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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(3): 258, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349596

RESUMO

In the Azores, complaints about grape loss to birds have become recurrent. Although winegrowers frequently blame the endemic Azores Woodpigeon Columba palumbus azorica, data about the magnitude of grape damage and the species responsible for them are lacking. This study provides detailed information about grape damage caused by vertebrates on Pico Island, home to the main wine-growing area of the region. Vineyards were monitored during the ripening period in 2017 and 2018. Damage was assessed by determining the number of plucked, pecked and bitten grapes for a total of 850 bunches. Camera traps were placed in 113 enclosures providing detection and consumption rates of vertebrate species. GLM analysis was performed to test the effect of grape variety, distance to the woods, year and time before harvest on grape damage and consumption events. Damage was estimated at 10.3% (± 0.9) in 2017 and 8.7% (± 0.9) in 2018 and mostly consisted of plucked grapes. Ten vertebrate species were detected consuming grapes. Overall, 524 consumption events were registered. The Madeira lizard Teira dugesii, the Azores Blackbird Turdus merula azorensis and rodents (rats Rattus sp. and the house mouse Mus musculus) were responsible for most of those events. The Azores Woodpigeon accounted for three consumption events. GLM analysis showed that damage was greater in vines adjacent to woods and lower in traditional white varieties. This study constitutes an important baseline for the implementation of efficient measures to mitigate grape predation and sheds light on the minor role of the Azores Woodpigeon in grape damage.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Vinho , Camundongos , Animais , Ratos , Açores , Fazendas , Vertebrados
2.
Ecol Appl ; 33(3): e2804, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565243

RESUMO

Extensive land conversion to agriculture in drylands and associated resource use have wide-ranging impacts on desert ecosystems globally. Incorporating the impacts of human-social aspects is thus imperative in examining ecological interactions. The provision of agricultural inputs in these resource-scarce regions supports invasive and pest species, negatively impacting both agricultural productivity and native desert ecosystems. Understanding the spatial dynamics of invasive and pest species requires analyzing both bottom-up resource availability factors underlying animal distributions and top-down biological controls. Here, we evaluate the social-ecological cascading effects of dryland agriculture on vertebrate pest communities in dryland agricultural communities of Israel. Our study region is characterized by 18 agricultural cooperatives with distinct crop regimes due to contrasting social decision-making and resource allocation schemes (i.e., communal kibbutzim vs. privatized moshavim). Crop choices further affect land management (e.g., enclosed vs. open farm systems) and resource intensity. This system is ideal for studying trophic mechanisms underlying animal assemblages between agricultural regimes. We examine the role of agricultural land-use practices on pest spatial distributions based on multiyear vertebrate pest observations with agricultural data sets. We use structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the relative importance of added agricultural resources underlying bottom-up and top-down trophic processes regulating vertebrate pest assemblages. Results reveal that crop choices determine pest distributions through bottom-up processes directly, while simultaneously driving pest competitive interactions through indirect top-down cascades impacting pest communities. For example, due to the indirect negative effect of wolves on mesopredators (foxes and jackals) mediated by livestock, the total positive effect of livestock on the abundance of mesopredators is reduced. Our study illustrates the social-ecological cascading effects of agricultural regimes on pest community assemblages mediated by contrasting agricultural land-use practices. Considering the expansion of dryland agroecological systems globally, understanding the intricate cascading pathways of predator- and prey-pest communities has important implications for agricultural management, biological invasions in drylands, and fragile desert environments.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lobos , Animais , Humanos , Agricultura , Fazendas , Raposas
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-7, 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468443

RESUMO

Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Ratos , Pragas da Agricultura , Roedores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Ratos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-6, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468462

RESUMO

Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Ratos , Controle de Pragas/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Roedores , Roedores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Ratos
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 822022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468630

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 822022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468649

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153462

RESUMO

Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Coelhos , Ratos , Chuva , Roedores , Paquistão , Simbiose , Agricultura
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Coelhos , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Roedores , Paquistão , Manejo de Espécimes , Simbiose
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 774: 145172, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610983

RESUMO

Recent viral zoonotic epidemics have been attributed partially to the negative impact of human activities on ecosystem biodiversity. Agricultural activities, particularly conventional crop protection (CP) practices, are a major threat to global biodiversity, ecosystem health and human health. Here we review interactions between CP practices and viral zoonoses (VZs), the first time this has been done. It should be noted that a) VZs stand at the interface between human, animal and ecosystem health; b) some VZs involve arthropod vectors that are affected by CP practices; and c) some crop pests, or their natural enemies are vertebrate reservoirs/carriers of certain VZs, and their contact with humans or domestic animals is affected by CP practices. Our review encompasses examples highlighting interactions between VZs and CP practices, both efficiency improvement-based (i.e. conventional with agrochemical insecticides and rodenticides), substitution-based (i.e. mainly with physical/mechanical or biopesticidal pest control), and redesign-based (i.e. mainly with conservation biological pest control, including some forms of crop-livestock integration). These CP practices mainly target arthropod and vertebrate pests. They also target, to a lesser extent, weeds and plant pathogens. Conventional and some physical/mechanical control methods and some forms of biopesticidal and crop-livestock integration practices were found to have mixed outcomes in terms of VZ risk management. Conversely, practices based on biological control by habitat conservation of arthropod or vertebrate natural enemies, falling within the Agroecological Crop Protection (ACP) framework, result in VZ prevention at various scales (local to global, and short-term to long-term). ACP addresses major global challenges including climate resilience, biodiversity conservation and animal welfare, and helps integrate plant health within the extended "One Health" concept.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Saúde Única , Agricultura , Animais , Proteção de Cultivos , Ecossistema , Humanos , Controle Biológico de Vetores
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