding off-seat behaviours. The participants were 126 pre-service teachers (Mage = 18.72 ± 0.723; 92% female) who were invited to perform the primary task of counting students raising their hands up whilst the disappearance of one of the students was introduced as an unexpected occurrence. The results show that peripheral seats were more detectable than the central ones for the teachers to notice the "missing student." Meanwhile, the left and below oriented seats were more likely to be ignored compared to those that were right and upper oriented. These results suggest the existence of a location effect in the classroom that is associated with teachers' attention regarding off-seat behaviour. This study has implications for classroom management in terms of arranging students' seats appropriately to assist in increasing teachers' identification of this hazard.

15.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 50(297): 213-215, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801609

RESUMO

Subjects with intellectual disabilities are dealt with by special educators, clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. The need to provide integrated care for a person with a mental disorder under the conditions of normalized social environment requires paradigmatic compatibility of all three areas of social practice. Contemporary special education cuts itself off from biomedical foundations by formulating a humanistic paradigm. It is based on an assumption of the dominance of qualitative research over quantitative research and emphasizes self-determination of people with intellectual disabilities and normalization of the social environment. Modern psychiatry is based on a biopsychosocial paradigm that takes into consideration both the biomedical and psychosocial aspects of intellectual disability. Additionally, psychiatry points out that a significant intellectual deficit prevents full social participation, which, on the other hand, is postulated by special pedagogy for all types of disability. In order to provide subjects with intellectual disabilities with integrated care, it is necessary to reformate paradigmatically the contemporary special pedagogy towards the recent achievements of social medicine. The training of psychiatrists should pay more attention to the pedagogical and social contexts.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Deficiência Intelectual , Psiquiatria , Educação Especial , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723124

RESUMO

Determining when a child returns to school after an acquired brain injury is difficult to assess. Many factors affect a successful hospital-to-school reintegration. The hospital school simulation allowed the Acute Pediatric Inpatient Rehabilitation Unit (IRU) interdisciplinary team to assess how the patient was functioning at specific stages of the patient healing process to target goals that explicitly helped the patient safely reintegrate into school. A patient with an acquired brain injury (ABI) participated in a hospital school simulation where a novel school simulation rubric (SSR) tool was used to evaluate completion of specific activities the patient would experience in a traditional classroom. Results were shared with the IRU team so accommodations and modifications could be made to the IRU school recommendations letter based on the results of the final SSR. Preliminary results were found to benefit the patient as they reintegrated back to school. This study highlights the need for ongoing communication between hospital providers and educational personnel to provide patients with academic supports for school reintegration.

17.
Front Psychol ; 13: 876290, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712211

RESUMO

Dogs are becoming increasingly popular in pedagogical settings. Particularly children with special educational needs are believed to benefit from dog-assisted interventions. However, reliable evidence for supporting such claims is still scarce and reports on the effectiveness of this approach are often anecdotal. With our review we aim at evaluating the literature to answer the question, whether dog-assisted interventions in an educational setting can help children with special educational needs to improve and to develop their emotional, social and cognitive skills. Following the PRISMA Guidelines, the literature was systematically searched for experimental studies until February 2021. Eighteen studies were finally included, which varied greatly in type of intervention, outcomes measured, sample sizes, and scientific quality, which precluded a formal meta-analysis. Hence, we resorted to a narrative synthesis. Overall, the studies report mixed results in the different functional domains of stress reduction, motivation, social skills, cognitive abilities, reading abilities, social conduct, and mental wellbeing. No study reported any negative effects of the intervention. The most unequivocal evidence comes from studies on dogs' effects on physiological stress response in challenging situations and on motivation and adherence to instructions, reporting significantly lower levels of cortisol in both children and pedagogues in the presence of dogs, as well as increased motivation to learn and participate. Findings for other outcomes, academic or social, however, remain inconclusive. Data on long-term effects are lacking altogether. Still, this review indicates the potentials of dog-assisted interventions in special pedagogy, particularly towards supporting a calm and trustful social atmosphere.

18.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 2022 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719034

RESUMO

This paper represents the third in a three-part series intended to challenge the social validity of the services provided by a university-based practicum for addressing the challenging behavior of individuals with disabilities. In this paper, we surveyed referring stakeholders (e.g., parents, teachers) of past service recipients to explore the acceptability of the service model's goals, methods, and outcomes. We probed for tensions resultant from the model's threefold mission (service, training, and research) and explored how conflicts between these goals affected the quality of our services. Generally, results were favorable and appeared to support continued model implementation, but not without qualification. Emergent themes, areas for improvement, and future directions for intervention research are all discussed.

19.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708196

RESUMO

In theory, the principles, processes, and concepts of applied behavior analysis are universally applicable. In practice, clinicians commit their lives to serving specific populations in specific settings for which specialization is needed. The purpose of this 6-year retrospective consecutive case series was to describe and evaluate the quality and validity of a practicum experience tailored to develop specialized expertise in the assessment and treatment of challenging behavior for pre-service practitioners enrolled in a department of a special education program.

20.
Children (Basel) ; 9(6)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35740762

RESUMO

Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are a group of heterogeneous health deficits frequently diagnosed in early childhood that cause difficulties in general intellectual functioning. In the last decades in Italy new laws have been developed to give practical guidelines for the best education plans for children with SLD. BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy of the educational treatment on SLD in Primary and Secondary schools in the Italian city of Barletta. We acquired valuable data to evaluate Special Education Needs during COVID-19. METHODS: Our study was conducted from April to June 2021, during the second "lockdown" period in Italy. A fact-finding survey was conducted to schools with a questionnaire provided to the teachers to acquire data on the SEN applied in the management of distance learning for children. RESULTS: The study involved 15 male and 6 female pupils with SLD in Primary Schools and 18 male and 6 female in Secondary Schools. The schools participating in the study organized distance learning programs with a support teacher with a 1:1 ratio. Data showed that all children with SLD needed a support teacher. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this pilot study suggest that distance learning programs are able to achieve adequate educational goals, despite the difficulties of the lockdown period.

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