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1.
Hypertens Res ; 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951680

RESUMO

Measurement of flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in the brachial artery by using ultrasound is a well-established technique for evaluating endothelial function. To make the measurement quicker and simpler than the measurements of conventional ultrasound FMD (uFMD), we have developed a new noninvasive method, plethysmographic FMD (pFMD), to assess vascular response to reactive hyperemia in the brachial artery. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of measurement of pFMD in comparison to that of measurement of conventional uFMD. This study was a multi-center, cross-sectional study. We compared pFMD by a new device using cuff pressure and volume with conventional uFMD using ultrasound in 50 men (mean age, 41 ± 9 years). pFMD significantly correlated with conventional uFMD (ß = 0.59, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plot analysis of pFMD and conventional uFMD, the mean difference of pFMD and conventional uFMD was 0.78%, and limits of agreement (mean difference ±2 standard deviations of the difference) ranged from -4.53% to 6.11%. We demonstrated validity of the new method for measurement of pFMD, which can automate the evaluation of endothelial function in a short time. Measurement of pFMD is simpler than measurement of conventional uFMD and may have reduced artificial bias compared to that of conventional uFMD measurement (URL for Clinical Trial: https://ethics.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/site/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/eki_giji20221213.pdf . Registration Number for Clinical Trial: E2022-0131).

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(13)2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000349

RESUMO

Lipid emulsions are used as adjuvant drugs to alleviate intractable cardiovascular collapse induced by drug toxicity. We aimed to examine the effect of lipid emulsions on labetalol-induced vasodilation and the underlying mechanism in the isolated rat aorta. We studied the effects of endothelial denudation, NW-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), calmidazolium, methylene blue, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), and lipid emulsions on labetalol-induced vasodilation. We also evaluated the effects of lipid emulsions on cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) formation, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, and endothelial calcium levels induced by labetalol. Labetalol-induced vasodilation was higher in endothelium-intact aortas than that in endothelium-denuded aortas. l-NAME, calmidazolium, methylene blue, and ODQ inhibited labetalol-induced vasodilation in endothelium-intact aortas. Lipid emulsions inhibited labetalol-induced vasodilation in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas. l-NAME, ODQ, and lipid emulsions inhibited labetalol-induced cGMP formation in endothelium-intact aortas. Lipid emulsions reversed the stimulatory and inhibitory eNOS (Ser1177 and Thr495) phosphorylation induced by labetalol in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and inhibited the labetalol-induced endothelial calcium increase. Moreover, it decreased labetalol concentration. These results suggest that lipid emulsions inhibit vasodilation induced by toxic doses of labetalol, which is mediated by the inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide release and reduction of labetalol concentration.


Assuntos
Aorta , GMP Cíclico , Emulsões , Labetalol , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III , Vasodilatação , Animais , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Labetalol/farmacologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Humanos , Lipídeos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo
3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 13(6)2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38929107

RESUMO

Red light (670 nm) energy controls vasodilation via the formation of a transferable endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO)-precursor-containing substance, its intracellular traffic, and exocytosis. Here we investigated the underlying mechanistic effect of oxidative stress on light-mediated vasodilation by using pressure myography on dissected murine arteries and immunofluorescence on endothelial cells. Treatment with antioxidants Trolox and catalase decreased vessel dilation. In the presence of catalase, a lower number of exosomes were detected in the vessel bath. Light exposure resulted in increased cellular free radical levels. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species were also more abundant but did not alter cellular ATP production. Red light enhanced the co-localization of late exosome marker CD63 and cellular S-nitrosoprotein to a greater extent than high glucose, suggesting that a mild oxidative stress favors the localization of NO precursor in late exosomes. Exocytosis regulating protein Rab11 was more abundant after irradiation. Our findings conclude that red-light-induced gentle oxidative stress facilitates the dilation of blood vessels, most likely through empowering the traffic of vasodilatory substances. Application of antioxidants disfavors this mechanism.

4.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 327(2): H364-H369, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847757

RESUMO

The transcriptional regulator nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a mediator of endothelial dysfunction. Inhibiting NF-κB with salsalate is used to investigate inflammatory mechanisms contributing to accelerated cardiovascular disease risk. However, in the absence of disease, inhibition of NF-κB can impact redox mechanisms, resulting in paradoxically decreased endothelial function. This study aimed to measure microvascular endothelial function during inhibition of the transcriptional regulator NF-κB in reproductive-aged healthy women. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled design, nine healthy women were randomly assigned oral salsalate (1,500 mg, twice daily) or placebo treatments for 5 days. Subjects underwent graded perfusion with the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine (ACh, 10-10 to 10-1 M, 33°C) alone and in combination with 15 mM NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester [l-NAME; nonselective nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor] through intradermal microdialysis. Laser-Doppler flux was measured over each microdialysis site, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as flux divided by mean arterial pressure and normalized to site-specific maximum (CVC%max; 28 mM sodium nitroprusside + 43°C). The l-NAME sensitive component was calculated as the difference between the areas under the dose-response curves. During the placebo and salsalate treatments, the l-NAME sites were reduced compared with the control sites (both P < 0.0001). Across treatments, there was a significant difference between the control and l-NAME sites, where both sites shifted upward following salsalate treatment (both P < 0.0001), whereas the l-NAME-sensitive component was not different (P = 0.94). These data demonstrate that inhibition of the transcriptional regulator NF-κB improves cutaneous microvascular function in reproductive-aged healthy women through non-NO-dependent mechanisms.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) regulates multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immunity by encoding for genes that participate in inflammation and impact endothelial function following NF-κB inhibition with salsalate treatment. Our results show that cutaneous microvascular function is increased through non-nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanisms following salsalate treatment in reproductive-aged healthy women.


Assuntos
Estudos Cross-Over , Microcirculação , NF-kappa B , Óxido Nítrico , Pele , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Método Simples-Cego , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Microvasos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microvasos/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Physiol ; 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843467

RESUMO

The brain requires an uninterrupted supply of oxygen and nutrients to support the high metabolic needs of billions of nerve cells processing information. In low oxygen conditions, increases in cerebral blood flow maintain brain oxygen delivery, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for dilation of cerebral blood vessels in response to hypoxia are not fully understood. This article presents a systematic review and analysis of data reported in studies of these mechanisms. Our primary outcome measure was the percent reduction of the cerebrovascular response to hypoxia in conditions of pharmacological or genetic blockade of specific signaling mechanisms studied in experimental animals or in humans. Selection criteria were met by 28 articles describing the results of animal studies and six articles describing the results of studies conducted in humans. Selected studies investigated the potential involvement of various neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, vasoactive molecules and ion channels. Of all the experimental conditions, blockade of adenosine-mediated signaling and inhibition of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels had the most significant effect in reducing the cerebrovascular response to hypoxia (by 49% and 37%, respectively). Various degree reductions of the hypoxic response were also reported in studies which investigated the roles of nitric oxide, arachidonic acid derivates, catecholamines and hydrogen sulphide, amongst others. However, definitive conclusions about the importance of these signaling pathways cannot be drawn from the results of this analysis. In conclusion, there is significant evidence that one of the key mechanisms of hypoxic cerebral vasodilation (accounting for ∼50% of the response) involves the actions of adenosine and modulation of vascular KATP channels. However, recruitment of other vasodilatory signaling mechanisms is required for the full expression of the cerebrovascular response to hypoxia.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38932685

RESUMO

Aging is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction observed through a progressive loss of flow-mediated dilation caused partly by a decreased nitric oxide bioavailability. Intermittent hypoxia, consisting of alternating short bouts of breathing hypoxic and normoxic air, was reported to either maintain or improve vascular function in young adults. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of age on the vascular response to intermittent hypoxia. Twelve young adults and 11 older adults visited the laboratory on two occasions. Plasma nitrate concentrations and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation were assessed before and after exposure to either intermittent hypoxia or a sham protocol. Intermittent hypoxia consisted of eight 4-min hypoxic cycles at a targeted oxygen saturation of 80% interspersed with breathing room air to resaturation, and the sham protocol consisted of eight 4-min normoxic cycles interspersed with breathing room air. Vascular responses were assessed during intermittent hypoxia and the sham protocol. Intermittent hypoxia elicited a brachial artery vasodilation but did not change brachial artery shear rate in both young and older adults. Plasma nitrate concentrations were not significantly affected by intermittent hypoxia in comparison with the sham protocol in both groups. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was not acutely affected by intermittent hypoxia or the sham protocol in either young or older adults. In conclusion, the brachial artery vasodilatory response to intermittent hypoxia was not influenced by age. Intermittent hypoxia increased brachial artery diameter but did not acutely affect endothelium-dependent vasodilation in young or older adults.

7.
Hypertens Res ; 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38914702

RESUMO

Hesperetin is one of the prominent flavonoids found in citrus fruit. Several research studies have reported that hesperetin can promote vasodilation in vascular tissue by increasing the level of nitric oxide and cyclic nucleotides. However, these may not be the only pathway for hesperetin to exert its vasodilatory effect. In addition to vasodilation, hesperetin has been found to carry an antihypertensive effect through intraperitoneal injection, although no study has comprehensively investigated the antihypertensive effect of hesperetin through oral administration. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the possible mechanism pathways involved in hesperetin-induced vasodilation and investigated its antihypertensive effects on hypertensive rats' model via oral administration. The ex vivo experimental findings showed that the NO/sGC/cGMP signalling pathway was involved in hesperetin-mediated vasodilation. Moreover, hesperetin activated the AC/cAMP/PKA pathway through PGI2 and activated the ß2-adrenergic receptor. Hesperetin can act as a voltage-gated potassium channel (KV) and ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) opener. The intracellular calcium in vascular smooth muscle was reduced by hesperetin through blocking the voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCC) and inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R). In the in vivo assessment, hesperetin shows a significant decrease in Spontaneously Hypertensive rats' blood pressure following 21 days of oral treatment. The sub-chronic toxicity assessment demonstrated that hesperetin exhibited no deleterious effects on the body weights, clinical biochemistry and haematological profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. This study implies that hesperetin holds promise as a potential medication for hypertension treatment, devoid of undesirable side effects.

8.
J Toxicol Sci ; 49(6): 269-279, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825486

RESUMO

Although morphine has been used for treatment-resistant dyspnea in end-stage heart failure patients, information on its cardiovascular safety profile remains limited. Morphine was intravenously administered to halothane-anesthetized dogs (n=4) in doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg/10 min with 20 min of observation period. The low and middle doses attained therapeutic (0.13 µg/mL) and supratherapeutic (0.97 µg/mL) plasma concentrations, respectively. The low dose hardly altered any of the cardiovascular variables except that the QT interval was prolonged for 10-15 min after its start of infusion. The middle dose reduced the preload and afterload to the left ventricle for 5-15 min, then decreased the left ventricular contractility and mean blood pressure for 10-30 min, and finally suppressed the heart rate for 15-30 min. Moreover, the middle dose gradually but progressively prolonged the atrioventricular conduction time, QT interval/QTcV, ventricular late repolarization period and ventricular effective refractory period without altering the intraventricular conduction time, ventricular early repolarization period or terminal repolarization period. A reverse-frequency-dependent delay of ventricular repolarization was confirmed. The high dose induced cardiohemodynamic collapse mainly due to vasodilation in the initial 2 animals by 1.9 and 3.3 min after its start of infusion, respectively, which needed circulatory support to treat. The high dose was not tested further in the remaining 2 animals. Thus, intravenously administered morphine exerts a rapidly appearing vasodilator action followed by slowly developing cardiosuppressive effects. Morphine can delay the ventricular repolarization possibly through IKr inhibition in vivo, but its potential to develop torsade de pointes will be small.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios , Halotano , Frequência Cardíaca , Morfina , Animais , Cães , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacocinética , Masculino , Toxicocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacocinética , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Infusões Intravenosas , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Purinergic Signal ; 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740733

RESUMO

Vascular P2Y receptors mediate many effects, but the role of individual subtypes is often unclear. Here we discuss how subtype-selective antagonists and receptor knockout/knockdown have helped identify these roles in numerous species and vessels. P2Y1 receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilation have been characterised using the selective antagonists, MRS2179 and MRS2216, whilst AR-C118925XX, a P2Y2 receptor antagonist, reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation, and signalling evoked by UTP or fluid shear stress. P2Y2 receptor knockdown reduced endothelial signalling and endothelial P2Y2 receptor knockout produced hypertensive mice and abolished vasodilation elicited by an increase in flow. UTP-evoked vasoconstriction was also blocked by AR-C118925XX, but the effects of P2Y2 receptor knockout were complex. No P2Y4 receptor antagonists are available and P2Y4 knockout did not affect the vascular actions of UTP and UDP. The P2Y6 receptor antagonist, MRS2578, identified endothelial P2Y6 receptors mediating vasodilation, but receptor knockout had complex effects. MRS2578 also inhibited, and P2Y6 knockout abolished, contractions evoked by UDP. P2Y6 receptors contribute to the myogenic tone induced by a stepped increase in vascular perfusion pressure and possibly to the development of atherosclerosis. The P2Y11 receptor antagonists, NF157 and NF340, inhibited ATP-evoked signalling in human endothelial cells. Vasoconstriction mediated by P2Y12/P2Y13 and P2Y14 receptors was characterised using the antagonists, cangrelor, ticagrelor, AR-C67085 and MRS2211 or PPTN respectively. This has yet to be backed up by receptor knockout experiments. Thus, subtype-selective antagonists and receptor knockout/knockdown have helped identify which P2Y subtypes are functionally expressed in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells and the effects that they mediate.

10.
Gac Med Mex ; 160(1): 23-31, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) suspicion will allow to prevent accelerated atherosclerosis and premature death. OBJECTIVE: To establish the usefulness of thermography for endothelial function screening in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, analytical diagnostic test. A brachial arterial diameter (BAD) increase < 11% at one-minute post-ischemia meant probable ED and was confirmed if BAD was ≥ 11% post-sublingual nitroglycerin. Thermographic photographs of the palmar region were obtained at one minute. Descriptive statistics, ROC curve, Mann-Whitney's U-test, chi-square test, or Fisher's exact test were used. RESULTS: Thirty-eight subjects with a median age of 50 years, and with 624 thermographic measurements were included. Nine had ED (flow-mediated vasodilation [FMV]: 2.5%). The best cutoff point for normal endothelial function in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors was ≥ 36 °C at one minute of ischemia, with 85% sensitivity, 70% specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 78 and 77%, area under the curve of 0.796, LR+ 2.82, LR- 0.22. CONCLUSION: An infrared thermography-measured temperature in the palmar region greater than or equal to 36 °C after one minute of ischemia is practical, non-invasive, and inexpensive for normal endothelial function screening in adults with cardiovascular risk factors.


ANTECEDENTES: La sospecha de disfunción endotelial (DE) permitirá prevenir la aterosclerosis acelerada y la muerte prematura. OBJETIVO: Establecer la utilidad de la termografía en el cribado de la función endotelial en adultos con factores de riesgo cardiovascular. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal analítico de prueba diagnóstica. El incremento del diámetro de la arteria braquial < 11 % a un minuto posisquemia significó probable DE, confirmada si el diámetro fue ≥ 11 % posnitroglicerina sublingual. Se obtuvieron fotografías termográficas al minuto de la región palmar. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva, curva ROC, pruebas U de Mann-Whitney, chi cuadrada o exacta de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 38 sujetos, mediana de edad de 50 años, con 624 mediciones termográficas; nueve presentaron DE (vasodilatación mediada por flujo de 2.5 %). El mejor punto de corte para la función endotelial normal en sujetos con factores de riesgo cardiovascular fue ≥ 36 °C al minuto de isquemia, con sensibilidad de 85%, especificidad de 70%, valores predictivos positivo y negativo de 78 y 77%, área bajo la curva de 0.796, razón de verisimilitud positiva de 2.82 y razón de verisimilitud negativa de 0.22. CONCLUSIÓN: La medición de la temperatura en la región palmar mediante termografía infrarroja ≥ 36 °C tras un minuto de isquemia es práctica, no invasiva y económica para el cribado de la función endotelial normal en adultos con factores de riesgo cardiovascular.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular , Termografia , Humanos , Termografia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Raios Infravermelhos , Artéria Braquial/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
11.
Tob Induc Dis ; 222024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) being marketed as a safer alternative to combustible cigarettes, the effects of chronic e-cigarette use on vascular health remain uncertain. Our meta-analysis aimed to assess the health implications of chronic exclusive e-cigarette use on endothelial dysfunction, as measured by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for studies from 1 January 2004 to 31 March 2024. Four cross-sectional studies (n=769) were pooled using a random-effects model. The mean differences (MD) of FMD were reported by comparing exclusive e-cigarette use versus non-use; exclusive e-cigarette use versus combustible cigarette use; and combustible cigarette use versus non-use. RESULTS: A non-significant reduction in FMD in exclusive e-cigarette use compared to non-use was reported (MD of FMD: -1.47%; 95% CI: -3.96 - 1.02; I2= 84%). Similar MD of FMD in exclusive e-cigarette use and exclusive combustible cigarette use (vs non-use) suggested that both of these products might have comparable adverse influences on endothelial health. CONCLUSIONS: The limited availability of studies assessing the chronic impact of e-cigarette use restricted our ability to provide definitive findings. We emphasize the importance of additional research that explores the long-term impact of e-cigarette use on endothelial dysfunction, and identify key areas and give suggestions for further study.

12.
High Alt Med Biol ; 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738266

RESUMO

Fossati, Alexandre, and Aleid C. J. Ruijs. Changes in fingertip cold-induced vasodilatation (hunting reaction) on acute exposure to altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2024. Objective: Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) of the extremities is an interesting part of human physiology. Although the physiology of the CIVD reaction remains unknown, there are indications that hypoxia influences our CIVD reaction. The objective of this study is to measure the influence of acute hypoxia on the CIVD reaction of the fingertips. Methods: The CIVD reaction was measured using immersion of one hand in a water bath of 0°C in 12 healthy volunteers at low (1,235 m) and high (3,800 m) altitude during 35 minutes. High altitude was reached by a 20-minute cable car ride. Testing was performed indoors (room temperature, 22-25°C) at both altitudes. Data analysis was performed measuring the parameters of the CIVD reaction. Differences were found using the paired Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in baseline finger temperature, onset time, peak time, and frequency of the CIVD reaction. However, at high altitude, maximum temperature and amplitude were significantly higher, slope was steeper, and minimum temperature was lower. Conclusion: We did not find evidence for a diminished CIVD reaction at high altitude due to hypoxia.

13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 11: 1388528, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812748

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial cells play an important role in regulating peripheral circulation by modulating arterial tone in the microvasculature. Elevated intracellular Ca2+ levels are required in endothelial cells to induce smooth muscle relaxation via endothelium-dependent mechanisms such as nitric oxide production, prostacyclin, and endothelial cell hyperpolarization. It is well established that exogenous administration of acetylcholine can increase intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, followed by endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Although endogenous acetylcholine's regulation of vascular tone remains debatable, recent studies have reported that endogenously derived acetylcholine, but not neuronal cell-derived acetylcholine, is a key modulator of endothelial cell function. In this minireview, we summarize the current knowledge of the non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS) in vascular function, particularly vascular endothelial cell function, which contributes to blood pressure regulation. We also discuss the possible pathophysiological impact of endothelial NNCS, which may induce the development of vascular diseases due to endothelial dysfunction, and the potential of endothelial NNCS as a novel therapeutic target for endothelial dysfunction in the early stages of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and hypertension.

14.
Br J Pharmacol ; 181(15): 2478-2491, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent vasodilator. While its signalling is assumed to be mediated via increases in cAMP, this study focused on elucidating the actual intracellular signalling pathways involved in CGRP-induced relaxation of human isolated coronary arteries (HCA). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: HCA were obtained from heart valve donors (27 M, 25 F, age 54 ± 2 years). Concentration-response curves to human α-CGRP or forskolin were constructed in HCA segments, incubated with different inhibitors of intracellular signalling pathways, and intracellular cAMP levels were measured with and without stimulation. RESULTS: Adenylyl cyclase (AC) inhibitors SQ22536 + DDA and MDL-12330A, and PKA inhibitors Rp-8-Br-cAMPs and H89, did not inhibit CGRP-induced relaxation of HCA, nor did the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ, PKG inhibitor KT5823, EPAC1/2 inhibitor ESI09, potassium channel blockers TRAM-34 + apamin, iberiotoxin or glibenclamide, or the Gαq inhibitor YM-254890. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors induced a concentration-dependent decrease in the response to KCl but did not potentiate relaxation to CGRP. Relaxation to forskolin was not blocked by PKA or AC inhibitors, although AC inhibitors significantly inhibited the increase in cAMP. Inhibition of Gßγ subunits using gallein significantly inhibited the relaxation to CGRP in human coronary arteries. CONCLUSION: While CGRP signalling is generally assumed to act via cAMP, the CGRP-induced vasodilation in HCA was not inhibited by targeting this intracellular signalling pathway at different levels. Instead, inhibition of Gßγ subunits did inhibit the relaxation to CGRP, suggesting a different mechanism of CGRP-induced relaxation than generally believed.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Vasos Coronários , AMP Cíclico , Subunidades beta da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP , Vasodilatação , Humanos , Vasos Coronários/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/fisiologia , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Subunidades beta da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
15.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 111: 21-27, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582100

RESUMO

Muscle hyperemia in exercise is usually the combined result of increased cardiac output and local muscle vasodilation, with the latter reflecting muscle's capacity for increased blood perfusion to support exercise. In this study, we aim to quantify muscle's vasodilation capability with dynamic BOLD imaging. A deoxyhemoglobin-kinetics model is proposed to analyze dynamic BOLD signals acquired during exercise recovery, deriving a hyperemia index (HI) for a muscle group of interest. We demonstrated the method's validity with calf muscles of healthy subjects who performed plantar flexion for muscle stimulation. In a test with exercise load incrementally increasing from 0 to 16 lbs., gastrocnemius HI showed considerable variance among the 4 subjects, but with a consistent trend, i.e. low at light load (e.g. 0-6 lbs) and linearly increasing at heavy load. The high variability among different subjects was confirmed with the other 10 subjects who exercised with a same moderate load of 8 lbs., with coefficient of variance among subjects' medial gastrocnemius 87.8%, lateral gastrocnemius 111.8% and soleus 132.3%. These findings align with the fact that intensive exercise induces high muscle hyperemia, but a comparison among different subjects is hard to make, presumably due to the subjects' different rate of oxygen utilization. For the same 10 subjects who exercised with load of 8 lbs., we also performed dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI to measure muscle perfusion (F). With a moderate correlation of 0.654, HI and F displayed three distinctive responses of calf muscles: soleus of all the subjects were in the cluster of low F and low HI, and gastrocnemius of most subjects had high F and either low or high HI. This finding suggests that parameter F encapsulates blood flow through vessels of all sizes, but BOLD-derived HI focuses on capillary flow and therefore is a more specific indicator of muscle vasodilation. In conclusion, the proposed hyperemia index has the potential of quantitatively assessing muscle vasodilation induced with exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Hiperemia , Perna (Membro) , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Músculo Esquelético , Oxigênio , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Hiperemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Perna (Membro)/diagnóstico por imagem , Oxigênio/sangue , Feminino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem , Vasodilatação/fisiologia
16.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 155: 107371, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599357

RESUMO

An effective pulmonary hypertension (PH) treatment should combine antiproliferative and vasodilator effects. We characterized a wide-range of drugs comparing their anti-proliferative vs vasodilator effects in human and rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Key findings: 1) Approved PH drugs (PDE5 inhibitors, sGC stimulators and PGI2 agonists) are preferential vasodilators. 2) cGMP stimulators were more effective in cells derived from hypertensive rats. 3) Nifedipine acted equally as vasodilator and antiproliferative. 4) quercetin and imatinib were potent dual vasodilator/antiproliferative drugs. 5) Tacrolimus and levosimendan lacked antiproliferative effects. 6) Forskolin, pinacidil and hydroxyfasudil were more effective as antiproliferative in human cells.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Artéria Pulmonar , Vasodilatadores , Animais , Humanos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiopatologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Surg Neurol Int ; 15: 95, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628505

RESUMO

Background: Vasodilation, autoregulation, and rising arterial pressure are three common concepts in cerebral compression, believed to improve cerebral blood flow to maintain the brain's nutrition. However, these concepts are unclear, unproven, and based on assumptions. This study aimed to correlate cerebral circulation with alterations of vital signs and to evaluate the above concepts based on physics and hemodynamics. Methods: Without new animal experiments, a large amount of data: recording of vital signs, long movies of cerebral circulation, and numerous photos of histological examination and microvessels obstruction in cerebral compression in cats was studied, and only partial and preliminary results were reported in 1970. The experiments were supported by an NIH grant for head injury, done before the 1985 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee requirement. The advent of digital technology facilitated digitizing and stepwise correlating them and evaluating the validity of the above concepts. Results: As cerebral compression increased intracranial pressure (ICP), veins dilated, not arteries, and arterial microvessels obstructed, diminished, and stopped cerebral circulation. Simultaneously, vital signs deteriorated, and pupils became fixed and dilated. There was no evidence for what is believed as autoregulation. Conclusion: In cerebral compression, rising ICP obstructs cerebral arterial microvessels while simultaneously deteriorating vital signs. There is no evidence for dilatation of the arteries; only veins dilate, best-called venodilation. There is no evidence of autoregulation; what occurs is a cerebral compartmental syndrome. The terminal rise of arterial pressure is the hemodynamic result of cerebral circulation cessation, overloading the aorta. None of the concepts benefit the brain's nutrition.

19.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 44(3): 523-532, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of asiaticoside on blood pressure and relaxation of thoracic aorta in rats and explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: SD rats treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg asiaticoside by daily gavage for 2 weeks were monitored for systolic blood pressure changes, and histological changes of the thoracic aorta were evaluated using HE staining. In isolated rat endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta rings, the effects of asiaticoside on relaxation of the aortic rings were tested at baseline and following norepinephrine (NE)- and KCl-induced constriction. The vascular relaxation effect of asiaticoside was further observed in NE-stimulated endothelium-intact rat aortic rings pretreated with L-nitroarginine methyl ester, indomethacin, zinc protoporphyrin Ⅸ, tetraethyl ammonium chloride, glibenclamide, barium chloride, Iberiotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, or TASK-1-IN-1. The aortic rings were treated with KCl and NE followed by increasing concentrations of CaCl2 to investigate the effect of asiaticoside on vasoconstriction induced by external calcium influx and internal calcium release. RESULTS: Asiaticoside at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly lowered systolic blood pressure in rats without affecting the thoracic aorta histomorphology. While not obviously affecting resting aortic rings with intact endothelium, asiaticoside at 100 mg/kg induced significant relaxation of the rings constricted by KCl and NE, but its effects differed between endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rings. In endothelium-intact aortic rings pretreated with indomethacin, ZnPP Ⅸ, barium chloride, glyburide, TASK-1-IN-1 and 4-aminopyridine, asiaticoside did not produce significant effect on NE-induced vasoconstriction, and tetraethylammonium, Iberiotoxin and L-nitroarginine methyl ester all inhibited the relaxation effect of asiaticoside. In KCland NE-treated rings, asiaticoside obviously inhibited CaCl2-induced vascular contraction. CONCLUSION: Asiaticoside induces thoracic aorta relaxation by mediating high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel opening, promoting nitric oxide release from endothelial cells and regulating Ca2+ influx and outflow, thereby reducing systolic blood pressure in rats.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica , Compostos de Bário , Cloretos , Triterpenos , Vasodilatação , Ratos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Células Endoteliais , Cálcio , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Nitroarginina/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , 4-Aminopiridina/farmacologia , Indometacina/farmacologia , Ésteres/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2322135121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568964

RESUMO

Endothelial cells (ECs) line the wall of blood vessels and regulate arterial contractility to tune regional organ blood flow and systemic pressure. Chloride (Cl-) is the most abundant anion in ECs and the Cl- sensitive With-No-Lysine (WNK) kinase is expressed in this cell type. Whether intracellular Cl- signaling and WNK kinase regulate EC function to alter arterial contractility is unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that intracellular Cl- signaling in ECs regulates arterial contractility and examined the signaling mechanisms involved, including the participation of WNK kinase. Our data obtained using two-photon microscopy and cell-specific inducible knockout mice indicated that acetylcholine, a prototypical vasodilator, stimulated a rapid reduction in intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i) due to the activation of TMEM16A, a Cl- channel, in ECs of resistance-size arteries. TMEM16A channel-mediated Cl- signaling activated WNK kinase, which phosphorylated its substrate proteins SPAK and OSR1 in ECs. OSR1 potentiated transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) currents in a kinase-dependent manner and required a conserved binding motif located in the channel C terminus. Intracellular Ca2+ signaling was measured in four dimensions in ECs using a high-speed lightsheet microscope. WNK kinase-dependent activation of TRPV4 channels increased local intracellular Ca2+ signaling in ECs and produced vasodilation. In summary, we show that TMEM16A channel activation reduces [Cl-]i, which activates WNK kinase in ECs. WNK kinase phosphorylates OSR1 which then stimulates TRPV4 channels to produce vasodilation. Thus, TMEM16A channels regulate intracellular Cl- signaling and WNK kinase activity in ECs to control arterial contractility.


Assuntos
Cloretos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Camundongos , Animais , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Cloretos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
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