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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 816012, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712094

RESUMO

Objectives: To report the first series of testicular sex cord-stromal tumors (TSCSTs) with detailed clinicopathologic findings and long-term follow-up in the Chinese population. Patients and Methods: From 2008 to 2018, 15 patients with TSCST were included in our study. The tumors were analyzed for epidemiological parameters, clinical characteristics, tumor markers, therapy, and follow-up data. Results: The median age of the patients was 28 years (range, 13-80 years). Para-aortic lymph node metastases were detected in 2 patients after radiological evaluation. Orchiectomy was performed in all patients, and the median diameter of the tumor was 1.5 cm (range, 0.5-5.0 cm). Nine Leydig cell tumors (LCTs), 5 Sertoli cell tumors (SCTs), and 1 unclassified type were confirmed after pathologic evaluation. Thirteen patients (86.7%) were categorized as stage I, and 2 patients (13.3%) were categorized as stage II. The median clinical follow-up was 39.0 months (range, 5-97 months), which showed 10 alive patients, such as 1 patient with progression at 40 months after orchiectomy. The 3- and 5-year progression-free survivals were 100 and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion: Testicular sex cord-stromal tumor at stages I and II is a rare subtype with benign behavior and a favorable prognosis in the Chinese population. However, lymph node metastases may be the dominant risk factor for patients with TSCST.

2.
Eur Urol Open Sci ; 40: 46-53, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638085

RESUMO

Background: We have recommended active surveillance as the preferred management option for clinical stage I (CSI) testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) since 1980. Over time, the recommended intensity of surveillance has decreased; however, the impact on relapse detection has not been investigated. Objective: To examine relapse rate, time to relapse, extent of disease, and burden of treatment at relapse across decreasing surveillance intensity over time. Design setting and participants: CSI GCT patients under active surveillance from 1981 to 2021 were included in this study. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Through four major iterations in both nonseminomatous (NSGCT) and seminoma surveillance schedules, visit frequency, blood testing, and imaging have been decreased successively. Low-dose, noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scans were adopted in 2011. Categorical variables and time to relapse were compared using chi-square and Fisher's exact or Kruskal-Wallis test, respectively. Results and limitations: A total of 1583 consecutive patients (942 with seminoma and 641 with NSGCT) were included. In seminoma, chest x-rays were reduced from 13 to one and CT scans were reduced from 20 to ten. Relapse rate, time to relapse, N or M category, and International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification did not change. In NSGCT, chest x-rays were reduced from 27 to zero and CT scans were reduced from 11 to five. Relapse rate (from 46.2% to 21.2%, p = 0.002) and the median time to relapse (from 6.54 to 4.47 mo, p = 0.025) decreased. No difference in relapsed disease burden was identified by N, M, and S category or IGCCCG classification. Treatment burden at relapse and GCT cancer deaths remained similar for seminoma and NSGCT. Limitations include the retrospective design and large time period covered. Conclusions: Despite considerable reductions in surveillance intensity, we did not observe an increase in disease extent, treatment burden, or GCT cancer deaths upon relapse. These results support that our current lower-intensity active surveillance schedules are safe for managing CSI GCT. Patient summary: Our current reduced-intensity surveillance schedules for clinical stage I germ cell tumors appear to be safe.

3.
Cent European J Urol ; 75(1): 47-51, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35591957

RESUMO

Introduction: Small testicular lesions ≤20 mm (STL) detected by ultrasound (US), usually non-palpable, have been reported to be benign in up to 80% of cases. Thus, partial orchiectomy with or without frozen section examination and surveillance has been advocated for these kinds of lesions. We seek to report the proportion of benign lesions in testicular tumors ≤20 mm detected by US in our population and explore the predicting factors of malignancy. Material and methods: A retrospective descriptive study of orchiectomies performed for testicular tumors in patients older than 15 years between 2005 and 2019 was performed, including all patients with lesions ≤20 mm on US imaging. Results: A total of 70 patients with STL were included (mean age 34.6 ±10.8 years). Overall, 69% of the lesions were malignant while the smallest lesions (≤10 mm) showed 61% of cancer. Moreover, in the subgroup of non-palpable lesions ≤10 mm, 50% were malignant. Multifocal tumors were found in 18 subjects with a malignancy rate of 88%. There was a significant association between maximum size on US, multifocality and malignancy. Neither tumor markers nor palpability foretold a malignant lesion. A predictive model including size and multifocality was created showing a positive predictive value of 83.3%. Conclusions: US maximum size and multifocality were predictors of malignancy in STL. However, even the smallest lesions showed a 50% chance of being malignant, thus surgery with or without intraoperative biopsy is warranted in most cases.

4.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hyperemesis gravidarum is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, frequently resulting in severe maternal nutritional deficiency. Maternal undernutrition is associated with adverse offspring health outcomes. Whether hyperemesis gravidarum permanently affects offspring health remains unclear. This review aimed to evaluate the effects of maternal hyperemesis gravidarum on offspring health. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Embase were searched from inception to September 6, 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies reporting on health at any age beyond the perinatal period of children born to mothers with hyperemesis gravidarum were included. METHODS: Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was used to assess risk of bias. We conducted a narrative synthesis and meta-analysis where possible. In meta-analyses with high heterogeneity (I2>75%), we did not provide a pooled odds ratio. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included in this systematic review (n=1,814,785 offspring). Meta-analysis (n=619, 2 studies: 1 among adolescents and 1 among adults) showed that hyperemesis gravidarum was associated with anxiety disorder (odds ratio, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.91; I2, 0%) and sleep problems in offspring (odds ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-6.93; I2, 0%). Hyperemesis gravidarum was associated with testicular cancer in male offspring aged up to 40 years on meta-analysis (5 studies, n=20,930 offspring), although heterogeneity was observed on the basis of a wide 95% prediction interval (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.39; I2, 0%; 95% prediction interval, 0.83-3.08). All 6 studies reporting on attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder and autism spectrum disorder reported an increase among children of mothers with hyperemesis gravidarum in comparison with children of unaffected mothers. Meta-analysis showed high heterogeneity, precluding us from reporting a pooled odds ratio. Most studies reporting on cognitive and motor problems found an increase among hyperemesis gravidarum-exposed children. One study investigated brain structure and found smaller cortical volumes and areas among children from hyperemesis gravidarum-affected pregnancies than among those from unaffected pregnancies. Studies evaluating anthropometry and cardiometabolic disease risk of hyperemesis gravidarum-exposed children had inconsistent findings. CONCLUSION: Our systematic review showed that maternal hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with small increases in adverse health outcomes among children, including neurodevelopmental disorders, mental health disorders, and possibly testicular cancer, although evidence is based on few studies of low quality.

5.
Rev Int Androl ; 20(2): 128-135, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181252

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of our study is to analyze the imaging findings described in MRI and the histopathologic type of testicular lesions to determine which findings are the best predictors of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty six (46) patients with testicular lesions were initially studied with ultrasound (US) and with testicular MRI (tMRI) on a 1.5-T magnet. MRIs were reviewed by a radiologist with 8 years of experience and imaging findings such as the size of the lesion, the signal intensity in T1, T2 weighted sequences, and the enhancement after endovenous contrast administration, were correlated with the histopathologic diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were analyzed. RESULTS: The enhancement after administration of contrast was the finding of better performance with a sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 90 (71-97), 47 (24-71), 74 (56-87) and 73 (40-92), respectively. Meanwhile, the results for hypointense/heterogeneous lesions in T2 weighted sequences and with enhancement with intravenous contrast were 87 (49-84), 47 (44-89), 74 (55-86) y 67 (35-89), respectively. CONCLUSION: The finding of a testicular lesion of low signal intensity and heterogeneous in T2 weighted sequences, with IV contrast enhancement represents a valuable predictor of malignancy. The latter being the most sensitive as a predictor of malignancy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Neoplasias Testiculares , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia
6.
J Urol ; 207(5): 1057-1066, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978466

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for men with clinical stage (CS) I or II testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) has both staging and therapeutic implications. We aimed to investigate the impact of lymph node count (LNC) on outcome after primary RPLND for men with CS I or II NSGCT using a nationally representative data set. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of men who received a primary RPLND for CS I or II NSGCT was performed using the National Cancer Database. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine overall survival (OS) according to LNC. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with LNC >20 and factors predictive of lymph node-positive (pN+) disease after primary RPLND. RESULTS: Of 1,376 men who comprised our analytical cohort, 50.1% and 49.9% had 1-20 lymph nodes (LNs) and >20 LNs removed, respectively. Five-year OS rates were 96.4% and 99.1% for men with 1-20 and >20 LNs resected, respectively (p=0.004). A higher proportion of men with >20 LNs removed were treated at academic centers, had private insurance, presented with higher AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) CS and were more likely to have pN+ disease, compared to those with 1-20 LNs removed. Factors significantly associated with pN+ disease after RPLND include higher AJCC CS and LNC (per 10-count increase). CONCLUSIONS: Higher LNC after primary RPLND significantly increases the likelihood of identifying pN+ disease and is associated with improved OS. Our data support the therapeutic implications of a thoroughly performed RPLND in the primary setting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Neoplasias Testiculares , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/cirurgia , Espaço Retroperitoneal/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Urol ; 207(3): 694-700, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We performed a retrospective, single-institution study to characterize the pathological findings of testis tissue specimens from older boys and adolescents with cryptorchidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With institutional review board approval, pathology reports were obtained for testicular specimens from patients age 10 years or older at a pediatric hospital from 1994 to 2016. Reports were excluded if they lacked clinical records, lacked testicular parenchyma, were from a descended testis or were from a patient with differences of sexual development. Variables of interest included age, testis location, procedure and pathological findings. Presence of malignancy among intra-abdominal versus extra-abdominal undescended testes was compared using Fisher's Exact Test. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients met inclusion criteria. The median age was 15.3 years (range 10.1-27.7). None had a history of testicular malignancy. Forty-five unilateral orchiectomies, 22 unilateral orchiopexies with biopsy and 4 bilateral procedures were performed. Seventeen testes (22.7%) were intra-abdominal, 42 (56.0%) were in the inguinal canal, 9 (12.0%) were at the external inguinal ring, 3 (4.0%) were in the superficial inguinal pouch and 4 (5.3%) were in the scrotum. Malignancy was detected in 2/71 patients (2.8%). By location, 2/16 patients (12.5%) with intra-abdominal testis and 0/55 patients (0%) with extra-abdominal testis demonstrated malignancy (p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Among males with cryptorchidism ages 10 years and older without differences of sexual development, 2/16 patients with intra-abdominal testis and 0/55 patients with extra-abdominal testis demonstrated malignancy. In older boys and adolescents, orchiectomy or biopsy is indicated for intra-abdominal testes but may not be necessary for extra-abdominal undescended testes.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Masculino , Orquiectomia , Orquidopexia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Tumori ; 108(2): 165-171, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588700

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate local control and longitudinal endocrine data in monorchid patients treated with testicular-sparing surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for seminomatous germ-cell tumors. METHODS: We searched our database established in 2009 for patients with seminoma who received testis irradiation following partial orchiectomy up to 2018. Eleven patients were identified. All had associated germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) in surrounding parenchyma. Analysis focused on local control and testosterone levels preservation after RT. We considered age, baseline (pre-RT) testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, residual testicular volume, tumor size, and testosterone and LH levels trend over time in order to identify any association with endocrine impairment leading to hormonal replacement need. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 21 months, no local or distant relapses were observed and hormonal function was maintained in 54.5% of patients (6/11). No significant interactions were observed for the investigated covariates. Notably, we observed an association between higher baseline testosterone levels and a decreased risk of exogenous androgen replacement (hazard ratio [HR] 0.409, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.161-1.039, p = 0.060), whereas tumor size was associated with an increased risk of exogenous androgen replacement (HR 1.847, 95% CI 0.940-3.627, p = 0.075). CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy after testicular sparing surgery is effective in preventing local disease relapse in presence of GCNIS in the medium term. This strategy allows a preservation of adequate endocrine function in about half of patients. More patients and longer follow-up are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/cirurgia , Orquiectomia , Seminoma/patologia , Seminoma/radioterapia , Seminoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Testiculares/radioterapia , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia
9.
Asian J Androl ; 24(2): 201-206, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528518

RESUMO

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a new form of ultrasound (US) that can dynamically display microvessels in a highly sensitive manner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of CEUS for characterizing testicular lesions in comparison with conventional US. Forty-seven patients with testicular lesions were enrolled. The histopathology results revealed that 31 cases were neoplastic (11 cases of seminomas, 8 nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, 8 lymphomas, 2 Leydig cell tumors, and 2 nonspecific tumors), and 16 cases were nonneoplastic (8 cases of infarctions, 3 epidermoid cysts, and 5 inflammation). The indicators of shallow lobulated morphology and cystic-solid echogenicity on conventional US were suggestive of germ cell tumors. More indicators on CEUS were found to be useful for characterizing testicular lesions. All the neoplastic lesions showed hyperenhancement on CEUS. Moreover, germ cell tumors presented with heterogeneous enhancement (73.7%, 14/19), a twisted blood vessel pattern, rapid wash-in and wash-out, and peripheral rim hyperenhancement signs. Lymphoma was characterized by nonbranching linear vessel patterns (87.5%, 7/8), rapid wash-in and slow wash-out. In nonneoplastic lesions, infarction and epidermoid cysts showed no enhancement, and abscesses were observed with marginal irregular enhancement. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CEUS for differentiating between neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions were 100%, 93.8%, and 97.9%, respectively, and these values were higher than those for conventional US (90.3%, 62.5%, and 80.9%, respectively). CEUS can sensitively reflect the microvascular perfusion in testicular lesions and offers high accuracy for characterizing them.


Assuntos
Cisto Epidérmico , Linfoma , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Neoplasias Testiculares , Meios de Contraste , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between parental prenatal exposures in wood-related jobs and risk of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) in offspring. METHODS: NORD-TEST, a registry-based case-control study in Sweden, Finland and Norway, included 8112 TGCT cases diagnosed at ages 14-49 years between 1978 and 2012 with no history of prior cancer, and up to four controls matched to each case on year and country of birth. Parents of cases and controls were identified via linkages with the population registries and their occupational information was retrieved from censuses. The Nordic Occupational Cancer Study Job-Exposure Matrix was used to assign occupational exposures to each parent. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Maternal wood-related job was not associated with the risk of TGCT in offspring (OR 1.08, CI 0.55-2.14), while paternal wood-related job was associated with a decreased risk of TGCT in offspring (OR 0.85, CI 0.75-0.96). None of the specific wood-related jobs, such as upholsterers, sawyers, or construction carpenters, were significantly associated with a risk of TGCT. Only exception was observed in a sensitivity analysis which showed an increased risk in the small group of sons of fathers working as 'cabinetmakers and joiners' the year before conception (OR of 2.06, CI 1.00-4.25). CONCLUSION: This large-scale NORD-TEST analysis provided no evidence of an association between parental prenatal exposures in wood-related jobs and TGCT in sons.

11.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19517, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934542

RESUMO

Testicular plasmacytoma is a rare extramedullary manifestation of plasma cell dyscrasia. We report a case of a 53-year-old man who presented with a metachronous testicular lesion originating from a soft tissue plasmacytoma of the oral cavity. He underwent radical orchiectomy and a year later, presented with testicular plasmacytoma in the contralateral testis. He received induction chemotherapy, autologous stem cell transplantation with high dose melphalan and maintenance with lenalidomide, as he refused orchiectomy and achieved complete remission. However, six months post-transplant, he relapsed with localized disease in his testis, received second-line chemotherapy, after refusing orchiectomy and still remains in partial remission and alive.

12.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(6): 1178-1182, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916701

RESUMO

Testicular rhabdomyosarcoma is relatively rare in testicular tumors, but the age of patient is relatively young and the degree of malignancy is high. Therefore, this article introduces 4 cases of testicular rhabdomyosarcoma who were admitted to Peking University Third Hospital from May 1994 to February 2019, and reviews the literature to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. The average age of the 4 patients was 17.5 years (14-21 years), the average hospital stay was 22.0 d (17-31 d), and the average body mass index was 19.6 kg/m2 (14.7-25.8 kg/m2). All the patients underwent routine preoperative blood and urine routine, biochemical tests, as well as serum tumor markers. Preoperative examinations also included chest radiograph, electrocardiogram, ultrasound of the scrotum and groin, and abdominal enhanced CT. Lung CT or other examinations were performed if necessary. The median serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) of the 4 patients was 0.20 IU/L (0.06-0.86 IU/L) (all normal), and the median serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was 1.03 g/L (0.65-1.66 g/L) (all normal). The average maximum diameter of the tumor was 10.0 cm (4.5-15.0 cm). Testicular rhabdomyosarcoma was mainly diagnosed by pathology. The main treatment was radical orchiectomy combined with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, with or without postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. The clinical manifestations of the patients with testicular rhabdomyosarcoma had no specific characteristics, but most patients were young at onset with mainly painless masses in the testicles, which were already large when they were found. Patients with testicular rhabdomyosarcoma have a poor prognosis, most of whom recur within two years. Because of the small number of cases of testicular rhabdomyosarcoma, there is no standard treatment currently. It is recommended that patients with testicular rhabdomyosarcoma undergo radical testicular resection combined with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor, and patients with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy can still survive for a longer time. If local recurrence or limited metastasis is found after operation, local resection and salvage radiotherapy are feasible.


Assuntos
Rabdomiossarcoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Adolescente , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Masculino , Rabdomiossarcoma/diagnóstico , Rabdomiossarcoma/terapia , Escroto
13.
Eur J Radiol ; 145: 110000, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741987

RESUMO

Conventional US is the primary imaging modality for the evaluation of the scrotum, due to its high resolution, availability, cost-effectiveness and absence of ionizing radiation. Grayscale and color Doppler US provide a comprehensive assessment of scrotal diseases. The technique represents the mainstay for imaging of acute scrotum. US is highly accurate in the detection, localization and characterization of scrotal masses. Multiparametric US, including conventional US, contrast-enhanced US and tissue elastography has improved the diagnostic performance of the technique in the assessment of testicular diseases. MRI represents a valuable supplemental imaging tool for the investigation of scrotal pathology, mainly recommended in cases of indeterminate US findings. Recommendations recently issued by the European Society of Urogenital Radiology Scrotal and Penile Imaging Working Group (ESUR-SPIWG) refer to the use of scrotal sonography for the evaluation of pathologic entities, including testicular microlithiasis, small, non-palpable incidentally detected testicular masses, varicocele and scrotal trauma. In this review, the technical specifications for scrotal US and the normal sonographic findings are presented. Grayscale and color Doppler US findings of common acute scrotal diseases and scrotal masses are discussed. The complimentary role of multiparametric US and scrotal MRI is addressed. ESUR-SPIWG's guidelines are also reviewed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos , Escroto , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pênis/diagnóstico por imagem , Escroto/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
14.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 280, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidence of testicular cancer is highest among young adults and has been increasing dramatically for men born since 1945. This study aimed to elucidate the factors driving this trend by investigating differences in mutational signatures by age of onset. METHODS: We retrieved somatic variant and clinical data pertaining to 135 testicular tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We compared mutational load, prevalence of specific mutated genes, mutation types, and mutational signatures between age of onset groups (< 30 years, 30-39 years, ≥ 40 years) after adjusting for subtype. A recursively partitioned mixture model was utilized to characterize combinations of signatures among the young-onset cases. RESULTS: Mutational load was significantly higher among older-onset tumors (p < 0.05). There were no highly prevalent driver mutations among young-onset tumors. Mutated genes and types of nucleotide mutations were not significantly different by age group (p > 0.05). Signatures 1, 8 and 29 were more common among young-onset tumors, while signatures 11 and 16 had higher prevalence among older-onset tumors (p < 0.05). Among young-onset tumors, clustering of signatures resulted in four distinct tumor classes. CONCLUSIONS: Signature contributions differ by age with signatures 1, 8 and 29 were more common among younger-onset tumors. While these signatures are connected with endogenous deamination of 5-methylcytosine, late replication errors and chewing tobacco, respectively, additional research is needed to further elucidate the etiology of young-onset testicular cancer. Large studies of mutational signatures among young-onset patients are required to understand epidemiologic trends as well as inform targeted prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Neoplasias Testiculares , Adulto , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
BJUI Compass ; 2(5): 306-321, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review on the effects of testicular sparing surgery (TSS) on the oncological, functional, and hormonal outcomes of adults with testicular tumors. METHODS: A literature search was performed after PROSPERO registration (CRD42020200842) and reported in compliance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methods. We conducted a systematic search of Medline (Ovid), Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO/ICTRP from inception to November 20, 2020. Manuscripts and published abstracts were included if they involved testis-sparing surgery (TSS) and contained data on any outcomes related to fertility, hormonal parameters, or oncological control, or if they evaluated surgical technique. RESULTS: Our initial search yielded 3,370 manuscripts, with 269 of these screened for full-text eligibility. After our exclusion criteria were applied, 32 studies were included in the final analysis. Oncological outcomes were obtained from 12 studies (average follow-up 57.8 months), functional data from 26 studies (average follow-up 49.6 months), fertility information from 10 studies (average follow-up 55.8 months), and data on nonpalpable tumors from 11 studies (average follow-up 32.1 months). Oncological control appears to be excellent in studies that reported these outcomes. Presence of germ cell neoplasia in situ was controlled with adjuvant radiation in nearly all cases. Functional outcomes are also promising, as development of primary and compensated hypogonadism was rare. Semen parameters are poor preoperatively among men with benign and malignant testis tumors, with occasional decline after TSS. Frozen section analysis at the time of surgery appears to be very reliable, and the majority of nonpalpable tumors appear to be benign. CONCLUSIONS: TSS is a safe and efficacious technique with regards to oncological control and postoperative hormonal function based on retrospective, noncontrolled studies. TSS avoids unnecessary removal of benign testicular tissue, and should be given serious consideration in cases of nonpalpable, small tumors under 2 cm. In cases of malignancy, TSS can safely avoid anorchia in men with bilateral tumors and in men with solitary testicles. The use of the operating microscope, while theoretically promising, does not necessarily lead to better outcomes, however data are limited.

17.
Res Vet Sci ; 140: 64-68, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411998

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Synchronous primary tumors are considered severe, comorbid conditions in people representing neoplasm that develop independently and concomitantly. A diagnosis of synchronous tumors was made in a dog, underlying the difficulties to reach it without the aid of multiple diagnostic techniques aimed to demonstrate the simultaneous coexistence of different tumor types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 7-year-old male Boxer dog presented several tumors located on the skin of the left hind limb and the scrotal region. Moreover, additional tumors in the testicles, after palpation and ultrasound examination, were detected. Following diagnostic results, the cutaneous tumor, scrotum, and testes were surgically removed. RESULTS: Pathological investigations revealed the presence of five different tumors: a cutaneous mast cell tumor; a scrotal melanocytoma; three testicular neoplasms (Sertoli Sustentacular cell tumor, seminoma, and interstitial Leydig cell tumor). CONCLUSIONS: The present report describes a neoplastic synchronism due to the presence of five different primary tumors in a dog and, for the first time the presence of a collision testicular tumor together with other non-testicular primary tumors. The occasional finding underlines the importance of the knowledge of such conditions in the process of decision-making and in carrying out all the proper diagnostic procedures for a correct diagnosis and clinical staging.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Tumor de Células de Leydig , Seminoma , Tumor de Células de Sertoli , Neoplasias Testiculares , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Tumor de Células de Leydig/veterinária , Masculino , Escroto/diagnóstico por imagem , Seminoma/veterinária , Tumor de Células de Sertoli/veterinária , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/veterinária
18.
Eur J Radiol Open ; 8: 100372, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is essential to see if MRI can be used as an alternative to CT for the detection of retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy in patients with testicular neoplasms. By doing so, the amount of radiation received by these young patients might be reduced. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic literature review was carried out in 5 databases between January 1984 until December 2020. The articles included were randomized and non-randomized clinical trials, cross-sectional studies, cohort, case and control, and retrospective studies that compare the accuracy of MRI against CT to detect retroperitoneal lymph nodes in patients with testicular neoplasms. RESULTS: The search string initially retrieved 222 non duplicated papers from which a total of 3 studies of diagnostic accuracy were included for analysis. These articles evaluated a total of 127 patients with testicular neoplasm; the sample size per study ranged from 25 to 52 patients, with a mean age between 29-34 years. MRI presented a sensitivity ranging from 98-80% and specificity of 100 % when read by an experienced radiologist. However, when it was read by a radiologist with 1 year of experience, the sensitivity dropped to 78 % and specificity to 91%. CONCLUSION: This systematic literature review shows a knowledge gap since not much has been published regarding this topic; therefore, randomized clinical trials are mandatory. Research on when to use MRI over CT is necessary to reduce radiation exposure. The authors strongly suggest that readers start researching on this subject.

19.
J Urol ; 206(6): 1430-1437, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Presence of teratoma in the orchiectomy and residual retroperitoneal mass size are known predictors of finding teratoma during postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND). We sought to determine if the percentage of teratoma in the orchiectomy specimen could better stratify the risk of teratoma in the retroperitoneum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Indiana University Testis Cancer Database was reviewed to identify patients who underwent PC-RPLND for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors from 2010 to 2018. A logistic regression model was fit to predict the presence of retroperitoneal teratoma using teratoma and yolk sac tumor in the orchiectomy, residual mass size and log transformed values of prechemotherapy alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin. The study cohort was split into 60% training and 40% validation sets using 200 bootstraps. A predictive nomogram was developed for predicting teratoma in the retroperitoneum. RESULTS: A total of 422 men were included. Presence of teratoma in the orchiectomy (OR 1.02, p <0.001), residual mass size (OR 1.16, p <0.001) and log transformed prechemotherapy AFP (OR 1.12, p=0.002) were predictive factors for having teratoma in the retroperitoneum. The C-statistic using this model demonstrated a predictive ability of 0.77. Training set C-statistic was 0.78 compared to 0.75 for the validation set. A nomogram was developed to aid in clinical utility. CONCLUSIONS: The model better predicts patients at higher risk for teratoma in the retroperitoneum following chemotherapy, which can aid in a more informed referral for surgical resection.


Assuntos
Excisão de Linfonodo , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/cirurgia , Orquiectomia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/epidemiologia , Teratoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arch Iran Med ; 24(4): 301-305, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ectopic adrenal tissue is a rare condition associated with embryological development defects seen in many different areas in the abdomen and pelvis. Here, we aimed to discuss the clinicopathological features of ectopic adrenal tissues diagnosed in our clinic, in light of the literature. METHODS: We included cases of ectopic adrenal tissues incidentally detected in the specimens from patients undergoing operation for various diagnoses during 2012- March 2020. The cases were examined according to gender, age, location and accompanying pathological diagnoses. During this period, 15 cases of ectopic adrenal tissues (6 paratubal, 3 paraovarian, 2 paratesticular, 1 spermatic cord, 1 paraaortic, 1 liver capsule, 1 omentum) were detected accompanied by two endometrial carcinomas, two serous cystadenomas, one seminoma, one mixed germ cell tumor, one bilateral ovarian serous carcinoma and hepatic high-grade colon adenocarcinoma metastasis. RESULTS: In this report, the fifth ectopic adrenal tissue accompanying a malignant testicular tumor, the fifth and sixth ectopic adrenal tissues occurring with ovarian serous cystadenoma, the first case observed with serous cystadenocarcinoma and the first case detected with hepatic adenocarcinoma metastasis are presented. Our cases are mostly women and adult men. CONCLUSION: Ectopic adrenal tissues can lead to hormonal problems and also to adrenal cortex and medulla neoplasms. Microscopically, they may be confused with clear cell gynecological and germ cell tumors. If the ectopic focus is misdiagnosed as an implant, a benign entity may be incorrectly reported as malignant. Also, it is important to prevent mis-staging in malignancies. For precise diagnosis, an immunopanel such as inhibin, melan A, and calretinin can be performed.


Assuntos
Coristoma , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Neoplasias Testiculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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