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1.
Psychiatry Res ; 314: 114653, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671561

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the patterns and predictors of suicidal ideation (SI) trajectories among college students during extended lockdowns in China. A three-wave survey was conducted during the outbreak period, remission period, and prevention period of COVID-19. Distinct patterns of SI trajectories were established by grouping respondents based on temporal changes in SI. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to examine predictors for delay-occurrence and persistent SI. From a total of 35,516 college students included in the study, rates of SI increased significantly from T1 to T2 (7.3% v. 9.4%) and from T2 to T3 (9.4% v. 12.6%). Five SI trajectories were observed: resilient (80.5% of the sample), recovery (3.6%), relapsing/remitting (4.8%), persistent dysfunction (2.3%) and delayed dysfunction (8.7%). Further, junior-year undergraduates, postgraduates, only-child families, mental health history, confirmed cases in the community of residence, depressive symptoms, and negative coping strategies were significant predictors of distinct SI trajectories, whereas greater social support, more positive coping strategies, and better family functioning were associated with a lower probability of developing delayed or persistent dysfunction during the lockdown period. These findings suggest that continuous preventive and intervening measures for college students during COVID-19 lockdowns are of global importance, particularly among vulnerable groups who experience the most distress.

2.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 32(2): 39-42, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at higher risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We reviewed the literature for the prevalence and determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in people with HIV in Africa. METHODS: The PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched for original studies published in peer-reviewed journals in English language between January 2015 to July 2020, using the key words: 'suicidal behavior', 'suicidal attempt', 'suicidal ideation', 'HIV/AIDS', and/or 'Africa'. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. RESULTS: 12 cross-sectional studies published in the past 5 years in African countries were included. The quality of studies was high, with score ranging from 6 to 9. The prevalence of suicidal ideation ranged from 8.8% to 39%. The prevalence of suicide attempt ranged from 2.8% to 20.1%. The most common risk factors for suicidal behaviour were mental health-related problems. Other factors included high clinical stage of HIV, being unmarried, poor medication adherence, poorer quality of life, not taking highly active antiretroviral therapy, female sex, no education, substance use, low CD4 level, and opportunistic infection. CONCLUSION: Patients with HIV/AIDS have an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Early screening, treatment, and referral of suicidal patients are necessary for HIV clinics.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tentativa de Suicídio , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida
3.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 74: 103189, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728457

RESUMO

The advantages of intensive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol are in the possible acute effect of the stimulation and in the possible reduction in the time required to achieve remission in depression. Here, we investigated the antidepressant effects and antisuicidal effects of a more intensive rTMS protocol for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) patients with suicidal ideation. Thirty-one outpatients were included in this study, including 22 military veterans and 9 non- militaries. The rTMS treatment consisted of 25 sessions, each session lasting 30 min (60 trains of 50 pulsations, 110 % resting motor threshold intensity) for a total of 3000 pulse. The total amount of stimulation (750,000 pulses) applied by our rTMS protocol was equivalent to that of a 5-week standard rTMS protocol. We found a significant effect of time on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) scores and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) scores. There was no difference in change in the HAMD-17 scores and SDS scores between the military veteran group and the non-military group between baseline and the week 4 assessment time point. The response rate of depression was 64.52 %, and the remission rate of depression was 51.61 % at day 5. 48.39 % and 35.48 % at week 4, respectively. All patients (100 %) met response criteria of suicidal ideation, and the remission rate was 87.09 % at day 5. The response rate was 83.87 % %, and the remission rate was 77.42 % at week 4. The accelerated high-dose rTMS treatment was well tolerated by all patients. Our intensive rTMS protocol is preliminarily safe and feasible. The TRD patients with suicidal ideation could benefit from much shorter exposure to this protocol with more efficacy in comparison with conventional rTMS protocol. In addition, intensive rTMS offers a promising treatment for military veteran populations.

4.
Bull Menninger Clin ; 86(2): 113-123, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647777

RESUMO

Sleep disturbance is a unique, yet understudied, risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). The present study sought to explore the relationship between suicidal ideation (SI) and self-reported sleep disturbance in a sample of adolescents in an intensive outpatient program targeting suicidality (N = 691). Analyses conducted include paired samples t tests, multiple linear regression, and analysis of variance to examine group differences in sleep disturbance over time. Sleep disturbance and SI were associated at each timepoint, and sleep disturbance at admission predicted SI at discharge. Those with the most severe SI at discharge indicated increased sleep disturbance relative to admission, whereas those reporting no SI at discharge nearly resolved all sleep difficulties. Future studies should utilize objective sleep measures, longitudinal assessments, and include a more diverse sample to better inform the relationship of sleep and SI. These findings suggest that directly managing sleep disturbance during treatment could decrease the risk of STBs.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fatores de Risco , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
5.
Egypt J Forensic Sci ; 12(1): 28, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693349

RESUMO

Background: Suicide is one of the leading causes of death. The current systematic review is done to know the trend of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation, and self-harm during COVID-19 pandemic. Main text: The search was done by using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases. With the help of Mendeley portal, articles were retrieved on the basis of inclusion criteria like to know the risk factors, vulnerable group, complete article PDFs, prevention strategies, aims, results, and limitations. The shortlisted data from search was tabulated, and the PRISMA chart was framed based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Result: Sixteen studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria were organized and selected. The variables and global scenario were considered in databases. It has been noticed that trends of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation, and self-harm remains the same in some countries like Japan, whereas in some countries like Bangladesh and France, trends of suicides had increased during the pandemic period. The probable cause could be lockdown, social isolation, and stoppage of recreational activities. Conclusions: The trends of suicidal ideation, suicidal thoughts, and self-harm are more in vulnerable categories like health care professionals, university students, elderly individuals, and psychiatrically ill patients. In health care professional, it is due to the increased risk of contagion and watching deaths closely. In university students, it is due to the lack of recreational activities and social isolation. Among elderly, it is due to thinking themselves as overburden. The increase in suicidality in psychiatric ill patient admitted during COVID-19 pandemic is due to unknown cause.

6.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1-23, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although a high incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and an increased risk of suicide are observed among the veteran population, there are yet limited real-world data characterizing patients with MDD with acute suicidal ideation/behavior (MDSI) in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system. We assessed the clinical and economic burden, including comorbidities, treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, and health care costs, among veterans and their family members with MDSI within the VHA system. METHODS: This retrospective, longitudinal analysis of VHA datasets (10/1/2015-3/31/2018) evaluated the clinical and economic burden associated with MDSI and compared this population with matched MDD alone (ie, MDD diagnosis without acute suicidal ideation/behavior) and non-MDD (ie, neither MDD nor acute suicidal ideation/behavior) cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11,203 patients with MDSI, the proportions of patients who filled a prescription for ≥1 antidepressant during the 12-month pre- and 6-month post-periods were significantly higher compared with patients with MDD alone (53.7% vs 28.8%; P <0.05, and 72.3% vs 44.1%; P <0.05, respectively). During the 12-month pre-period, the MDSI cohort had the highest proportion of patients with ≥1 mental health-related inpatient visit compared with the MDD alone and non-MDD cohorts (13.2% vs 2.3% vs 1.4%, respectively; P <0.05), and the highest mental health-related costs per patient ($8,853 vs $1913 vs $1079, respectively). For the 6-month post-period, the MDSI cohort had the highest proportion of patients with ≥1 mental health-related inpatient visit compared with the MDD alone and non-MDD cohorts (60.4% vs 7.9% vs 0.8%, respectively; P <0.05), and had the highest mental health-related costs per patient ($20,334 vs $4803 vs $545, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate significant clinical and economic burden for those in the VHA system diagnosed with MDSI and highlight unmet needs and opportunities for improving the care of this vulnerable group.


There are limited real-world data regarding patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder and having suicidal thoughts/behavior (MDSI) in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system. We examined data on 11,203 patients with MDSI from the VHA between October 1, 2015 and March 31, 2018. We compared patients with MDSI with patients with major depressive disorder alone (MDD) and patients with no depression (non-MDD). Our results showed that patients with MDSI were treated with more antidepressant therapy, had more hospital stays (inpatient visits), and incurred greater costs than the MDD and non-MDD patients. These results highlight the unmet need and potential opportunity to improve patient care among veterans and their families with MDSI.

7.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-9, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670415

RESUMO

Anecdotal and theoretical work suggests blink rate as an indicator of imminent suicide risk. We sought to empirically examine whether suicide decedents displayed a reduced blink rate in goodbye videos filmed before death, compared to several control groups. Independent raters coded blink rates from videos of 34 suicide decedents and four comparison groups: "mundane" product review, non-suicidal arousal, non-suicidal depression, and non-imminent risk of suicidal ideation. Mean blink rate was lower in the suicide decedent group relative to all comparison groups (ps < .001), except the depressed (p = .976) and suicidal ideation (p = .393) groups. Findings indicate blink rate may be reduced among individuals at imminent risk for suicide, exhibiting clinically-significant depressive symptoms, or experiencing suicidal ideation.

8.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 207640221104691, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in youth is an important mental health concern worldwide, limited studies have investigated its sociodemographic correlates in early adulthood. This study explored associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and self-harm behaviors, including NSSI and suicidal ideation, in a community-based sample of young adults. METHODS: A total of 414 Korean young adults engaged in NSSI and 200 controls completed online self-report questionnaires assessing sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, using logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio and analyzed risk factors for NSSI, especially the independent influence of SES on NSSI risk. Multivariate regression was performed to identify the role of socioeconomic disadvantage in suicidal ideation in NSSI people. RESULTS: Logistic regression showed that low SES significantly increased NSSI risk. Multivariable regression also revealed that lower SES was related to more severe suicidal ideation in young adults with NSSI after controlling for gender and the higher-severity NSSI index, including the number of NSSI methods used and NSSI intrapersonal functions. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to directly address socioeconomic gradients of a general population of young adults with NSSI and its effects, and socioeconomic status should be considered preemptively when defining suicide risks of this group and when intervening in self-injurious behaviors.

9.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 158, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is concern that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on the psychological wellbeing of many populations, including increase of fear, anxiety, and uncertainty. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents specifically have experienced direct and indirect impacts on their mentally, resulting in severe depression, self-harm and suicide. This study aimed to identify factors influencing suicidal tendencies and the mental health status of multicultural adolescents in Korea during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 784 multicultural adolescents (Korean fathers and foreign mothers) who participated in the 16th national Korean Youth Risk Behaviour online survey. Research variables were measured using self-reported questionnaires for mental health and suicidal tendencies. Data was analysed using SPSS 26.0 program. RESULTS: The factors influencing suicidal tendencies (contemplating suicide, suicidal plans, and suicide attempts) were sexual intercourse experience (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 7.67, 5.04, 7.10), depressive mood (aOR 1.03, 0.98, 0.97, 0.90), and unhappiness (aOR 13.00, 7.28, 5.56). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the factors that affect suicidal tendencies showed sexual intercourse experience, depressive mood and unhappiness. Screening for suicidal tendencies and suicide prevention programs that consider the significant factors that affect suicidal tendencies should be developed for multicultural adolescents. School health professions and mental health counselors at schools need to emphasize the mental health and psychosocial support needs of senior high school students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Psychiatry Investig ; 19(6): 427-434, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suicide is a complex phenomenon; therefore, it should be approached in light of sociocultural perspectives and the general attitude toward suicide. This study aimed to extract factors from the Attitude Toward Suicide Scale (ATTS) and investigate the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and suicidal behavior (i.e., suicidal idea, plan, and attempt) by using a representative sample of Korean adults. METHODS: Three thousand Koreans aged 19 to 75 years were surveyed cross-sectionally in 2013 and 2018. The data collected were subjected to exploratory factor analysis. Extracted attitude factors were compared using a suicidal behavior continuum. Univariate and multivariate logistic models were constructed to compare the association between attitude factors and suicidal behaviors. RESULTS: Among the participants, 477 (15.9%) experienced suicidal idea only, 85 (2.8%) had a suicidal plan without attempt, and 58 (1.9%) attempted suicide. Four meaningful factors were extracted from the factor analysis: "permissiveness," "unjustified behavior," "preventability/readiness to help," and "loneliness." "Permissiveness," "unjustified behavior," and "loneliness" factors showed significant trends across the suicidal behavior continuum. Permissive attitude toward suicide increased the odds of suicidal idea, suicidal plan, and suicide attempt (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.25-1.79; aOR=2.79, 95% CI=1.84-4.25; aOR=2.67, 95% CI=1.65-4.33), while attitude toward suicide as unjustified behavior decreased the odds of suicidal ideation and attempt (aOR=0.79, 95% CI=0.67-0.94; aOR=0.64, 95% CI=0.42-0.99). CONCLUSION: A significant association was found between attitude toward suicide and suicidal behaviors. Attitude toward suicide is a modifiable factor that can be used to develop prevention policies.

11.
Crim Justice Behav ; 49(5): 730-744, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754948

RESUMO

Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among juvenile justice populations are elevated. However, the characteristics of justice-involved youth who consider and attempt suicide are not well understood. This study examined suicidal ideation and attempt with first-time, preadjudicated diverted youth, and the relationship with commonly associated risk factors. The sample included 135 youth (50% male, M age = 14.48) that provided complete responses to self-reported lifetime suicidal ideation and attempt items. Analyses examined relationships between suicidal ideation/attempt and mental health, child welfare involvement, delinquency, self-cutting, and substance use. First time, preadjudicated diverted youth reported high rates of lifetime suicidal ideation (27%) and attempt (17%). Suicidal ideation and attempt were associated with sexually minoritized status and self-cutting, while child welfare involvement was only associated with suicidal ideation. This high-risk population would benefit from refined suicide screening and prevention services not always available to justice-involved youth living in the community.

12.
Compr Psychoneuroendocrinol ; 10: 100126, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755210

RESUMO

Objectives: The aims of the study are i) to compare 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels between clinically depressed individuals with insufficient treatment response and healthy controls and ii) to test the association between 25(OH)D levels and different affective disorder diagnoses (i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD) single episode, MDD recurrent episode, chronic MDD, and dysthymia), as well as grade of suicidal ideation. Method: We quantified serum 25(OH)D in 202 individuals with difficult-to-treat depression (DTD) and 41 healthy controls. Patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV-TR). ANCOVA was used to test differences in mean 25(OH)levels between depressed and controls, adjusting for sex, age, smoking, sampling season, ethnicity, somatic illness, and body mass index (BMI). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the association between depression and 25(OH)D levels. Results: Patients with difficult-to-treat depression had significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D compared to healthy controls (ANCOVA, F = 4.89; p = 0.03). Thirty percent of the depressed patients were 25(OH)D deficient (<50 nmol/L) compared to 5% of the controls (Chi-squared test, χ2 = 11.38; p < 0.01). The odds for being depressed decreased significantly with 17% per 10 nmol/L increase of 25(OH)D (Binary logistic regression, p < 0.05). Limitations: The cross-sectional design of the study precludes any conclusions about causality. A large part of the patients took psychotropic drugs and/or had somatic illnesses, which might have affected the results. Conclusion: The results of the present study add to the body of evidence linking 25(OH)D deficiency and depression. Further investigations are warranted to better understand any clinical implications of this association.

13.
Ann Gen Psychiatry ; 21(1): 19, 2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of protective factors in suicidal ideation among medical students. This study aimed to examine the association between suicidal ideation and protective (self-esteem/ego-resiliency/social support) and risk (depression/social anxiety) factors. METHODS: Data on sociodemographic factors, depression, social anxiety, self-esteem, ego-resiliency, social support, and current suicidal ideation were collected from 408 medical students. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify the independent impact of potential influencing factors on suicidal ideation. Potential moderating effects were also explored. RESULTS: Thirty-eight participants (9.3%) reported experiencing suicidal ideation. Younger age, higher levels of depression, social anxiety, and lower levels of self-esteem, ego-resiliency, and social support were found to be significantly correlated with suicidal ideation. In the final model, higher levels of depression and social anxiety were associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, while higher levels of self-esteem and social support were associated with a decreased risk of suicidal ideation. Although the independent effect was not significant, the interactions of ego-resiliency with both depression and social anxiety on suicidal ideation were significant. Higher levels of ego-resiliency acted as a buffer against suicidal ideation among those with higher levels of depression or social anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to risk factors, this study revealed the underlying protective and moderating factors of suicidal ideation among medical students. Mental health programs focusing on enhancing ego-resiliency, self-esteem, and social support may contribute to suicide prevention in medical students.

14.
Front Psychol ; 13: 898318, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719471

RESUMO

A positive connection has been established between personality traits and suicidal ideation (SI). However, the possible mediation of resilience within this association has never been thoroughly discussed. In this study, we aimed to investigate this topic by using population-based cross-sectional survey data of 4,489 Chinese children and adolescents. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from the participants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were adopted to measure the crude and adjusted associations between personality traits, SI, and resilience. Path analysis was performed to evaluate the mediation of resilience in the association between personality traits and SI. For 4,489 study subjects, the mean age was 13.4 years, ethnic minorities accounted for 71.8%, and over a half (54.6%) were middle school students. The reported prevalence rates for 1-week, 1-year, and lifetime SI were 27.6% (95% CI: 24.9%, 30.0%), 35.5% (95% CI: 30.8%, 41.0%), and 56.7% (95% CI: 52.3%, 61.0%), respectively. Girls reported a significantly higher prevalence of SI than boys. Path analysis results revealed a prominent mediation of resilience; moreover, for different dimensions of personality traits, the proportion of mediation by resilience varied. Our major findings suggest that resilience-based intervention measures could be considered in preventing personality traits related to suicidal risk among youngsters. For children and adolescents, the measuring of personality dimensions may also be helpful in targeting key subpopulations of intervention priority.

15.
Front Psychol ; 13: 904170, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719476

RESUMO

The current study investigated the relationship between army morale and suicidal ideation in Chinese military cadets, including the mediating role of self-control and the moderating role of self-construal. A total of 1124 male navy cadets participated in the study, completing a series of questionnaires. The results revealed the following: (1) army morale could negatively predict suicidal ideation; (2) the negative predictive effect of army morale on suicidal ideation could be partially mediated by self-control; and (3) self-construal moderated the predictive effect of army morale on suicidal ideation among navy cadets. Finally, the current study suggested that building some relevant assessment, diagnostic, and training programs may help build army morale and further prevent suicidal ideation in the military context.

16.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742167

RESUMO

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine condition that has been associated with atypical emotional regulation strategy use as well as elevated levels of depression, anxiety, self-harm and suicidal ideation. Despite the existence of clinical screening guidance for this population, there is still little to no understanding of how non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation and intention manifest in women with PCOS and how this might differ from women without PCOS. Within this cross-sectional investigation, women with and without a diagnosis of PCOS (n = 418) completed validated metrics of emotion dysregulation, rumination and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), as well as self-reported indices of previous suicidal ideation and future suicidal intention. Group comparisons indicated that women with, relative to those without, PCOS reported significantly greater metrics across all variables. Moreover, serial mediation analyses were conducted to test the ideation-to-action framework of suicide in women with PCOS, with the positive relationship between a PCOS diagnosis and future suicidal intention being explained through the indirect pathway of increased emotion dysregulation, recent suicidal ideation and NSSI. Our findings call to action the need for international screening for suicide intention and self-harm in women with PCOS.

17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 423, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the prevalence of suicidal behavior and associated risk factors in public primary health care in Mozambique. METHODS: The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to evaluate suicidal behavior among 502 adults attending three Primary Health Care (PHC) settings. RESULTS: In the past month, 13% (n = 63) of PHC attendees expressed suicidal ideation, 8% (n = 40) had made a suicide plan, 4% (n = 20) had made a suicide attempt, and 5% (n = 25) reported a lifetime suicide attempt. Females had 2.8-fold increased odds of suicide plan (95% CI: 1.5, 5.5) and 3.3-fold increased odds of suicide attempt in the past month (95% CI: 1.2, 9.1). Each 10-year increase in age was associated with 0.61-fold the odds of suicide plan (95% CI: 0.38, 0.98) and 0.09-fold the odds of suicide attempt (95% CI: 0.01, 0.69) in the past month. People living with HIV (PLWHA) had 2.2-fold increased adjusted odds of past month suicide attempt (CI: 1.1, 4.1). CONCLUSION: Suicidal behaviors are common among adults attending PHC clinics in Mozambique. Screening and linkage to effective preventive interventions are urgently needed in PHC settings. Females, younger individuals, and PLWHA are at elevated risk for suicidal behavior in PHC.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742540

RESUMO

We explored the mediating effect of social support and loneliness in the relationships between perceived discrimination and suicidal ideation among impoverished Chinese college students. Using the convenience cluster sampling method, we chose a total of 964 impoverished college students from a central province of China. Students completed the cross-sectional survey using the Perceived Discrimination Questionnaire, the Social Support Rating Scale, the University of California at Los Angeles Loneliness Scale, and the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation. Correlation analysis and structural equation modeling analysis were conducted to clarify the relationships between study variables. Correlation analysis showed that perceived discrimination, loneliness, and suicidal ideation were positively correlated with each other; social support was negatively correlated with perceived discrimination, loneliness, and suicidal ideation. In addition, structural equation modeling analysis indicated that perceived discrimination had a direct positive effect on suicidal ideation; social support and loneliness partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and suicidal ideation. Specifically, perceived discrimination was positively associated with suicidal ideation via social support and loneliness separately, and had a serial association through both social support and loneliness. Thus, perceived discrimination may have influenced suicidal ideation through both social support and loneliness.


Assuntos
Solidão , Ideação Suicida , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Apoio Social , Estudantes
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751716

RESUMO

Although neurocognitive deficits have been documented in adolescents with suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA), it is unclear whether certain impairments differentiate these groups, potentially suggesting heightened risk for SA. Focus on specific facets of impulsivity and cognitive control may indicate distinctions between adolescents with SA vs. SI. The current study examined dimensions of impulsivity and cognitive control in 141 adolescents with SA (n = 41) vs. SI without SA (n = 49) vs. typically-developing controls (TDCs; n = 51). Adolescents completed cross-sectional neurocognitive tasks via the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery, in addition to demographic and clinical measures. Analyses involved ANOVAs and ANCOVAs. Results indicated that adolescents with SA demonstrated less set shifting/cognitive flexibility (reduced ability to adapt to/disengage from stimuli) and greater impulsive decision making (reduced ability to collect/evaluate information before making decisions) compared to TDCs. In addition, both TDCs and adolescents with SA had greater response inhibition (increased ability to stop motor responses that have begun/become prepotent) than those with SI. Similar results were found when analyzing female adolescents separately. There were no significant differences for male adolescents, potentially due to the small subsample (n = 40). There were no significant findings for spatial planning/problem solving or visuospatial working memory. Findings suggest: 1) less set shifting/cognitive flexibility and greater impulsive decision making for adolescents with SA vs. TDCs; and 2) greater response inhibition for TDCs and adolescents with SA vs. SI. Such information may be useful for improving risk assessments (adding neurocognitive tasks) and targeted treatments (incorporating cognitive remediation) for this impaired population.

20.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 139: 104725, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690122

RESUMO

This study was to evaluate the relationship between blood hormone levels and suicidal behaviour. We reviewed Web of Science, PubMed and Embase for literature published up to 10 April 2022. Studies were restricted to English-language articles. Studies measuring blood hormone levels in suicidal and non-suicidal subjects were eligible. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were applied to evaluate group differences. Overall, 57 studies were eligible, of which 51 evaluated suicide attempts, and 9 assessed suicidal ideation. Random-effects meta-analysis indicated that levels of thyrotropin stimulating hormone (TSH) (SMD = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27-0.72), leptin (SMD = -1.16; 95% CI, -1.94 to -0.38) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (SMD = -0.67; 95% CI, -1.13 to -0.21) were related to suicide attempts, whereas progesterone levels (SMD = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.03-0.41) were related to suicidal ideation. This analysis offers evidence linking abnormalities of blood hormones with suicidal behaviour, which may be essential for identifying individuals with suicide attempts and suicidal ideation. Large prospective studies are needed for further clarification of roles of hormones in suicidal behaviour.

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