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1.
Cureus ; 15(1): e33430, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628398

RESUMO

Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a significant crime that is increasing in incidence. The employment of volatile substances such as chloroform and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons in DFSAs is quite an unusual choice. The objective of this review is to explore the use of volatile substances in DFSAs. Using the PubMed database, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. Thereafter, citation searching was carried out within the included studies from the primary search. A total of five studies were eligible for inclusion. Chloroform was the drug used in the DFSA in three of the included studies, and aromatic hydrocarbons in the remaining two. Two of the offenders who employed chloroform possessed a unique way to access the drug: their degrees. The evidence found in the DFSA cases included a chloroform-scented scarf and a solvent-immersed cloth. Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-electrospray coupled tandem mass spectrometry, toxicology assays of blood and urine, and solvent or hydrocarbon gas chromatography flame-ionization detection followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were among the investigations performed to detect the volatile substances. The implementation of stricter regulations on chloroform for employees in chemical industries and laboratories is recommended. In cases where the autopsy is unclear and there are conspicuous facial and airway injuries, it is prudent to collect an early sample for volatile substance analysis.

2.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 94: 102485, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696879

RESUMO

Intimate partner femicide-suicide (IPF-S) is an understudied subgroup of homicide-suicide deaths. Limited research has been conducted on IPF-Ss in the Eastern Mediterranean region. This study thus aimed to evaluate the characteristics of IPF-Ss that occurred in Türkiye between 2000 and 2019. IPF-Ss (n = 226) were extracted from electronic news stories. Data on victims, perpetrators, their relationships, and incidents of murder and suicide were collected. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and logistic regression analysis, mortality rates, and proportion of IPF-S in femicide calculations were conducted, showing that 13.3% of the femicides (n = 1699) were IPF-Ss. The IPF-Ss increased in 5-year intervals and were the highest during the 2015-2019 period (62.5%). Victims were married in 48.2% of the cases and 56% were aged <35 years, while 51.3% of the perpetrators were married and 52.6% were aged >40 years. In 42.0% of the cases, the perpetrator lived with the victim. Most (79.2%) of the cases took place in urban settlements, and the perpetrators used firearms in 84.1% of femicide cases. Firearm use was the most common method in cases where IPF-S was planned (OR = 2.98), when the IPF-S method was the same (OR = 29.6), and when the perpetrator committed suicide (OR = 7.82). In addition, it was found that firearm ownership is an important risk factor for IPF-S in Türkiye. Therefore, we recommend legislation to restrict firearms, as well as new measures to prevent illegal access to weapons.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 117, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 continues to impact lives and livelihoods around the world, women and girls are disproportionately affected. Crisis situations and related response measures, such as lockdowns, school closures, and travel restrictions, often exacerbate the adversities and human rights violations faced by adolescent girls. We conducted a rapid review to synthesise evidence on the impact of public health emergencies (PHEs) related to gender-based inequalities among adolescent girls. METHODS: We systematically searched five major databases. Records were imported into the online screening tool Rayyan, and 10% of the records were triple screened for eligibility. We included qualitative, mixed-methods, and quantitative studies that assessed the relationship between PHEs and any of the following outcomes: (1) gender-based violence, (2) early/forced marriage, and (3) sexual and reproductive health. Due to the heterogeneity of included study designs, no meta-analysis was performed, and studies were summarised narratively. FINDINGS: Out the initial 6004 articles, 11 studies met our eligibility criteria. Five of these assessed the impact of natural disasters and six were focused on consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Seven studies focused on the impact of PHEs on gender-based violence, three focused on sexual and reproductive health, and only one study looked at early marriage. The main impacts highlighted by the studies included (1) increases in physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, (2) increase in the occurrence of teenage pregnancy, (3) poor menstruation hygiene management, and (4) occurrence of early marriages. Mechanisms underlying these impacts were PHE-specific response strategies like home confinement, closure of schools, the worsening of families' financial situation such as the inability to pay for school fees or day-to-day living costs, and the disempowerment of and increased workloads for adolescent girls. CONCLUSION: Although evidence on the impact of COVID-19 on gender-based violence, sexual and reproductive health, and especially forced or early marriage of adolescent girls is limited, results from studies on other PHEs indicate that during crises, these detrimental outcomes are exacerbated. Findings from our review have important implications for policies and programs providing life skills training, financial literacy training, credit support, and safe spaces for adolescent girls.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência de Gênero , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Pública , Emergências , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis
4.
J Interpers Violence ; : 8862605221147070, 2023 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710522

RESUMO

There has been growing concern about the increase in gender-based violence (GBV) among young people. The aim of this study was to explore the grey zones in GBV alongside gender (masculinities and femininities) discourses in young adults. We used the concept of a "grey zone" as an analytical tool to identify possible contradictory discursive positions where the notions of victims and perpetrators of GBV converge and become ambiguous. We performed a qualitative study based on 20 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus groups (October 2019 to February 2020) in Spain with a sample of 49 cisgender women and men, aged between 18 and 24, some involved in feminist activism and some not. We conducted a sociological analysis of the discourse system. Study findings show how culturally constructed gender norms intervene in the ways in which young people understand and deal with GBV. When asked general questions about GBV, this concept was problematized along with gender assumptions and two discursive positions were identified: the discourse of "men as authors of GBV" and the discourse of "GBV as an individual genderless issue." When vignettes of everyday GBV situations were shown, grey zones became visible when discussing subtle forms of GBV influenced by the myths of romantic love, victim-blaming around sexual violence, digital GBV and bystander men intervention on GBV. In those grey zones, discourses on GBV were articulated around unequal notions of gender that, in turn, served as its justification, reproduction, and normalization. The grey zones identified represent contexts of oppression that illustrate how GBV is systematically reproduced, as well as the ways in which young people can be involved in it, perpetuating power and health inequalities. Our findings provide information as a guide to design GBV interventions and prevention actions that incorporate a focus on gender configurations.

5.
Violence Against Women ; : 10778012231153369, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36714976

RESUMO

Using a 60-day daily e-diary tool, 117 women undergraduate students reported sexual harassment on a Canadian university campus (4,283 diary surveys, collectively). Participants reported 181 incidents of both ambient sexual harassment (witnessing 40 incidents, hearing 106 unwelcomed sexual jokes/remarks) and targeted personal experiences of non-physical sexual harassment (35 incidents). Qualitative data document students' descriptions of these encounters and contextualize how these are part of everyday student life. Findings show that students experience this harassment almost daily-in an ongoing, persistent, and normalized way-and that university can be a hostile environment where the possibility of daily unwanted sexual experiences is a lived, endemic reality.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 23, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600216

RESUMO

At the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, gender-based violence (GBV) was reported to have increased worldwide. We build on existing literature to examine the factors that increased vulnerability to GBV during the COVID-19 pandemic in Uganda. We use data from the Rapid Gender Assessment (RGA) survey that was conducted during COVID-19, which was designed to provide information to guide policymaking and offer appropriate interventions that address the needs of people in Uganda during the pandemic. The results show that the following respondents are more likely to experience increased risk and vulnerability to gender-based violence: those with primary level of education (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.10-2.01), those who received information about GBV (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.08-1.57), and those who needed help or medical support as a prevention measure against GBV (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.04-1.61). However, respondents who would need financial support to prevent GBV were less likely to experience increased GBV (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70-0.98). Our results align with evidence from other studies that risk and vulnerability to GBV in Uganda increased since the onset of COVID-19. The findings provide an understanding of the interrelationship between GBV and COVID-19,which can help with designing GBV preventive measures, particularly during pandemics among those most at-risk.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência de Gênero , Humanos , Feminino , Uganda/epidemiologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Violência
7.
Int Soc Work ; 66(1): 93-106, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36687135

RESUMO

This article explains the integrated implementation of a COVID-19 Feminist Framework (CFF) and biopsychosocial-spiritual perspective (BPSS-P) on the inclusive equitability of social service providers, practitioners, and policy-developers on global platforms. Mechanisms of CFF and BPSS-P entail the process to address/mitigate institutional inequities, mental health issues, violation of human rights, race/sex/gender-based violence, abuse, and trauma amid COVID-19. This discourse is about raising consciousness, collective liberation, wellbeing, and equality for women, children, BIPOC, LGBTQIA+, and gender-diverse people. This article further discusses social workers and mental health practitioners' uniqueness for short-term and long-term support for emotional, cognitive-behavioral, and psychosocial repercussions on the individual and community levels.

8.
Health Policy Plan ; 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658716

RESUMO

Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV)-both during times of war and peace-can have impactful negative social and health outcomes. Reports of rape being used as an act of war in Ukraine are drawing global attention to the need for specialized care for sexual and gender-based violence survivors during times of war and thereafter. While data remains limited, in 3 November 2022.7 million people in Ukraine were reported to need GBV prevention and response services. Services offered by the government and civil society include: a coordination centre of free legal aid, online and mobile platforms, chat-bots, hotlines, assistance centres, shelters, crisis rooms and mobile brigades. Rehabilitation services to support women and girls who have experienced SGBV during times of conflict and war, however, remain limited. We must make sure that our understanding of rehabilitation extends beyond providing physical modalities or recovery after surgery, and that SGBV survivors are not excluded from necessary care. This is particularly important if we want to ensure that rehabilitation services are meeting the needs of the most vulnerable populations. We call on the international rehabilitation community to ensure availability of and access to these vital life-changing services.

9.
Scand J Public Health ; : 14034948221148056, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global health problem of enormous proportions. However, little is known about the prevalence or health consequences of IPV among women in Stockholm, Sweden, a city characterised by high levels of gender equality that hosts a large population of people born outside Europe. AIMS: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of exposure to physical, psychological and sexual IPV and its associated background factors and health outcomes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study employing a survey containing questions about the previous year's exposure to IPV that was distributed to 35 midwifery clinics in Stockholm during the autumn of 2020. Any woman who visited any of these midwifery clinics during these two months was eligible to participate. RESULTS: A total of 2239 women answered the questionnaire, of whom 25.1% reported having been subjected to IPV at some point during their life and 8.7% during the previous year. The most common ongoing exposure was psychological violence, which was reported by 6.6% of the women. Women living with IPV reported poorer self-rated general health and more recurring health symptoms and depression than unexposed women. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to IPV is common and is associated with depression, lower general well-being and somatic health problems.

10.
Violence Against Women ; : 10778012221150273, 2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617942

RESUMO

Given the growing concern about perpetration of violence against women (VAW) amongst young adults, this article examines how a sample (n = 27) of Irish young adults (18-24 years) construct the term VAW. Participants drew on personal experiences to describe the term and were cognisant of the gendered perpetration of domestic, psychological, and sexual violence. A group of participants, however, constructed narrow understandings of VAW that did not align with their routinized experiences of unwanted touching and sexual microaggressions. We call for initiatives to enable young adults to name and link together different forms of VAW.

11.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; 24(1): 44-55, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998339

RESUMO

Evidence demonstrating the economic burden of violence against women and girls can support policy and advocacy efforts for investment in violence prevention and response programming. We undertook a systematic review of evidence on the costs of violence against women and girls in low- and middle-income countries published since 2005. In addition to understanding costs, we examined the consistency of methodological approaches applied and identified and assessed common methodological issues. Thirteen articles were identified, eight of which were from sub-Saharan Africa. Eight studies estimated costs associated with domestic or intimate partner violence, others estimated the costs of interpersonal violence, female genital cutting, and sexual assaults. Methodologies applied to estimate costs were typically based on accounting approaches. Our review found that out-of-pocket expenditures to individuals for seeking health care after an episode of violence ranged from US$29.72 (South Africa) to US$156.11 (Romania) and that lost productivity averaged from US$73.84 to US$2,151.48 (South Africa) per facility visit. Most studies that estimated provider costs of service delivery presented total programmatic costs, and there was variation in interventions, scale, and resource inputs measured which hampered comparability. Variations in methodological assumptions and data availability also made comparisons across countries and settings challenging. The limited scope of studies in measuring the multifaceted impacts of violence highlights the challenges in identifying cost metrics that extend beyond specific violence episodes. Despite the limited evidence base, our assessment leads us to conclude that the estimated costs of violence against women and girls are a fraction of its true economic burden.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Feminino , Humanos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Violência , África ao Sul do Saara
12.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; 24(1): 245-260, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259094

RESUMO

Police officers are society's first interveners in intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) and are essential for victim safety. Despite IPVAW laws, police attitudes influence their real actions during IPVAW intervention. However, the fuzzy conceptualization of the construct deters the pursuit of conclusive evidence. This systematic review sought to identify the components of police attitudes toward intervention in IPVAW and their determinants. A search was conducted through several databases (e.g., Web of Science). Papers were included if they (a) provided original empirical findings or were review studies, (b) were published between 1990 and 2019, (c) were written in Spanish or English, (d) alluded to police officers, and (e) focused on police attitudes toward intervention in IPVAW or their determinants. Fifty-seven papers were included. The studied components of police attitudes toward intervention in IPVAW extracted from the literature were tolerance of IPVAW, minimal police involvement, unsupportive and supportive attitudes toward the legal system and legislation against IPVAW, understanding of the complex nature of abuse, and IPVAW intervention as an important police task. Moreover, the central role of individual and situational determinants in police attitudes toward intervention in IPVAW was confirmed, whereas organizational and societal determinants were studied scarcely. This review proposes a framework upon which to build operational definition of police attitudes toward intervention in IPVAW and includes remarks on police backgrounds and the situational characteristics of IPVAW events that are essential in shaping police procedures for managing them. Empirical evidence should be transferred to police training and standard operating procedures.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Polícia , Humanos , Feminino , Parceiros Sexuais , Atitude , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle
13.
Prev Med ; 166: 107379, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495926

RESUMO

Violence against women is rampant in China. Even though meaningful strides have been made in the country, it remains disturbingly common for men to assault women-verbally or physically, who may or may not be their partners-in broad daylight in China. To make the situation worse, COVID-19, along with its restrictions, has both undermined women's ability to escape from abuse or violence and society's ability to provide timely help to victims. In light of the rising violence against women post-COVID, in this paper, we discuss the policy imperatives for countries like China to establish effective guardrails and support systems to protect women from the dehumanizing and destabilizing crime that is violence against women-a social malaise that not only harms and undermines the safety of society's daughters, mothers, and grandmothers, but also the integrity of local communities and social contract, let along shared humanity and global solidarity at large.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência Doméstica , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Violência , Crime , Políticas , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle
14.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 43: 100542, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: estimate the risk for the occurrence of lethal violence against women and to identify the associated factors in the state of Paraná. METHOD: ecological study of deaths of women aged between 15 and 59 years, victims of aggression. The units of analysis were the cities of Paraná. Latent Bayesian Gaussian models with negative binomial probability distribution were used. The modeling considered intercept, spatial random effects and covariates, performed with the deterministic Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations approach. RESULTS: There was a positive association between lethal violence against women and the percentage of mothers who were heads of households. Finally, male homicide rates, rates of non-lethal violence against women and the cities with women mayors and councilors were also associated. CONCLUSION: This type of violence was associated with low education, structural violence and the participation of women in politics.


Assuntos
Violência , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Cidades
15.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; : 15248380221137664, 2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514249

RESUMO

Migrant and refugee women experiencing domestic violence (DV) may face compounding factors that impact their ability and experiences of seeking help. Health-care providers are in a unique position to identify and assist victims of DV, however, they often lack the confidence and training to do this well. Little is known of the health-care experiences of migrant and refugee women experiencing abuse when they access primary health care (PHC). Using scoping review methodology, we undertook a systematic search of seven databases (Medline, Scopus, ProQuest, CINAHL, Informit Complete, and Google Scholar). We sought peer-reviewed and grey literature, published in English between January 1980 and August 2021 that identified women (18+) who had experienced DV, from low- or middle-income countries (LMICs), seeking help or health care in a primary care setting of a high-income country (HIC). Nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Findings identify sociocultural and sociopolitical barriers for migrant and refugee women seeking help for DV, which are contextualized within the ecological model. Migration-related factors and fear were major barriers for migrant and refugee women, while kindness, empathy and trust in health-care providers, and children's well-being were the strongest motivators for help-seeking and disclosure. This review provides insight into an under-researched and marginalized group of victim-survivors and highlights the need for increased awareness, guidance, and continuing education for health-care providers and health-care systems to provide best practice DV care for migrant and refugee women.

16.
Violence Against Women ; : 10778012221145302, 2022 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36579814

RESUMO

Little is known about co-occurring intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and child abuse within families in humanitarian settings. Baseline data from 203 couples in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo were analyzed to assess associations between childhood experiences of abuse with present co-occurring violence. Over half of women (56.1%) and men (50.5%) reported co-occurring violence. Adjusted models demonstrate experiencing physical abuse as a child was associated with greatest odds of recent co-occurring violence while witnessing parental IPV had mixed influence. Programmatic approaches focused on reducing early childhood violence may be promising to prevent both IPV and child abuse.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497811

RESUMO

Catalan legislation, a pioneer in Europe, has defined obstetric violence (OV) as "preventing or hindering access to truthful information, necessary for autonomous and informed decision-making". The definition also states that OV can affect physical and mental health, as well as sexual and reproductive health. Some authors have expressed concern about an increase in OV during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. During the pandemic, recommendations were also openly offered on the non-establishment and/or early abandonment of breastfeeding without scientific evidence to support them. Experiencing a traumatic childbirth can influence breastfeeding outcomes. Here, we conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered online questionnaire. The sample consisted of women who gave birth in Spain between March 2020 and April 2021. The mean age was 34.41 (±4.23) years. Of the women, 73% were employed, 78.2% had a university education, and almost all were Caucasian. Among the subjects, 3.3% were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and 1% were diagnosed during delivery. Some of the women (1.6%) were advised to stop breastfeeding in order to be vaccinated. Women diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 during delivery (p = 0.048), belonging to a low social class (p = 0.031), with secondary education (p = 0.029), or who suffered obstetric violence (p < 0.001) perceived less support and that the health care providers were less inclined to resolve doubts and difficulties about breastfeeding. Breastfeeding has been significantly challenged during the pandemic. In addition to all the variables to be considered that make breastfeeding support difficult, we now probably need to add SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and OV.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aleitamento Materno
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554584

RESUMO

In response to the high burden of family and domestic violence (FDV), The Australian National Plan to End Violence Against Women and Children has established that primary prevention measures are necessary to reduce FDV's harmful impacts on health. The Community, Respect, and Equality (CRE) project is a primary prevention initiative aimed towards changing harmful social norms and practices that enable FDV in Geraldton, Western Australia. Organizations affiliated with the CRE are required to promote gender equality and a respectful work environment. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding the impact and effectiveness of such interventions, especially in rural/regional areas. As such, this study served to evaluate the project's effectiveness in a CRE-certified workspace, a local non-profit social services provider. Investigators conducted interviews to learn how the organization had implemented the CRE, and whether the CRE had had an impact on social norms and practices within the work environment. Findings indicated that the project had largely failed to permeate workplace culture due to a lack of effective promotion, low perceived benefits, and low resources. Future interventions must take persuasive measures, even for organizations perceived to be receptive to change.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Criança , Humanos , Austrália , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho , Prevenção Primária , Comunicação
19.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 30: e65076, jan. -dez. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393340

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar os fatores que aumentaram a vulnerabilidade feminina à violência física, no período da quarentena para Covid-19. Método: estudo quantitativo, transversal, descritivo, realizado entre agosto e setembro de 2021. Participaram 154 mulheres. Protocolo aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: verificou-se que 3,2% tinham ensino fundamental, 80% sofreram violência física, 61,7% tinham ensino superior e 33,7% sofreram violência física. Quanto a renda mensal familiar 6,5% tinham renda menor de R$1.000,00, 80% sofreram violência física, 20,1% tinham renda maior que R$7.000,00, 25,8% sofreram violência física. Quanto ao n.º de filhos, 9,7% tinham mais de 3 filhos, 73,3% sofreram violência física, 18,2% o parceiro fazia uso de drogas ilícitas, 67,9% das mulheres já sofreram violência física. Conclusão: mulheres com baixa escolaridade, baixa renda familiar e maior número de filhos, cujos parceiros (as) fizeram uso de drogas ilícitas apresentaram alta significância estatística e maior vulnerabilidade à violência física durante o período de pandemia para Covid-19.


Objective: to examine factors that increased female vulnerability to physical violence during the quarantine period of the Covid-19 pandemic. Method: this quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted between August and September 2021, with the participation of 154 women. The project was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: of the 3.2% of these women who had only lower secondary schooling, 80% had suffered physical violence; of the 61.7% with higher education, 33.7% had suffered physical violence. In terms of monthly income. Of the 6.5% with monthly income of less than BRL 1,000.00, 80% had suffered physical violence; of the 20.1% earning over BRL 7,000, 25.8% had suffered physical violence. Of the 9.7% with more than 3 children, 73.3% had suffered physical violence; and of the 18.2% whose partners used illegal substances, 67.9% had suffered physical violence. Conclusion: women with little education, low family income, more children, and partners using illegal substances were found, with high statistical significance, to be more vulnerable to physical violence during the Covid-19 pandemic.


Objetivo: analizar los factores que incrementaron la vulnerabilidad femenina a la violencia física durante el período de cuarentena por Covid-19. Método: investigación cuantitativa, transversal, descriptiva, realizada entre agosto y septiembre de 2021. En él participaron 154 mujeres. El protocolo fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación. Resultados: se encontró que el 3,2% tenía educación primaria, el 80% había sufrido violencia física, el 61,7% había terminado la universidad y el 33,7% había sufrido violencia física. En cuanto al ingreso familiar mensual, del 6,5% que tenía ingresos inferiores a R$ 1.000,00, el 80% había sufrido violencia física; del 20,1% que tenía ingresos superiores a R$ 7.000,00, el 25,8% había sufrido violencia física. Respecto al número de hijos, el 9,7% tenía más de 3 hijos, el 73,3% sufrió violencia física, la pareja del 18,2% consumía drogas ilícitas, el 67,9% de las mujeres ya había sufrido violencia física. Conclusión: las mujeres con baja escolaridad, bajos ingresos familiares y mayor número de hijos, cuyas parejas consumían drogas ilícitas, presentaron alta significancia estadística y mayor vulnerabilidad a la violencia física durante el período pandémico por Covid-19.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497909

RESUMO

Gender-based violence is a human rights and public health issue, disproportionately affecting women. The Motivating Action Through Empowerment (MATE) bystander program aims to address violence against women by shifting focus from perpetrators and victims of violence to community responsibility for not accepting attitudes and behaviors that support or allow the violence to occur. Traditionally bystander programs have been delivered through institutions, most notably college campuses in the United States. The translation of bystander programs to community settings is not widely reported. This research aimed to understand whether a violence prevention program could be effectively delivered in a faith community setting; specifically, it focuses on the implementation of MATE in a Christian church network in the Gold Coast region of Queensland, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten church-based trainers in the MATE pilot program. Theoretically informed analysis using the COM-B behavior model identified that environmental factors had a large bearing on opportunities to deliver MATE workshops. This research identified six key lessons for MATE and other programs wishing to leverage faith communities: (1) Provide religious context; (2) Accommodate diversity; (3) Build faith leader capacity; (4) Employ social marketing; (5) Undertake co-design; (6) Actively administer, measure and monitor.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Feminino , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Violência/prevenção & controle , Universidades , Atitude , Saúde Pública
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