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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(2): 299-305, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900407

RESUMO

Currently, there is no cure for traumatic spinal cord injury but one therapeutic approach showing promise is gene therapy. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aim to assess the efficacy of gene therapies in pre-clinical models of spinal cord injury and the risk of bias. In this meta-analysis, registered at PROSPERO (Registration ID: CRD42020185008), we identified relevant controlled in vivo studies published in English by searching the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases. No restrictions of the year of publication were applied and the last literature search was conducted on August 3, 2020. We then conducted a random-effects meta-analysis using the restricted maximum likelihood estimator. A total of 71 studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Our results showed that overall, gene therapies were associated with improvements in locomotor score (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68-2.47, Tau2 = 2.13, I2 = 83.6%) and axonal regrowth (SMD: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.92-3.65, Tau2 = 4.13, I2 = 85.5%). There was significant asymmetry in the funnel plots of both outcome measures indicating the presence of publication bias. We used a modified CAMARADES (Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data in Experimental Studies) checklist to assess the risk of bias, finding that the median score was 4 (IQR: 3-5). In particular, reports of allocation concealment and sample size calculations were lacking. In conclusion, gene therapies are showing promise as therapies for spinal cord injury repair, but there is no consensus on which gene or genes should be targeted.

2.
Int Rev Financ Anal ; 85: 102458, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439331

RESUMO

COVID-19 has posed unprecedented challenges to global finances because of its unparalleled global scope, with both concomitant shocks as well as the likely altering of risk assessments and forecasts for the foreseeable future. As the effects of COVID-19 on financial markets and institutions have been widely addressed by various literature, we systematically synthesize this literature. Through a comprehensive search process, we extract and review 818 articles. Appling bibliometric methods, we explore the trends among various research constituents involved in the field. Using multi-dimensional scaling, we identify the intellectual structure of research in the domain and outline four distinct themes. We also identify the evolution and shifts in research within the short span of three years since the inception of COVID-19. Through detailed content analysis, various future research directions are proposed.

3.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107531, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332517

RESUMO

For decades, alcohol use disorder has been investigated in an attempt to understand its processes and implications. However, among all of the factors involved in alcohol use disorder, the role of guilt in alcohol use remains poorly explained, with many contradictory results. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to conduct a systematic analysis of the literature from 1990 to 2022 to review the studies investigating the link between guilt and alcohol consumption. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method, 31 studies were included in this review. The results of this work enable to highlight the plurality of guilt that has been studied in the literature. Grouped in two categories: state guilt and trait guilt, they seem to have diverse implications towards alcohol use or misuse. Guilt proneness seems to act as a protective factor towards alcohol use, except for the few studies conducted on a clinical population. Numerous studies indicated that state guilt is deleterious toward alcohol use, even if some results are contradictory. Furthermore, this work allows us to shed light on the limits of the studies currently carried out, and thus to propose new directions for future studies.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Humanos , Culpa , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção
4.
OTJR (Thorofare N J) ; 43(1): 61-73, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872657

RESUMO

Occupational therapists have distinct value providing pediatric chronic pain interventions (e.g., pain management, normalizing sensory responses, increasing participation); however, limited evidence exists. This review appraised empirical studies on occupational therapy pediatric chronic pain management. Three reviewers independently screened 2,401 titles, 250 abstracts, and 71 full-text sources for studies published in English, after 2008, and with sample sizes >10, participants <18 years, with chronic pain >3 months, and outcomes related to pain/function. Studies were assessed for risk of bias. The review included 23 studies on psychological, interprofessional, virtual/telehealth, or biomechanical management, demonstrating significant decreases in pain/disability. Most studies had high risk of bias for lack of randomization and control groups, and homogeneous sampling. The occupational therapists' role in chronic pain interventions is still unclear. Research including larger, heterogenous samples is warranted to examine occupational therapy's specific role providing pain interventions as part of a team.

5.
BJOG ; 130(2): 143-152, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fifteen percent of patients with endometrial cancer (EC) have advanced stage disease or develop a recurrence. Progestins have been applied as systemic treatment for decades, but there is limited evidence on response prediction with biomarkers and toxicity. OBJECTIVES: To review the response and toxicity of progestin therapy and stratify response to progesterone receptor (PR) expression and tumour grade. SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the search terms 'Endometrial cancer', 'Progestins', 'Disease progression', 'Recurrence' and related terms in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies on patients with advanced stage or recurrent EC treated with progestin monotherapy were included. Studies on adjuvant therapy, with fewer than ten cases and with sarcoma histology were excluded. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Evaluation for bias was performed with the Revised Cochrane RoB2 tool for randomised studies and the ROBINS-I tool for non-randomised studies. A random effects meta-analysis was performed with the overall response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate and toxicity as primary outcome measures. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-six studies (1639 patients) were included. The ORR of progestin therapy was 30% (95% CI 25-36), the clinical benefit rate was 52% (95% CI 42-61). In PR-positive EC, the ORR was 55%, compared with 12% in PR-negative disease (risk difference 43%, 95% CI 15-71). Severe toxicity occurred in 6.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Progestin therapy is a viable treatment option in patients with advanced stage and recurrent EC with low toxicity and high ORR in PR-positive disease. The role of PR expression in relation to progression-free survival and overall survival is unclear.

6.
Patient Educ Couns ; 106: 31-41, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Communication at the end-of-life (EOL) is complex and multidimensional. Although culture is acknowledged as a key influence, there remains a gap in knowledge about intracultural aspects of EOL communication in the Chinese context. This review presents a synthesis of practitioners' accounts of communication at the EOL in Hong Kong, Mainland China and Taiwan. METHODS: This review was registered prospectively on PROSPERO (CRD42021297052). Five databases were systematically searched using the terms 'communication', 'End-of-Life', 'Hong Kong', 'China' and 'Taiwan'. Empirical research published between 2015 and 2021 was downloaded and appraised. Fifteen articles were included in the review. RESULTS: Findings highlight the influence of Chinese culture and philosophy, inadequate communication skills training and psychological support for practitioners and legislative and organisational factors. CONCLUSION: Education and training for practitioners and public education about the EOL needs strengthening. Enhanced understanding of how culture influences EOL communication will strengthen service delivery and enhance awareness in multicultural communities. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: EOL workers need practical and workplace-based support to engage in meaningful communication practices. The influence of culture and the readiness of patients and families to engage in communication are also important considerations.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , China , Hong Kong , Taiwan
7.
Patient Educ Couns ; 106: 42-67, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of video-based observation research in outpatient health care encounter research. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane and other databases from database inception to October 2020 for reports of studies that used video recording to investigate ambulatory patient-clinician interactions. Two authors independently reviewed all studies for eligibility and extracted information related to study setting and purpose, participant recruitment and consent processes, data collection procedures, method of analysis, and participant sample characteristics. RESULTS: 175 articles were included. Most studies (65%) took place in a primary care or family practice setting. Study objectives were overwhelmingly focused on patient-clinician communication (81%). Reporting of key study elements was inconsistent across included studies. CONCLUSION: Video recording has been used as a research method in outpatient health care in a limited number and scope of clinical contexts and research domains. In addition, reporting of study design, methodological characteristics, and ethical considerations needs improvement. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Video recording as a method has been relatively underutilized within many clinical and research contexts. This review will serve as a practical resource for health care researchers as they plan and execute future video-based studies.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa
8.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 78: 101777, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Guided and unguided self-help prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders delivered via traditional book format or internet delivery have been widely researched, but no reviews have focused specifically on young people. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of randomised controlled trials of self-help interventions for eating disorders in young people with a mean age between 13 and 24 years. METHODS: A total of 8 intervention groups across 7 publications of self-help interventions which were prevention and treatment trials for eating disorders, were identified (N = 985 participants; mean pooled age = âˆ¼19 years). RESULTS: There was a significant very small effect (pooled g = -0.17) of self-help interventions at post-treatment which was non-significant at follow-up (pooled g = -0.14). No evidence of publication bias was found. LIMITATIONS: There were limitations of the review, including a lack of active treatment comparisons, a small number of trials included, and few studies included an age range. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this preliminary meta-analysis suggest very small but significant effects, however further studies are required to determine whether self-help approaches are effective for prevention and treatment of eating disorder symptoms in young people. Future meta-analyses should include a larger number of trials, and younger age range of children to examine the efficacy of self-help interventions for eating disorders in young people.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Patient Educ Couns ; 106: 3-16, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify decision characteristics for which SDM authors deem SDM appropriate or not, and what arguments are used. METHODS: We applied two search strategies: we included SDM models from an earlier review (strategy 1) and conducted a new search in eight databases to include papers other than describing an SDM model, such as original research, opinion papers and reviews (strategy 2). RESULTS: From the 92 included papers, we identified 18 decision characteristics for which authors deemed SDM appropriate, including preference-sensitive, equipoise and decisions where patient commitment is needed in implementing the decision. SDM authors indicated limits to SDM, especially when there are immediate life-saving measures needed. We identified four decision characteristics on which authors of different papers disagreed on whether or not SDM is appropriate. CONCLUSION: The findings of this review show the broad range of decision characteristics for which authors deem SDM appropriate, the ambiguity of some, and potential limits of SDM. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The findings can stimulate clinicians to (re)consider pursuing SDM in situations in which they did not before. Additionally, it can inform SDM campaigns and educational programs as it shows for which decision situations SDM might be more or less challenging to practice.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Participação do Paciente , Humanos , Tomada de Decisões , Bases de Dados Factuais
10.
BJOG ; 130(2): 153-161, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of earlier systematic reviews of the efficacy of ablative and excisional techniques to treat cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 (CIN2/3) were biased, as most of the included studies did not compare the techniques head-to-head. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the outcomes of studies comparing ablative and excisional techniques to treat CIN2/3 head-to-head. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline, Embase and Global Index Medicus were searched from inception until May 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies directly comparing the efficacy and safety of excisional and ablative treatments on histologically confirmed CIN2/3. Eligibility criteria for the women treated with ablation had to be same as those treated with excision. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A total of 323 articles were archived. Data on the risk of persistence/recurrence and safety were extracted from the original trials. Comparison between the two procedures was reported by forest plots, stratified by follow-up intervals and by HIV status. MAIN RESULTS: Six publications were included. The risk of persistence/recurrence following ablation was significantly higher than that following excision (overall, RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.25-2.19; at 6-month follow-up, RR 1.94, 95% CI 1.29-2.91; at 12-month follow-up, RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.27-2.51; at 24-month follow-up, RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.11-2.23). The findings remained similar among women living with HIV (WLHIV). Both procedures were equally safe. CONCLUSIONS: Excisional treatment was more effective than ablative treatment, with both procedures having similar safety profiles. Other programmatic considerations will guide the selection of technique, especially in resource-limited settings.

11.
Curr Res Ecol Soc Psychol ; 4: 100075, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36447517

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic emerged suddenly in early 2020, posing a serious health threat and creating tremendous stress and distress across the world. Religion has been shown to play important and varied roles in previous disasters and health crises, but its roles in the pandemic have yet to be outlined. We aimed to summarize the research conducted on religion and COVID-19 in the first year of the pandemic with a systematic review of studies that specifically involved individual-level religiousness and COVID-19. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO covering a one-year period from the first published mention of the novel coronavirus (Jan. 5, 2020) through January 4, 2021. We included articles about COVID-19 that were peer-reviewed and empirical, measured and reported results on religion on an individual level, and were available in English. Our search produced 137 empirical articles that met the inclusion criteria. In the course of sorting studies by their primary focus, eight categories of empirical findings emerged: general distress and wellbeing (53 articles), COVID-19-specific stress (24 articles), beliefs in science, conspiracies, and misinformation (15 articles), COVID-19 public health behaviors (12 articles), perceived risk of COVID-19 (10 articles), perceived growth or positive changes taking place during the pandemic (nine articles), health behaviors (three articles), and consumer behavior (three articles). Findings indicated that religiousness was associated with both unique benefits and challenges and played a significant role in the pandemic. Religiousness was associated with a broad range of outcomes across geographical regions and populations during the first year of COVID-19. It was a commonly reported coping mechanism with varying levels of favorable associations with mental health and COVID-19-related behaviors.

12.
Addiction ; 118(1): 7-16, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A total of 2.4 million adults in England were dispensed a benzodiazepine or Z-drug (BZRA) in 2017/18, and more than 250 000 patients in the UK take BZRAs beyond the recommended duration. Deprescribing is a clinician-guided process of withdrawing inappropriate drugs. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence base supporting the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of all forms of deprescribing initiatives used to discontinue long-term (≥ 4 weeks) BZRAs. METHOD: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating BZRAs deprescribing among adults in community, primary or outpatient settings. MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO were searched from inception to February 2021. Primary outcomes were successful discontinuation in the short (< 4 weeks) or long term (≥ 4 weeks) and the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms, behavioural or psychological symptoms. Studies were categorized as pharmacological or non-pharmacological supported interventions. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Where appropriate, risk ratios (RRs), mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and Mantel-Haenszel methods using the random-effect meta-analysis was undertaken to calculate summary effect estimates. RESULTS: Ten studies were included (n = 1431 participants). Heterogeneity in study design and effect was observed. Benzodiazepines were successfully deprescribed when gradually tapered with non-pharmacological support compared with gradual tapering alone in the short term (n = 124; RR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.41, 2.89) and long term (n = 123; RR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.56, 3.85). Benzodiazepine deprescribing was more successful when supported by non-pharmacological methods versus routine care (n = 189; RR = 3.26; 95% CI = 2.36, 4.51). Quality of evidence reporting effectiveness was very low to low. CONCLUSIONS: It may be feasible to deprescribe benzodiazepines depending on the process and support mechanisms employed.


Assuntos
Desprescrições , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Surv Ophthalmol ; 68(1): 126-141, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988744

RESUMO

We estimated the proportion of children with stereopsis following surgery in congenital and developmental cataracts by systematic review and meta-analysis and also considered the factors influencing stereopsis, such as intervention age and presence of strabismus. Stereopsis is directly related to quality of life, and investigating its levels following cataract surgery in children may help decide the right time to intervene, particularly in the context of brain plasticity. We conducted a systematic literature search using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science and found 25 case series, 3 cohorts, and 3 clinical trial studies from 1/1/1995 to 31/12/2020. Study-specific proportions of stereopsis from 923 children were pooled using a random-effects model, and stratified analyses were conducted based on intervention age and pre-existing strabismus as a confounder. We appraised the risk of bias using tools published by National Institutes of Health and evaluated publication bias with funnel plots and the Egger test. The pooled proportions of stereopsis based on 8 unilateral and 6 bilateral congenital cataract studies were 0.37 (95% CIs: [0.24, 0.53]) and 0.45 (95% CIs: [0.24,0.68]) when patients with preexisting strabismus were excluded as a confounder. When the intervention age was ≤6 months, proportions in unilateral congenital cataract group significantly increased to 0.52 (95% CIs: [0.37, 0.66]; P = 0.49) compared to 0.26 (95% CIs: [0.14, 0.44]; P = 0.16) otherwise. A similar increase in proportions was found when intervention age ≤4 months. In both unilateral and bilateral congenital cataract groups, proportions increased significantly when the confounder was excluded. Overall, proportions in bilateral congenital cataracts were significantly greater than unilateral cases (irrespective of confounder). Eight unilateral and 5 bilateral developmental cataract studies resulted in pooled proportions of 0.62 (95% CIs: [0.27, 0.88] and 0.82 (95% CIs: [0.4, 0.97]), respectively. Although proportions for bilateral developmental cataracts were greater than unilateral cataracts (irrespective of confounder), results were not statistically significant. Finally, proportions in unilateral developmental cataracts were significantly greater than unilateral congenital cataracts (Z = 7.413, P = 6.173694e-14). We conclude that surgical intervention within first 4-6 months can significantly affect postoperative outcomes in unilateral congenital cataracts. Analysis of existing data does not show a significant effect of intervention age on stereopsis outcomes for developmental cataracts.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Estrabismo , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Qualidade de Vida , Acuidade Visual , Extração de Catarata/métodos , Percepção de Profundidade , Catarata/complicações , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seguimentos
14.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 247: 114079, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke remains the second cause of death worldwide. The mechanisms underlying the adverse association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) with overall cardiovascular disease may also apply to stroke. Our objective was to systematically evaluate the epidemiological evidence regarding the associations of long-term exposure to TRAP with stroke. METHODS: PubMed and LUDOK electronic databases were searched systematically for observational epidemiological studies from 1980 through 2019 on long-term exposure to TRAP and stroke with an update in January 2022. TRAP was defined according to a comprehensive protocol based on pollutant and exposure assessment methods or proximity metrics. Study selection, data extraction, risk of bias (RoB) and confidence assessments were conducted according to standardized protocols. We performed meta-analyses using random effects models; sensitivity analyses were assessed by geographic area, RoB, fatality, traffic specificity and new studies. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included. The meta-analytic relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) were: 1.03 (0.98-1.09) per 1 µg/m3 EC, 1.09 (0.96-1.23) per 10 µg/m3 PM10, 1.08 (0.89-1.32) per 5 µg/m3 PM2.5, 0.98 (0.92; 1.05) per 10 µg/m3 NO2 and 0.99 (0.94; 1.04) per 20 µg/m3 NOx with little to moderate heterogeneity based on 6, 5, 4, 7 and 8 studies, respectively. The confidence assessments regarding the quality of the body of evidence and separately regarding the presence of an association of TRAP with stroke considering all available evidence were rated low and moderate, respectively. CONCLUSION: The available literature provides low to moderate evidence for an association of TRAP with stroke.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos
15.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104837, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of rhythmic movement interventions on the physical and cognitive functions among cognitively healthy older adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang Data, and VIP databases from inception to March 30, 2022. The inclusion criteria were: ① randomized controlled trials (RCTs); ② older adults (aged ≥ 60 years) without cognitive impairments or neurological or neurodegenerative diseases; ③ intervention: rhythmic movement (rhythmic exercise or physical activities performed to music); ④ outcomes: physical or cognitive function. Overall, 44 RCTs across 20 countries (n = 2752 participants) were included. RESULTS: An association was found between rhythmic movement and improved physical function (mobility, cardiopulmonary endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, and balance), global cognitive function, and quality of life (QOL). The physical function outcomes suggested additional significant benefits when using control groups with no exercise than when using control groups with exercise. No significant improvement was found in executive function. CONCLUSION: Regular rhythmic movement likely improves physical function, global cognitive function, and QOL in healthy older adults. The effect of rhythmic movement on the physical function in older adults is similar to that of routine exercise. Further studies on cognitive function of healthy older adults using larger samples of populations with more balanced sex ratios with long-term follow-up are particularly encouraged.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Idoso , Cognição/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Força Muscular
16.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154531, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (OS), a medicinal fungus, has been made into OS preparations, which are frequently used as adjunctive therapy for patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD) in China. It is necessary to assess the efficacy and safety of OS preparations in the adjunctive treatment of DKD by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: Ophiocordyceps sinensis preparations were evaluated for their efficacy and safety as adjunctive therapy to conventional drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)) for DKD. METHODS: We searched seven electronic literature databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ACEI/ARB and OS combined with ACEI/ARB from inception up to March 2022. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias independently. Evidence certainty was rated using the GRADE system. Standardized mean difference (SMD) or mean difference (MD) was pooled with random effects models and was reported with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis and Egger's test were performed using R software (version 14.2) (PROSPERO registration no. CRD42021248634). RESULTS: Thirty eight RCTs involving 3167 patients met the inclusion criteria. No trials were reported with outcomes about kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events. In meta-analysis, compared with the control group of ACEI/ARB alone, OS combined with ACEI/ARB can achieve better effects in the treatment of DKD on reducing serum creatinine (Scr) [MDScr =-11.48 95% CI [-15.78, -7.18], p < 0.01], blood urea nitrogen (BUN) [MDBUN= -1.00, 95% CI [-1.44, -0.55], p < 0.01], ß2-microglobulin (ß2-MG) [SMDß2-MG= -1.32, 95% CI [-2.27, -0.37], p < 0.01], cystatin C (CysC) [MDCysC=-0.64, 95% CI [-0.83, -0.45], p < 0.01], 24-h urine proteinuria (24hUP) [SMD24hUP= -1.99, 95% CI [-2.68; -1.31], p < 0.01], urine microalbumin (UALB) [MDUALB= -37.41, 95% CI [-44.76, -30.06], p < 0.01] and decreasing urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) [MDUAER= -24.11, 95% CI [-30.54, -17.68], p < 0.01] and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) [SMDACR = 1.01, 95% CI [-1.73, -0.29], p < 0.01]. The OS adjuvant treatment also improved outcomes of blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipid, inflammation and oxidative stress. No significant change in fasting blood glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), malondialdehyde (MDA), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1) was detected. Yet, no significant difference was found about the adverse events between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Ophiocordyceps sinensis preparation combined with ACEI/ARB has beneficial influence on renal function, decrease proteinuria, dyslipidemia, and even oxidative stress and inflammation in DKD patients. However, there is no trial that evaluated outcomes of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events. Future study should move beyond surrogate endpoints to actual cardiovascular or renal outcome benefits with an aim to explore effects of OS preparation in the long-term.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Cordyceps , Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Humanos , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Inflamação , Albuminas
17.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154541, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constipation is a common gastrointestinal disorder, which has seriously affected the quality of people's daily life. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) therapy takes syndrome differentiation and treatment as the theoretical guidance with certain advantages in treating constipation with the holistic approach. However, there are few studies on the treatment of constipation with Shouhui Tongbian Capsules (SHTB). PURPOSE: This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical effect and safety of SHTB in the treatment of constipation and provide evidence-based references for clinical application. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of existing literature on SHTB for treating constipation. METHODS: Chinese databases (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang Database and Chinese Scientific Journal Database) and English databases (PubMed, EmBase and the Cochrane Library) were thoroughly investigated through screening randomized controlled trials on SHTB for constipation from the establishment of all databases to September 26, 2022. Data extraction and quality evaluation were performed on the literature that met the inclusion criteria and a meta-analysis was performed for selected data using Review Manager 5.4, ROB 2.0 and Stata 17.0. RESULTS: A total of 14 RCTs (randomized controlled trial) including 1310 participants were included in the analysis. The results showed that the test group was superior to the control group in improving the total effective rate and curative effect, clinical symptom score, gastrointestinal peptide index and reducing adverse reactions and recurrence rate. The specific results were as follows: ① The total effective rate increased significantly (RR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.18, 1.30], Z = 8.25, p< 0.00001); ② The clinical symptom indexs, including the difficulty of defecation [SMD = -1.28, 95% CI (-1.44, -1.12), Z = 15.65, p< 0.00001], the frequency of spontaneous defecation [SMD = 1.28, 95% CI (1.01, 1.54), Z = 9.52, p< 0.00001], defecation interval [SMD = -1.47, 95% CI (-1.68, -1.26), Z = 13.79, p < 0.00001], incomplete defecation [SMD = -1.34, 95% CI (-1.57, -1.11), Z = 11.42, p < 0.00001], duration of defecation [SMD = -2.02, 95% CI (-2.39, -1.65), Z = 10.73, p < 0.00001], stool characteristics [SMD = -2.30, 95% CI (-2.60, -1.99), Z = 14.72, p< 0.00001] and TCM main syndrome scores [SMD = -1.25, 95% CI (-1.46, -1.05), Z = 11.79, p< 0.00001] increased observably; ③ The gastrointestinal peptide hormone indexs, including MTL Level [SMD = 0.43, 95% CI (0.24, 0.62), Z = 4.44, p < 0.00001] and SP Level [RR =0.57, 95% CI (0.37, 0.87), Z = 2.61, p = 0.009] were improved obviously; ④ The incidence of adverse reactions (RR = 0.57, 95% CI [0.37, 0.87], Z = 2.61, p = 0.009) and recurrence rate (RR = 0.31, 95% CI [0.18, 0.54], Z = 4.28, P <0.001) reduced significantly. Sensitivity analysis showed that there was no significant change in all outcome indicators, which suggested that the results of meta-analysis were relatively stable. Funnel plot and Egger test results showed that the literature included in the study might have publication bias. CONCLUSION: SHTB can be used to treat functional constipation, especially elderly functional constipation, constipation caused by tumor chemotherapy and disease concomitant constipation. The optimal dosage of SHTB was 0.70 g (2 capsules) each time, 3 times a day, for 28 days. Combined with basic treatment, lactose oral solution, mosaic or castor oil could improve the total effective rate, clinical symptom indicators, gastrointestinal peptide hormone indicators and reduce adverse reaction rate of patients. However, due to the limitations of the included clinical trials, high-quality clinical trials with long follow ups are needed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of SHTB in treating different types of constipation.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Hormônios Peptídicos , Humanos , Idoso , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Cápsulas , Hormônios Peptídicos/uso terapêutico , China , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 19(1): 5-15, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A multidisciplinary approach is required to tackle the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, which is one of the most pressing public health concerns worldwide. However, community pharmacists are underutilized in TB programs. OBJECTIVE: To identify community pharmacists-led interventions in TB management with their corresponding impacts in TB case detection and treatment outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in six electronic databases and health organization websites, from database inception to August 2, 2022. Studies which described TB screening, referral and/or treatment monitoring by community pharmacists with their corresponding outcomes were screened and reviewed independently by two reviewers. The studies were checked for the risk of bias using Cochrane risk of bias tools. All data of included studies were analysed qualitatively and presented narratively. RESULTS: The search yielded 8,121 studies and five reports for initial screening. Sixteen studies and two case study reports were included in this review. Community pharmacists were involved throughout the TB care cascade, contributing their services in TB screening, referrals and in directly observed treatment-short course (DOTS) program. These interventions showed improvements in the effective control and prevention of further spread of TB, which improves individual, community and population level outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of community pharmacists into TB program can improve the continuity of care, bridging the gaps in TB case detection and treatment monitoring. Adequate training and support are essential, to further empower the role of community pharmacists in TB control and prevention, in building a TB-free world.


Assuntos
Farmacêuticos , Tuberculose , Humanos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento , Atenção à Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Surv Ophthalmol ; 68(1): 113-125, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116526

RESUMO

Little is known about the comparative benefit of different positioning regimens in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair. We compared outcomes of different postoperative posturing regimens following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched from 2000 to February 2022 for original studies that compared at least 2 postoperative posturing regimens in adults who underwent PPV for RRD. Seven comparative studies and 703 eyes were included. There were no differences in final visual acuity between posturing regimens. Single-procedure reattachment rates were higher with alternative positioning compared to prone positioning in patients with inferior breaks. Prone and alternative positioning were associated with similar risks of complications. In contrast, prone posturing had a higher risk of neck pain and intraocular pressure elevation than support-the-break, which had a greater risk of retinal displacement, retinal folds, and binocular diplopia. Immediate prone positioning was superior to delayed prone for the risk of retinal displacement. The present review shows that prone positioning was associated with a lower reattachment rate than alternative positioning. There were trade-offs in complications between prone and support-the-break positioning. Retinal displacement could be mitigated when prone positioning is maintained immediately after surgery.


Assuntos
Descolamento Retiniano , Perfurações Retinianas , Adulto , Humanos , Descolamento Retiniano/cirurgia , Descolamento Retiniano/etiologia , Perfurações Retinianas/cirurgia , Vitrectomia/efeitos adversos , Vitrectomia/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia
20.
Patient Educ Couns ; 106: 17-30, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize how Asian Americans negotiate involvement in shared decision-making (SDM) with their providers, the cultural influences on SDM, and perceived barriers and facilitators to SDM. METHODS: This is a systematic review of qualitative studies. We searched six electronic databases and sources of gray literature until March 2021. Two reviewers independently screened studies, performed quality appraisal, and data extraction. Meta-synthesis was performed to summarize themes using a three-step approach. RESULTS: Twenty studies with 675 participants were included. We abstracted 275 initial codes and grouped these into 19 subthemes and 4 major themes: (1) negotiating power and differing expectations in SDM; (2) cultural influences on SDM; (3) importance of social support in SDM; and (4) supportive factors for facilitating SDM. CONCLUSIONS: Asian Americans have important perspectives, needs, and preferences regarding SDM that impacts how they engage with the provider on medical decisions and their perception of the quality of their care. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Asian American patients valued good communication and sufficient time with their provider, and that it is important for health professionals to understand patients' desired level of involvement in the SDM process and in the final decision, and who should be involved in SDM beyond the patient. OTHER: This systematic review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021241665).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Participação do Paciente , Tomada de Decisões
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