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1.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552240

RESUMO

Introdução: O câncer de pulmão é uma doença grave, sendo a segunda maior causa de morte em todo o mundo, entretanto, em alguns países desenvolvidos, tornou-se já a primeira causa de morte. Cerca de 90% dos casos de neoplasia pulmonares são causados pela inalação da fumaça do cigarro. Objetivo: Correlacionar a prevalência de tabagismo e morbimortalidade por câncer de pulmão nos estados brasileiros, além de demonstrar a associação destes com sexo e faixa etária. Métodos: Estudo de caráter ecológico acerca da prevalência de tabagismo e morbimortalidade por câncer de pulmão nos estados brasileiros, nos períodos de 2013 e 2019, dividida por sexo e faixa etária. Foram utilizados bancos de coleta de dados como o Tabnet e Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. Resultados: As maiores taxas de mortalidade e internações hospitalares foram do público masculino, em 2013, com taxa de 2,7 e 10, respectivamente, e em 2019 com 3,3 e 11,9, respectivamente. Ademais, a maior prevalência de tabagismo foi encontrada nos homens; entretanto seu índice tem caído, enquanto a quantidade de mulheres tabagistas tem aumentado. A Região Sul demonstrou maiores números de mortalidade em ambos os períodos estudados, com taxas de 4,9 e 5,8 por 100 mil habitantes, e morbidade hospitalar com 19,9 e 23,5 por 100 mil habitantes. Já a Região Norte se configurou com as menores prevalências: em 2013 apresentou taxa de óbito por câncer de pulmão de 1,0 e morbidade hospitalar de 3,5/100 mil habitantes, em 2019 apresentou taxa de mortalidade de 4,6 e internações de 1,6/100 mil habitantes. Os coeficientes de correlação de morbidade hospitalar e prevalência de tabagismo foram R2=0,0628, r=0,251 e p=0,042, enquanto os de mortalidade e prevalência de tabagismo foram R2=0,0337, r=0,183 e p=0,140. Conclusões: Na presente pesquisa, pode-se inferir que houve associação positiva na comparação entre taxa de morbidade hospitalar e prevalência de tabagismo; em contrapartida, não foi possível observar associação positiva na correlação da taxa de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão e prevalência de tabagismo.


Introduction: Lung cancer is a serious disease, being the second leading cause of death worldwide. Moreover, in some developed countries, it has already become the leading cause of death. About 90% of lung cancer cases are caused by cigarette smoking. Objective: To correlate the prevalence of smoking and lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Brazilian states, and to demonstrate their association with sex and age group as well. Methods: An ecological study on the prevalence of smoking and lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Brazilian states between 2013 and 2019, divided by sex and age group. The data collection databases Tabnet and National Health Survey were used. Results: The highest rates of mortality and hospital admissions were among men, in 2013 with a rate of 2.7 and 10, respectively, and in 2019 with 3.3 and 11.9, respectively. In addition, the highest prevalence of smoking was found in men, but this rate has fallen, while the number of women smokers has increased. The South region showed higher mortality rates in both periods studied, with rates of 4.9 and 5.8 per 100,000 inhabitants, and hospital morbidity with 19.9 and 23.5 per 100,000 inhabitants. The North region had the lowest prevalence, where in 2013, it had a death rate from lung cancer of 1.0 and hospital morbidity of 3.5/100 thousand inhabitants, and where in 2019, it had a mortality rate of 4.6 and hospitalizations of 1.6/100 thousand inhabitants. The correlation coefficients for hospital morbidity and smoking prevalence were R2=0.0628, r=0.251 and p=0.042, while for mortality and smoking prevalence, these were R2=0.0337, r=0.183 and p=0.140. Conclusions: In the present study, it can be inferred that there was a positive association between hospital morbidity rate and prevalence of smoking, while it was not possible to observe a correlation between lung cancer mortality rate and prevalence of smoking.


Introducción: El cáncer de pulmón es una enfermedad grave, siendo la segunda causa de muerte en todo el mundo, sin embargo, en algunos países desarrollados, ya se ha convertido en la primera causa de muerte. Alrededor del 90% de los casos de neoplasias pulmonares están causados por la inhalación del humo del cigarrillo. Objetivo: Correlacionar la prevalencia de tabaquismo y la morbimortalidad por cáncer de pulmón en los estados brasileños, además de demostrar la asociación de estos con el género y el grupo de edad. Métodos: estudio ecológico sobre la prevalencia de tabaquismo y morbimortalidad por cáncer de pulmón en los estados brasileños, dentro de los períodos 2013 y 2019, divididos por sexo y grupo de edad. Se utilizaron bancos de recogida de datos como Tabnet y la Encuesta Nacional de Salud. Resultados: las mayores tasas de mortalidad e ingresos hospitalarios se dieron en el público masculino, en 2013 con una tasa de 2,7 y 10, respectivamente, y en 2019 con 3,3 y 11,9, respectivamente. Además, la mayor prevalencia del tabaquismo se encontró en los hombres, sin embargo, su tasa ha disminuido, mientras que la cantidad de mujeres fumadoras ha aumentado. La región Sur presentó cifras más altas de mortalidad en ambos periodos estudiados, con tasas de 4,9 y 5,8 por 100.000 habitantes, y de morbilidad hospitalaria con 19,9 y 23,5 por 100.000 habitantes. Mientras que la región Norte se configuró con las prevalencias más bajas, en 2013 presentó una tasa de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón de 1,0 y una morbilidad hospitalaria de 3,5/100.000 habitantes, en 2019 presentó una tasa de mortalidad de 4,6 y hospitalizaciones de 1,6/100.000 habitantes. Los coeficientes de correlación para la morbilidad hospitalaria y la prevalencia del tabaquismo fueron R2=0,0628, r=0,251 y p=0,042, mientras que para la mortalidad y la prevalencia del tabaquismo fueron R2=0,0337, r=0,183 y p=0,140. Conclusiones: En la presente investigación se puede inferir que existe una asociación positiva en la comparación entre la tasa de morbilidad hospitalaria y la prevalencia de tabagismo, en contrapartida, no fue posible observar una asociación positiva en la correlación de la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón y la prevalencia de tabagismo.

2.
Health Policy ; 147: 105123, 2024 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39018787

RESUMO

For several decades, Aotearoa New Zealand has maintained a relatively strict regulatory approach towards tobacco. In response to the significant impact of tobacco-related illnesses, many countries worldwide have worked to enhance tobacco control measures. These efforts include introducing plain tobacco packaging with graphic health warnings, improving access to smoking cessation services and offering supportive treatments for tobacco dependence. In December 2022, New Zealand enacted world-leading tobacco control legislation aimed at leading the nation towards a 'smokefree' future by 2025, a future where the smoking prevalence falls below 5 percent across all population groups. To achieve this goal, revolutionary measures were needed. These measures included denicotinising cigarettes, reducing the number of tobacco retail outlets, and implementing a generational ban on smoked products. Despite receiving support from academics, clinicians, leaders of local indigenous communities, and the general public, the sixth National-led coalition government remained resolute in repealing the law and did so through parliamentary urgency on 27 February 2024. The reversal of this health policy is anticipated to result in thousands of lives lost and widen life expectancy gaps between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. This decision, driven by political agenda objectives and interference from the tobacco industry, has not only impeded New Zealand's progress but also weakened global efforts in tobacco control.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 92: 102623, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39018889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is still frequent in Italy and a major cause of cancer globally. We estimated the burden of smoking-related cancer in Italy. METHODS: To calculate the population attributable fraction (PAF), we adopted a counterfactual scenario for which all individuals never smoked. The PAF of current and former smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) was estimated for cancers associated with these habits according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Relative risk estimates and prevalence of exposure were derived from large-scale studies and national surveys, respectively. A 20-year latency period between exposure and cancer was considered. Cancer incidence data for 2020 and mortality data for 2017 were obtained from the Italian Association of Cancer Registries. RESULTS: Tobacco smoking caused, in men and women respectively, 90.0 % and 58.3 % of lung; 67.8 % and 53.5 % of pharyngeal; 47.0 % and 32.2 % of bladder; 45.9 % and 31.7 % of oral; 36.6 % and 23.6 % of esophageal; 23.0 % and 14.0 % of pancreatic cancer and lower percentages of cancers at other sites. Tobacco smoking accounted for 23.9 % and 7.7 % of new cancer cases in 2020, and 32.1 % and 11.3 % of cancer deaths in 2017 in men and women, respectively, corresponding to 17.3 % of cases and 24.5 % of cancer deaths overall. The PAF of lung cancer due to SHS in never smoking women married with smokers was 13.0 %. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is a primary cause of cancer in Italy in both sexes. Tobacco control policies are warranted.

4.
Physiol Plant ; 176(4): e14436, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39019771

RESUMO

Small secreted peptides (SSPs), serving as signaling molecules for intercellular communication, play significant regulatory roles in plant growth, development, pathogen immunity, and responses to abiotic stress. Despite several SSPs, such as PIP, PSK, and PSY having been identified to participate in plant immunity, the majority of SSPs remain understudied, necessitating the exploration and identification of SSPs regulating plant immunity from vast genomic resources. Here we systematically characterized 756 putative SSPs across the genome of Nicotiana tabacum. 173 SSPs were further annotated as established SSPs, such as nsLTP, CAPE, and CEP. Furthermore, we detected the expression of 484 putative SSP genes in five tissues, with 83 SSPs displaying tissue-specific expression. Transcriptomic analysis of tobacco roots under plant defense hormones revealed that 46 SSPs exhibited specific responsiveness to salicylic acid (SA), and such response was antagonistically regulated by methyl jasmonate. It's worth noting that among these 46 SSPs, 16 members belong to nsLTP family, and one of them, NtLTP25, was discovered to enhance tobacco's resistance against Phytophthora nicotianae. Overexpression of NtLTP25 in tobacco enhanced the expression of ICS1, subsequently stimulating the biosynthesis of SA and the expression of NPR1 and pathogenesis-related genes. Concurrently, NtLTP25 overexpression activated genes associated with ROS scavenging, consequently mitigating the accumulation of ROS during the subsequent phases of pathogenesis. These discoveries indicate that these 46 SSPs, especially the 16 nsLTPs, might have a vital role in governing plant immunity that relies on SA signaling. This offers a valuable source for pinpointing SSPs involved in regulating plant immunity.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Nicotiana , Doenças das Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas , Nicotiana/genética , Nicotiana/imunologia , Nicotiana/metabolismo , Nicotiana/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/genética , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
5.
Health Econ ; 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39020467

RESUMO

We study the impact of vertical identification card laws, which changed the orientation of driver's licenses and state identification cards from horizontal to vertical for those under 21 years, on teenage tobacco and alcohol use. We study this question using four national datasets (pooled national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, National Youth Tobacco Survey, Current Population Survey to Tobacco Use Supplements, and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System). We improve previous databases of vertical ID law implementation by using original archival research to identify the exact date of the law change. We estimate models using standard two-way fixed effects and stacked difference-in-differences that avoid bias from dynamic and heterogeneous treatment effects. Using data through 2021, we do not find evidence of reductions in teenage tobacco and alcohol use. While these laws reduce retail-based purchasing, they also increase social sourcing, thus leading to no net impact on use.

6.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; : 1-9, 2024 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39023422

RESUMO

Background: Anger is elevated in substance use disorders (SUDs) and related to problematic use. However, it is unclear whether anger is elevated in individuals who use substances, is only heightened among those with SUDs, and whether anger is more strongly tied to use of certain substances or SUDs.Objectives: We examine the association between anger, general substance use and SUDs.Methods: Data is N = 28,753 (55% female) respondents from the NESARC-III. Participants endorsing anger and indicating negative functional impact were deemed to have experienced significant anger.Results: Logistic regression examining the relative strength of associations between anger, substance use and SUDs (alcohol, opioid, stimulant, tobacco and cannabis) indicated that having a SUD was associated with anger beyond use alone. Alcohol (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.45; 95% CI 1.32-1.6) and tobacco (AOR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.27-1.51) use displayed the strongest odds of experiencing anger above and beyond other substances in the model. Similarly, alcohol (AOR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.31-1.62) and tobacco (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.3-1.64]) use disorders had the greatest odds of anger relative to other SUDs. These results were significant after controlling for mood, anxiety disorders, and PTSD and no sex differences were observed.Conclusion: These results indicate that SUDs, particularly alcohol and tobacco use and disorders, are positively associated with experiencing anger beyond just substance use. Research must identify the mechanism driving this association to enhance treatments that target anger.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39015486

RESUMO

This review aims to discuss the complex relationship between smoking and interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), emphasizing the significant morbidity and mortality associated with these conditions. While the etiology of ILDs remains multifactorial, cigarette smoking emerges as a prominent modifiable risk factor implicated in their pathogenesis and progression. This narrative review will provide insight into smoking-associated interstitial lung diseases and personalised approaches to smoking cessation. Epidemiological studies consistently link smoking to ILDs such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD (RB-ILD), and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), highlighting the urgent need for comprehensive tobacco cessation strategies. Despite the established benefits of smoking cessation, adherence to cessation programs remains challenging due to nicotine addiction, psychological factors, and social influences. The modest success rates of smoking cessation in ILD patients, emphasises the importance of tailored interventions and ongoing support is needed to overcome barriers and to improve outcomes of quitting smoking in this category of vulnerable patients.

8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2024 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39021120

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the impact of heating conventional cigarettes with a novel heated tobacco product (HTP) device on biomarkers and cigarette use patterns in Chinese adult smokers unwilling to quit smoking. METHODS: In this pilot randomized controlled trial, 50 eligible participants were allocated to either Control group (smoking conventional cigarettes) or HTP device group (switching to using heated conventional cigarettes by the HTP device). Participants in the HTP device group went through a 2-day run-in period then used heated conventional cigarettes exclusively for 5 days, followed by flexible use for 14 days. Five biomarkers of exposure (BoEs) were measured at baseline and on Day 7. Thirteen biomarkers of biological effect (BoBEs) were measured at baseline and on Day 21. Safety, daily cigarette consumption, craving, withdrawal symptoms, and device acceptability, were assessed. RESULTS: BoE levels decreased by 26.4 % to 71.4% from baseline in the HTP device group, while BoBE levels did not significantly change in either group. In the HTP group, 56% exclusively used heated conventional cigarettes during the flexible use period, experiencing reduced cravings and withdrawal symptoms, while dual users consumed more cigarettes. Mild to moderate device-related reactions were reported in 36% of users. Satisfaction, taste, and harm reduction belief scores averaged 7.4, 6.6, and 8.7 (out of 10), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Switching to heated cigarettes with the HTP device may reduce short-term exposure to smoke toxicants. However, it can lead to increased tobacco use among dual users. Further investigation is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. IMPLICATIONS: This study is the first to evaluate the impact of heating conventional cigarettes with a novel heated tobacco product (HTP) device on health-related biomarkers and cigarette use patterns among Chinese adult smokers. This novel HTP device can directly heat conventional cigarettes without the necessity for specifically designed tobacco products, avoiding potential additive risks of traditional HTPs. If the results of this study could be further verified by randomized controlled clinical trials with larger sample sizes, this novel HTP device could serve as a short-term harm reduction alternative for smokers unwilling to quit.

9.
Addict Biol ; 29(7): e13419, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949209

RESUMO

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are seen as a continuum ranging from goal-directed and hedonic drug use to loss of control over drug intake with aversive consequences for mental and physical health and social functioning. The main goals of our interdisciplinary German collaborative research centre on Losing and Regaining Control over Drug Intake (ReCoDe) are (i) to study triggers (drug cues, stressors, drug priming) and modifying factors (age, gender, physical activity, cognitive functions, childhood adversity, social factors, such as loneliness and social contact/interaction) that longitudinally modulate the trajectories of losing and regaining control over drug consumption under real-life conditions. (ii) To study underlying behavioural, cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms of disease trajectories and drug-related behaviours and (iii) to provide non-invasive mechanism-based interventions. These goals are achieved by: (A) using innovative mHealth (mobile health) tools to longitudinally monitor the effects of triggers and modifying factors on drug consumption patterns in real life in a cohort of 900 patients with alcohol use disorder. This approach will be complemented by animal models of addiction with 24/7 automated behavioural monitoring across an entire disease trajectory; i.e. from a naïve state to a drug-taking state to an addiction or resilience-like state. (B) The identification and, if applicable, computational modelling of key molecular, neurobiological and psychological mechanisms (e.g., reduced cognitive flexibility) mediating the effects of such triggers and modifying factors on disease trajectories. (C) Developing and testing non-invasive interventions (e.g., Just-In-Time-Adaptive-Interventions (JITAIs), various non-invasive brain stimulations (NIBS), individualized physical activity) that specifically target the underlying mechanisms for regaining control over drug intake. Here, we will report on the most important results of the first funding period and outline our future research strategy.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Animais , Alemanha , Comportamento Aditivo , Alcoolismo
10.
Subst Use Misuse ; : 1-8, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine use and frequency patterns across e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and little cigars, cigars, and cigarillos (LCCs) over time and determine whether patterns differ by race and ethnicity. METHODS: Data was obtained from the Truth Longitudinal Cohort of youth and young adults between September 2020 and June 2022. Latent class and transition analyses were used to classify participants (N = 4448) into subgroups, based on frequency of tobacco product use in the past 30 days, and to estimate the probability of use pattern transitions by race and ethnicity, adjusted for the effects of gender, financial situation, parental education, household tobacco use, and sensation seeking. RESULTS: Four latent classes were identified: former/noncurrent users, predominantly frequent to daily (FTD) e-cigarette users, predominantly FTD e-cigarette and LCC users, and predominantly FTD cigarette with polytobacco users. Use trajectories differed by race and ethnicity. A lower proportion of those who identified as non-Hispanic Black (60.0%) remained e-cigarette and LCC users, relative to those who identified as non-Hispanic White (86.0%), Hispanic or Latino (86.0%), and another race and ethnicity (79.0%). A lower proportion of those who identified as Hispanic or Latino (54.0%) and another race and ethnicity (59.9%) remained cigarette with polytobacco users, relative to those who identified as non-Hispanic White (76.0%) and non-Hispanic Black (72.0%). A greater proportion of non-Hispanic Black respondents transitioned from e-cigarette and LCC user to former/noncurrent user (40.0%) and polytobacco user to e-cigarette and LCC user (11.0%), relative to other racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: More research is needed to determine why tobacco use trajectories differ by race and ethnicity. Such research will be important in informing comprehensive approaches that promote evidence-based prevention policies and programs.

11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1342460, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947344

RESUMO

Introduction: Tobacco consumption and its impact on health remain high worldwide. Additionally, it is a contentious issue generating significant controversy. Twitter has proven to be a useful platform for evaluating public health topics related to population health behaviors, and tobacco consumption. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the content of tweets related to tobacco. Moreover, geolocation data will be considered to understand regional differences. Methods: Tweets published between 2018 and 2022, in both English and Spanish, containing the keyword "tobacco," were analyzed. A total of 56,926 tweets were obtained. The tweets were classified into different categories. 550 tweets were manually analyzed, and an automated and computerized classification was performed for the remaining and largest subset of tweets. Results: The analysis yielded 30,812 classifiable tweets. Healthcare professionals were the most frequent contributors to the topic (50.2%), with the most common theme being general information about the toxic effects of tobacco. 57.9% of the tweets discussed the harmful effects of tobacco on health, with fear being the predominant emotion. The largest number of tweets were located in America. Conclusions: Our study revealed a substantial number of tweets highlighting the health risks and negative perceptions of tobacco consumption. Africa showed the lowest percentage of tweets discussing the health risks associated with tobacco, coinciding with the continent having the least developed anti-tobacco policies. Healthcare professionals emerged as the most prominent users discussing the topic, which is encouraging as they play a crucial role in disseminating accurate and scientific health information.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Uso de Tabaco , Humanos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1335545, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947351

RESUMO

Background: According to the various screening programs conducted, the prevalence of tobacco use among UAE Nationals is high. A considerable increase is also seen in various forms of smoking is seen among young military men during deployment which results in loss of physical health, less productivity, readiness and increased health care utilization. Also smokers are more likely to develop other addictions and chronic medical conditions. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of smoking among national military service recruits in the United Arab Emirates and to find its relation with various factors: socio-demographics, lifestyle, comorbidities, and military environment. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted amongst national service recruits selected by random stratification through a self-administered anonymized questionnaire which was distributed to a final sample of 369 patients. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Chi square, percentage and frequencies were used to present the data where applicable. A p < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The prevalence of smoking among national military service recruits was 41.6%. As the level of education increased the prevalence of smoking decreased. Smokers with insufficient income, divorced or widowed recruits tend to smoke more as against single and married recruits. Smoking rates were decreased in those who exercise regularly. There was a significant relationship between smoking status and chronic diseases. Smoker gatherings inside military campus encouraged initiation of smoking or its continuity. About half of the smokers were not satisfied with environment at military facilities. Conclusion: Smoking has high prevalence among national service military recruits. For this reason, a goal directed future plan toward screening of smokers among recruits and assigning them to smoking cessation clinics and educational seminars prior to joining the national service is the need of the hour.


Assuntos
Militares , Fumar , Humanos , Masculino , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Adolescente
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948920

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prior research has linked media tobacco promotion to increased tobacco use and favorable perceptions of tobacco products. Switzerland's tobacco lobby employs advertisements to sway policy decisions in its favor, yet no recent research has assessed this in detail. Our study aims to provide detailed estimates of tobacco industry (TI) advertisement costs, focusing on Philip Morris International (PMI) in Switzerland, and examine potential chronological links between TI advertisement campaigns and parliamentary discussions on tobacco bills. By spreading knowledge on this issue, we aim to support the development of future tobacco advertisement regulations. METHODS: We conducted an expenditure analysis of tobacco-related press advertisements in Swiss print media published between August 2020 and August 2021, accessed through the media intelligence firm Argus Data Insights. Advertisement costs were estimated using publicly available data. We plotted expenditure sums of PMI against key parliamentary session dates featuring discussions on proposed tobacco control measures, such as tighter restrictions on advertising. RESULTS: Over 12 months, 501 advertisements with tobacco-specific headlines were published in Swiss press media. Of these, 437 advertisements (87.22%) were linked to PMI. PMI accounted for 88.21% (CHF 6486969) of total advertisement expenditure. Notably, PMI advertisements coincided with key political sessions discussing tobacco legislation in parliament, with a limited presence outside these periods. CONCLUSIONS: PMI advertisements were published parallel to key moments of parliamentary discussions, suggesting an attempt by TI to potentially influence discussions. Applying such an advertisement monitoring methodology helps understand the contextual conditions of public health in Switzerland. By analyzing TI advertisements in print media, we sought to highlight regulatory gaps and support the creation of stricter advertising regulations. We recommend continuing such research to strengthen tobacco control policymaking. Key public health efforts should include raising awareness of TI tactics, implementing a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, and strategically engaging with the media in tobacco control campaigns.

14.
Tob Control ; 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950911

RESUMO

Health warnings and messages-or health warning labels (HWLs)-are integral to tobacco control efforts, but their sustained impact necessitates regular rotation. This paper explores challenges in HWL rotation implementation across six diverse countries: Chile, Guyana, Indonesia, Jamaica, Mexico, and Vietnam. 19 in-depth interviews were conducted with government officials and representatives from civil society organisations and academia. Interviews explored the effectiveness of HWL regulations, the processes involved in their execution, and any challenges encountered along the way. Interviews were analysed thematically, using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Interviews revealed critical challenges that fall into two categories: specific and overarching. Government priorities and transitions, political will, time and bureaucracy, legal loopholes, lack of images, evaluation, and economic and human resources constitute HWL-specific challenges. Broad tobacco control challenges included tobacco industry interference and enforcement difficulties. To address HWL rotation challenges, international bodies such as WHO could establish extensive image banks, pre-evaluated for effectiveness and cultural relevance. In addition, countries must institutionalise the rotation process by establishing mechanisms that avoid having to pass complex legal instruments with each new round of warnings, delegating responsibilities to stable government institutions, addressing legal loopholesand planning for multiple rounds within a single legal instrument. Further, partnerships at national and international levels, along with systematic evaluations, are crucial for successful HWL implementation. These recommendations form a comprehensive framework for global collaboration, aiming to strengthen tobacco prevention through impactful HWLs on a sustainable basis.

15.
Public Health Action ; 14(2): 45-50, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38957504

RESUMO

SETTING: Urban setting in the Philippines. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the ABC Approach developed by The Union as a tobacco-smoking cessation intervention for TB patients at a primary healthcare level in an urban setting in the Philippines. DESIGN: We set up an intervention group whose patients with TB received the ABC approach and a control group of patients with TB receiving only routine health education in Manila, The Philippines. We collected smoking status and the domestic secondhand-smoking (SHS) status data from patients with TB at months 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12. TB treatment outcome data were also collected. RESULTS: Patients with TB (n = 2,174) were enrolled upon TB registration. Smoking rates were consistently low in the intervention group (3.9% vs. 8.7% at Month 6). The odds ratios of both tobacco-smoking status and domestic SHS status in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the control group (tobacco-smoking status: P < 0.001, domestic SHS status: P < 0.01). TB treatment success rates were similar between the groups (85.0% vs. 87.3%; P = 0.201). CONCLUSION: The ABC approach successfully reduced tobacco-smoking rates, maintained low domestic SHS rates and TB treatment success rates in the Philippines.


CADRE: Cadre urbain aux Philippines. OBJECTIF: Évaluer l'efficacité de l'approche ABC développée par L'Union en tant qu'intervention de sevrage tabagique pour les patients atteints de TB au niveau des soins de santé primaires en milieu urbain aux Philippines. MÉTHODE: Nous avons mis en place un groupe d'intervention dont les patients atteints de TB ont reçu l'approche ABC et un groupe témoin de patients atteints de TB ne recevant qu'une éducation sanitaire de routine à Manille, aux Philippines. Nous avons recueilli des données sur le statut tabagique et le statut de tabagisme passif (SHS, pour l'anglais « secondhand-smoking ¼) domestique des patients atteints de TB aux mois 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 et 12. Des données sur les résultats du traitement de la TB ont également été recueillies. RÉSULTATS: Les patients atteints de TB (n = 2 174) ont été recrutés lors de l'enregistrement de la TB. Les taux de tabagisme étaient constamment faibles dans le groupe d'intervention (3,9% contre 8,7% au 6e mois). Les rapports de cotes du tabagisme et du statut SHS canadien dans le groupe d'intervention étaient significativement inférieurs à ceux du groupe témoin (tabagisme : P < 0,001, statut SHS national : P < 0,01). Les taux de réussite du traitement de la TB étaient similaires entre les groupes (85,0% contre 87,3% ; P = 0,201). CONCLUSION: L'approche ABC a permis de réduire les taux de tabagisme, de maintenir de faibles taux nationaux de SHS et de taux de réussite du traitement de la TB aux Philippines.

16.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e49344, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health prevention campaigns often face challenges in reaching their target audience and achieving the desired impact on health behaviors. These campaigns, particularly those aimed at reducing tobacco use, require rigorous evaluation methods to assess their effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to use immersive virtual reality (iVR) to systematically evaluate recall, attitudinal, and craving responses to antitobacco prevention messages when presented in a realistic virtual environment, thereby exploring the potential of iVR as a novel tool to improve the effectiveness of public health campaigns. METHODS: A total of 121 undergraduate students (mean age 19.6, SD 3.7 years), mostly female (n=99, 82.5%), were invited to take a guided walk in the virtual environment, where they were randomly exposed to a different ratio of prevention and general advertising posters (80/20 or 20/80) depending on the experimental condition. Participants' gaze was tracked throughout the procedure, and outcomes were assessed after the iVR exposure. RESULTS: Incidental exposure to antitobacco prevention and general advertising posters did not significantly alter attitudes toward tobacco. Memorization of prevention posters was unexpectedly better in the condition where advertising was more frequent (ß=-6.15; P<.001), and high contrast between poster types led to a better memorization of the less frequent type. Despite a nonsignificant trend, directing attention to prevention posters slightly improved their memorization (ß=.02; P=.07). In addition, the duration of exposure to prevention posters relative to advertisements negatively affected memorization of advertising posters (ß=-2.30; P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: Although this study did not find significant changes in attitudes toward tobacco after exposure to prevention campaigns using iVR, the technology does show promise as an evaluation tool. To fully evaluate the use of iVR in public health prevention strategies, future research should examine different types of content, longer exposure durations, and different contexts. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework E3YK7; https://osf.io/e3yk7.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Adulto , Fissura , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Publicidade/métodos , Pôsteres como Assunto , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
17.
Plant Dis ; 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985508

RESUMO

In July 2023, a new leaf spot disease emerged on tobacco leaves in Meitan County, Guizhou Province, China (27°20'18" - 28°12'30"N, 107°15'36" - 107°41'08"E, average altitude 972 meters). Initially, the symptoms showed raised yellow-brown spots; subsequently, the lesions expanded and became broken and perforated, leading to a significant loss of economic value, the prevalence rate exceeded 30%. For isolation, two tissue fragments (0.2 × 0.2 cm) of symptomatic leaves were sterilized in 75% ethanol for 30 s, 3% NaClO for 2 min, and were washed 3 times in sterilized distilled water, and were subsequently inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and incubated at 28°C for 9 days in the dark. The two strains CW16 and CW28 were isolated using the single hyphae method (Nouri et al. 2023). Both strains formed pale to yellow white colonies on PDA. Conidia had three constricted transverse septa and 1 to 2 longitudinal septa in the central cells, with thick and hyaline conidiophores and mostly globose, pale brown conidia with slightly constricted septa, their average size were measured as 13.4-22.4×8.358-13.347 µm (n = 50). Genomic DNA was extracted from the isolated strains CW16 and CW28. The internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 as well as 5.8S nuclear ribosomal RNA (ITS), large subunit nrRNA (LSU), and partial DNA-directed RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) genes were amplified using primers (Cui et al. 2023). The sequences had been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers ITS: PP024201, PP024205; LSU: PP024207, PP024209; RPB2: PP060480, PP060481. The sequences analysis revealed a high similarity of 99.74 to 100% between strains CW16 and CW28 with P. palmicola isolate KM42 (ITS OQ875842, LSU OQ875844, RPB2 OQ883943) in GenBank. Using BLAST for homology matching, two isolates (CW16, CW28) and with the sequences of the ten type isolates from GenBank, phylogenetic analysis was conducted using the Maximum Likelihood method in MEGA (11.0) software based on ITS, LSU and RPB2 sequences, which showed that strains CW16, CW28 clustered in the same score as the Pseudopithomyces palmicola, confirming the morphological and molecular characteristics identification. The pathogenicity tests were conducted on healthy tobacco plants with 4-5 leaves (Fig. S1B), the isolated strains, CW16 and CW28, were used to inoculate the healthy tobacco leaves, while blank PDA was used as a control. All plants were maintained in a greenhouse at 28°C with a relative humidity of 90%. After 9 days, necrotic spots were observed on all tobacco leaves inoculated with CW16 and CW28 fungal plugs, while the blank PDA-inoculated tobacco leaves showed no symptoms. Based on morphological and molecular characteristics, the same pathogen P. palmicola was identified from the inoculated leaves, fulfilling Koch's postulates. This study represents the first reported of tobacco leaf spot caused by P. palmicola in China and provides a theoretical basis for future prevention and control measures.

18.
Games Health J ; 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985569

RESUMO

Background: Preclinical studies suggested the exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) as an intervention able to prevent or reduce nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behaviors. Virtual reality (VR) may help to test the effects of EE in smokers in a reproducible and feasible manner. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 31 smokers (14 women) were divided into two groups: (1) exposure to a virtual EE (VR-EE) and (2) exposure to a virtual neutral environment (VR-NoEE). Cigarette craving was assessed as basal and evoked, at different timepoints during the session. Behavior activity during VR exposure, mood, and subjective measures were also collected. Results: EE exposure in VR significantly reduced craving scores from basal timepoint. This was not observed in the VR-NoEE group, which significantly increased craving compared with values at neutral scenario. When both groups were exposed to smoking-related VR scenario, the VR-EE group showed an increased craving compared with previous timepoint up to score values not different from those in the VR-NoEE group. A significant positive correlation between basal craving scores and interactive behavior with virtual smoking cues was observed in the VR-NoEE but not in the VR-EE group. Conclusion: These findings suggest that virtual EE might have an inhibitory effect in smokers on basal, but not on evoked cigarette craving. Noteworthily, the interactive activity correlation to craving scores in the VR-NoEE participants was not observed in the VR-EE group, adding further evidence that the enrichment simulation was nonetheless able to modify behavior in the smoking-related scenario.

19.
Ann Behav Med ; 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the high rates of persistent tobacco use, effective cessation interventions are needed for cancer patients and caregivers. Despite the need, there is a significant lack of research on tobacco cessation, especially for non-respiratory cancers (breast, prostate, colorectal, cervical, and bladder cancer). PURPOSE: The objective was to evaluate tobacco use and tobacco cessation interventions among patients and caregivers for non-respiratory cancers. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials assessing tobacco cessation interventions were identified. Five electronic databases were searched in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines through July 2023. Studies exclusive to lung, oral, thoracic, and head and neck cancers were excluded. Effect sizes were estimated; risk of bias was assessed. RESULTS: Of 3,304 studies, 17 were included. Interventions included behavioral (n = 6), pharmacotherapy (n = 2), and a combination (n = 9) treatment. Eight studies included a health behavior model; mean behavioral change techniques were 5.57. Pooled magnitude of the odds of cessation was positive and significant (odds ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [Lower Limit 1.02, Upper Limit 1.51]) relative to usual care/placebo. Cumulative meta-analysis examined the accumulation of results over-time and demonstrated that studies have been significant since 2020. Two studies included caregivers' who were involved in the provision of social support. CONCLUSIONS: Current interventions have the potential to reduce tobacco use in non-respiratory cancers. Results may be beneficial for promoting tobacco cessation among non-respiratory cancers. There is a considerable lack of dyadic interventions for cancer survivors and caregivers; researchers are encouraged to explore dyadic approaches.


We aimed to understand effective ways for cancer patients and caregivers to quit using tobacco. We focused on non-respiratory cancers (cancers not related to breathing issues) like breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. We reviewed 17 randomized controlled trials designed to help people quit tobacco, which included behavioral therapies (e.g., education and counseling), pharmacotherapy (i.e., medicine), and combinations of both. We found that people in these studies quit using tobacco, especially when more than one approach was used. The studies also showed that these approaches have been more successful since 2020. The research highlighted a need for more studies that include both patients and their caregivers together in the quitting process. This approach, called dyadic intervention, could be more effective in supporting patients and their caregivers. Overall, while the current approaches are promising, more research is needed to develop better ways to help cancer patients and caregivers quit smoking for longer.

20.
J Breath Res ; 18(4)2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38988301

RESUMO

Noninvasive sample sources of exosomes, such as exhaled breath and sputum, which are in close proximity to the tumor microenvironment and may contain biomarkers indicative of lung cancer, are far more permissive than invasive sample sources for biomarker screening. Standardized exosome extraction and characterization approaches for low-volume noninvasive samples are critically needed. We isolated and characterized exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and sputum exosomes from healthy nonsmokers (n= 30), tobacco smokers (n= 30), and lung cancer patients (n= 40) and correlated the findings with invasive sample sources. EBC samples were collected by using commercially available R-Tubes. To collect sputum samples the participants were directed to take deep breaths, hold their breath, and cough in a collection container. Dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the exosome morphology. Protein isolation, western blotting, exosome quantification via EXOCET, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed for molecular characterization. Exosomes were successfully isolated from EBC and sputum samples, and their yields were adequate and sufficiently pure for subsequent downstream processing and characterization. The exosomes were confirmed based on their size, shape, and surface marker expression. Remarkably, cancer exosomes were the largest in size not only in the plasma subgroups, but also in the EBC (p < 0.05) and sputum (p= 0.0036) subgroups, according to our findings. A significant difference in exosome concentrations were observed between the control sub-groups (p < 0.05). Our research confirmed that exosomes can be extracted from noninvasive sources, such as EBC and sputum, to investigate lung cancer diagnostic biomarkers for research, clinical, and early detection in smokers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Testes Respiratórios , Expiração , Exossomos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Escarro , Humanos , Escarro/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Exossomos/química , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Adulto , Idoso
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