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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259259, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364517

RESUMO

Rice is a widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population. Approximately 90% of the world's rice is grown in Asian continent and constitutes a staple food for 2.7 billion people worldwide. Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is one of the devastating diseases of rice. A field experiment was conducted during the year 2016 and 2017 to investigate the influence of different meteorological parameters on BLB development as well as the computation of a predictive model to forecast the disease well ahead of its appearance in the field. The seasonal dataset of disease incidence and environmental factors was used to assess five rice varieties/ cultivars (Basmati-2000, KSK-434, KSK-133, Super Basmati, and IRRI-9). The accumulated effect of two year environmental data; maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and rainfall, was studied and correlated with disease incidence. Average temperature (maximum & minimum) showed a negative significant correlation with BLB disease and all other variables; relative humidity, rainfall, and wind speed had a positive correlation with BLB disease development on individual varieties. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to indicate potentially useful predictor variables and to rule out incompetent parameters. Environmental data from the growing seasons of July to October 2016 and 2017 revealed that, with the exception of the lowest temperature, all environmental factors contributed to disease development throughout the cropping season. A disease prediction multiple regression model was developed based on two-year data (Y = 214.3-3.691 Max T-0.508 Min T + 0.767 RH + 2.521 RF + 5.740 WS), which explained 95% variability. This disease prediction model will not only help farmers in early detection and timely management of bacterial leaf blight disease of rice but may also help reduce input costs and improve product quality and quantity. The model will be both farmer and environmentally friendly.


O arroz é um alimento básico amplamente consumido por grande parte da população humana mundial. Aproximadamente 90% do arroz do mundo é cultivado no continente asiático e constitui um alimento básico para 2,7 bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O crestamento bacteriano das folhas (BLB) causado por Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae é uma das doenças devastadoras do arroz. Um experimento de campo foi realizado durante os anos de 2016 e 2017 para investigar a influência de diferentes parâmetros meteorológicos no desenvolvimento do BLB, bem como o cálculo de um modelo preditivo para prever a doença bem antes de seu aparecimento em campo. O conjunto de dados sazonais de incidência de doenças e fatores ambientais foi usado para avaliar cinco variedades/cultivares de arroz (Basmati-2000, KSK-434, KSK-133, Super Basmati e IRRI-9). O efeito acumulado de dados ambientais de dois anos; temperatura máxima e mínima, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e precipitação pluviométrica foram estudados e correlacionados com a incidência da doença. A temperatura média (máxima e mínima) apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a doença BLB e todas as outras variáveis; umidade relativa, precipitação e velocidade do vento tiveram uma correlação positiva com o desenvolvimento da doença BLB em variedades individuais. A análise de regressão stepwise foi realizada para indicar variáveis preditoras potencialmente úteis e para descartar parâmetros incompetentes. Os dados ambientais das safras de julho a outubro de 2016 e 2017 revelaram que, com exceção da temperatura mais baixa, todos os fatores ambientais contribuíram para o desenvolvimento da doença ao longo da safra. Um modelo de regressão múltipla de previsão de doença foi desenvolvido com base em dados de dois anos (Y = 214,3-3,691 Max T-0,508 Min T + 0,767 RH + 2,521 RF + 5,740 WS), que explicou 95% de variabilidade. Este modelo de previsão de doenças não só ajudará os agricultores na detecção precoce e gestão atempada da doença bacteriana das folhas do arroz, mas também pode ajudar a reduzir os custos de insumos e melhorar a qualidade e a quantidade do produto. O modelo será agricultor e ambientalmente amigável.


Assuntos
Oryza , Temperatura , Pragas da Agricultura , Umidade
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(1): 288-299, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36591973

RESUMO

Ethylicin (ET) was reported to be promising in the control of rice bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The detailed mechanism for this process remains unknown. Disclosed here is an in-depth study on the action mode of ET to Xoo. Through plant physiological and biochemical analysis, it was found that ET could inhibit the proliferation of Xoo by increasing the content of defense enzymes and chlorophyll in rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare). Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis showed that ET affected the rice abscisic acid (ABA) signal pathway and made the critical differential calcium-dependent protein kinase 24 (OsCPK24) more active. In addition, the biological function of OsCPK24 as a mediator for rice resistance to Xoo was determined through the anti-Xoo phenotypic test of OsCPK24 transgenic rice and the affinity analysis of the OsCPK24 recombinant protein in vitro and ET. This study revealed the molecular mechanism of ET-induced resistance to Xoo in rice via OsCPK24, which provided a basis for the development of new bactericides based on the OsCPK24 protein.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteômica , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
3.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 76(1)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688787

RESUMO

Among the various biotic factors that disrupt crop yield, Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo) is the most ruinous microbe of rice and causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB) disease. The present study focused on the utilization of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) to control BLB. The copper nanosuspension (259.7 nm) prepared using Na-CMC, CuSO4·7H2O, and NaOH showed effectively inhibited Xoo (65.0 µg/ml). The performance of Cu-NPs in vivo showed enhanced plant attributes (127.9% root length and 53.9% shoot length) compared to the control and CuSO4 treated seedling. Furthermore, Cu-NPs treated seedlings showed 23.01% disease incidence (DI) compared to CuSO4 (85.71%) treated and control plants (91.83%). In addition to enhancing the growth parameters and reducing DI, seed priming with Cu-NPs improved the total chlorophyll content to 36.0% compared to the control. The assessment of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (1.9 U), polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (two- to three-fold) in roots and shoots of rice plants revealed significant enhancement in Cu-NPs treated seedlings (P < 0.05). The present study suggests that Cu-NPs can be used to control Xoo and enhance rice growth.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Oryza , Xanthomonas , Oryza/microbiologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Plântula/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(3): 1405-1416, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36644843

RESUMO

Infestation of rice with the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) causes the serious disease bacterial leaf streak (BLS). We studied the effect of ethylicin, a broad-spectrum bactericide, on Xoc both in vivo and in vitro. Ethylicin increases the defensive enzyme activities and defensive genes expression of rice. Ethylicin also significantly inhibited Xoc activity in vitro compared with other commercial bactericides. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of ethylicin was 2.12 µg/mL. It has been shown that ethylicin can inhibit Xoc quorum sensing through the production of extracellular polysaccharides and enzymes, which disrupt the Xoc cell membrane. We used proteomic analysis to identify two oxidative phosphorylation pathway proteins (ACU12_RS13405 and ACU12_RS13355) which affected the virulence of Xoc and validated them using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results indicate that ethylicin can increase the defense responses of rice and control Xoc proliferation.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteômica , Virulência , Xanthomonas/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675223

RESUMO

Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates the production of several plant volatiles that are involved in plant defense mechanisms. In this study, we report that the JA-responsive volatile apocarotenoid, ß-cyclocitral (ß-cyc), negatively affects abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and induces a defense response against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes bacterial blight in rice (Oryza sativa L.). JA-induced accumulation of ß-cyc was regulated by OsJAZ8, a repressor of JA signaling in rice. Treatment with ß-cyc induced resistance against Xoo and upregulated the expression of defense-related genes in rice. Conversely, the expression of ABA-responsive genes, including ABA-biosynthesis genes, was downregulated by JA and ß-cyc treatment, resulting in a decrease in ABA levels in rice. ß-cyc did not inhibit the ABA-dependent interactions between OsPYL/RCAR5 and OsPP2C49 in yeast cells. Furthermore, we revealed that JA-responsive rice carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4b (OsCCD4b) was localized in the chloroplast and produced ß-cyc both in vitro and in planta. These results suggest that ß-cyc plays an important role in the JA-mediated resistance against Xoo in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Xanthomonas/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
6.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 28(10): 1955-1967, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484030

RESUMO

Global rice production is seriously affected by many abiotic and biotic factors. Among the aggressive rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (X. o. pv. oryzae), Bipolaris oryzae (B. oryzae) and Sphaerulina oryzina (S. oryzina) cause bacterial leaf blight, brown leaf spot and narrow brown leaf spot diseases, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of biogenic zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) as antimicrobial agent to control rice pathogens. This is the first report of antifungal activity evaluation of ZnO NPs against B. oryzae and S. oryzina. A pre-characterized bacterial strain Escherichia sp. SINT7 was bio-prospected for synthesis of green ZnO NPs. The NPs were confirmed by a characteristic peak measured at 360.96 nm through UV-Vis spectroscopy. Further, the NPs were characterized to elucidate the surface capping molecules, crystallite structure and morphology by various spectroscopic and imaging techniques, which confirmed the spherical shape of NPs with size ranging from 13.07 to 22.25 nm. In vitro studies against X. o. pv. oryzae pathogen depicted the substantial antibacterial activity (up to 25.7 mm inhibition zone at 20 µg/ml NPs concentration). Similarly, ZnO NPs reduced the mycelial growth of B. oryzae and S. oryzina up to 72.68 and 95.78%, respectively at 50 µg/ml concentration on potato dextrose agar plates, while the mycelial biomass reduction was found to be 64.66 and 68. 49% for B. oryzae and S. oryzina, respectively on potato dextrose broth media as compared to control without the addition of NPs. The green ZnO NPs also significantly reduced the fungal spore germination and a disintegration of fungal hyphae for both fungal strains was observed under the microscope as a result of NPs treatment. Hence, it was concluded that biologically synthesized ZnO NPs are potential antimicrobials and could be compared in greenhouse pathogenicity assays with commercial pesticides to control rice pathogens. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-022-01251-y.

7.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 1037901, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36507384

RESUMO

Bacterial blight (BB) induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a devastating bacterial disease in rice. The use of disease resistance (R) genes is the most efficient method to control BB. Members of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing protein (NLR) family have significant roles in plant defense. In this study, Xa47, a new bacterial blight R gene encoding a typical NLR, was isolated from G252 rice material, and XA47 was localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Among 180 rice materials tested, Xa47 was discovered in certain BB-resistant materials. Compared with the wild-type G252, the knockout mutants of Xa47 was more susceptible to Xoo. By contrast, overexpression of Xa47 in the susceptible rice material JG30 increased BB resistance. The findings indicate that Xa47 positively regulates the Xoo stress response. Consequently, Xa47 may have application potential in the genetic improvement of plant disease resistance. The molecular mechanism of Xa47 regulation merits additional examination.

8.
J Adv Res ; 42: 263-272, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513417

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Xa23 as an executor mediates broad-spectrum resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which contains a matching avirulence gene avrXa23, in rice for bacterial leaf blight (BLB). avrXa23 encodes a transcription activator-like effector (TALE) protein which binds to the EBE (effector-binding element) of the Xa23 promoter. It is unclear whether the considerable pressure of Xa23 leads to an emerging Xoo strain that overcomes Xa23 resistance. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to uncover new Xoo isolate(s) that overcome Xa23-mediated resistance and to investigate how the pathogen evades the resistance. METHODS: Totally 185 Xoo isolates were used to screen possibly compatible strain(s) with Xa23-containing rice CBB23 by pathogenicity test. Genome Sequencing, Southern blot, tal gene cloning, Western blot, qRT-PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) were conducted to determine the mechanism of one Xoo isolate being compatible with Xa23-containing rice. RESULTS: One isolate AH28 from Anhui province is compatible with CBB23. AH28 strain contains an ortholog of avrXa23, tal7b and has 17 tal genes. The 4th RVD (repeat-variable diresidue) in Tal7b are missed and the 5th and 8th RVDs changed from NG and NS to NS and S*, respectively. These alternations made Tal7b unable to bind to the EBE of Xa23 promoter to activate the expression of Xa23 in rice. The ectopic expression of tal7b in a tal-free mutant PH of PXO99A did not alter the virulence of the strain PH, whereas avrXa23 made AH28 from compatibility to incompatibility with Xa23 rice. CONCLUSION: Best to our knowledge, this is the first insight of a naturally-emerging Xoo isolate that overcomes the broad-spectrum resistance of Xa23 by the variable AvrXa23-like TALE Tal7b. The RVD alteration in AvrXa23 may be a common strategy for the pathogen evolution to avoid being "trapped" by the executor R gene.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Efetores Semelhantes a Ativadores de Transcrição/genética , Efetores Semelhantes a Ativadores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
9.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365347

RESUMO

Rice bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is responsible for a significant reduction in rice production. Due to the small impact on the environment, biogenic nanomaterials are regarded as a new type of antibacterial agent. In this research, three colloids of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized with different biological materials such as Arctium lappa fruit, Solanum melongena leaves, and Taraxacum mongolicum leaves, and called Al-AgNPs, Sm-AgNPs and Tm-AgNPs, respectively. The appearance of brown colloids and the UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis proved the successful synthesis of the three colloids of AgNPs. Moreover, FTIR and XRD analysis revealed the formation of AgNPs structure. The SEM and TEM analysis indicated that the average diameters of the three synthesized spherical AgNPs were 20.18 nm, 21.00 nm, and 40.08 nm, respectively. The three botanical AgNPs had the strongest bacteriostatic against Xoo strain C2 at 20 µg/mL with the inhibition zone of 16.5 mm, 14.5 mm, and 12.4 mm, while bacterial numbers in a liquid broth (measured by OD600) decreased by 72.10%, 68.19%, and 65.60%, respectively. Results showed that the three AgNPs could inhibit biofilm formation and swarming motility of Xoo. The ultrastructural observation showed that Al-AgNPs adhered to the surface of bacteria and broke the bacteria. Overall, the three synthetic AgNPs could be used to inhibit the pathogen Xoo of rice bacterial leaf blight.

10.
Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii ; 26(6): 544-552, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36313829

RESUMO

The genus Xanthomonas comprises phytopathogenic bacteria which infect about 400 host species, including a wide variety of economically important plants. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Fang et al., 1957) Swings et al., 1990 is the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak (BLS) being one of the most destructive bacterial diseases of rice. BLS symptoms are very similar to those of bacterial blight caused by closely related Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. X. o. pv. oryzae and X. o. pv. oryzicola and often occur in rice f ields simultaneously, so separate leaves may show symptoms of both diseases. The quarantine status and high severity of the pathogen require a highly eff icient, fast and precise diagnostic method. We have developed an assay for Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola detection using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and PCR amplicon sequencing. The DNA samples of X. o. pv. oryzae and X. o. pv. oryzicola were obtained from the collection of CIRM-CFBR (France). To evaluate the analytical sensitivity of the assay, a vector construct based on the pAL2-T plasmid was created through the insertion of X. o. pv. oryzicola target fragment (290 bp). Primers and a probe for qPCR were selected for the hpa1 gene site. They allowed identifying all the strains the sequences of which had been loaded in the GenBank NCBI Nucleotide database before November 11, 2021. The SeqX.o.all sequencing primers were selected for the hrp gene cluster sequence, namely for the nucleotide sequence encoding the Hpa1 protein, the sequencing of which allows for eff icient differentiation of X. oryzae species. The analytical specif icity of the system was tested using the DNAs of 53 closely related and accompanying microorganisms and comprised 100 % with no false-positive or false-negative results registered. The system's analytical sensitivity was not less than 25 copies per PCR reaction. Its eff icacy has been conf irmed using f ive different qPCR detection systems from different manufacturers, so it can be recommended for diagnostic and screening studies.

11.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260328

RESUMO

The bacterial pathogens Xanthomonas oryzae pathovars oryzae (Xoo) and oryzicola (Xoc) cause leaf blight and leaf streak diseases on rice, respectively. Pathogenesis is largely defined by the virulence genes harboured in the pathogen genome. Recently, we demonstrated that the protein HpaP of the crucifer pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is an enzyme with both ATPase and phosphatase activities, and is involved in regulating the synthesis of virulence factors and the induction of the hypersensitive response (HR). In this study, we investigated the role of HpaP homologues in Xoo and Xoc. We showed that HpaP is required for full virulence of Xoo and Xoc. Deletion of hpaP in Xoo and Xoc led to a reduction in virulence and alteration in the production of virulence factors, including extracellular polysaccharide and cell motility. Comparative transcriptomics and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR assays revealed that in XVM2 medium, a mimic medium of the plant environment, the expression levels of hrp genes (for HR and pathogenicity) were enhanced in the Xoo hpaP deletion mutant compared to the wild type. By contrast, in the same growth conditions, hrp gene expression was decreased in the Xoc hpaP deletion mutant compared to the wild type. However, an opposite expression pattern was observed when the pathogens grew in planta, where the expression of hrp genes was reduced in the Xoo hpaP mutant but increased in the Xoc hpaP mutant. These findings indicate that HpaP plays a divergent role in Xoo and Xoc, which may lead to the different infection strategies employed by these two pathogens.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1034779, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36304956

RESUMO

Bacterial leaf blight caused by Gram-negative pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases on rice. Due to the resistance, toxicity and environmental issues of chemical bactericides, new biological strategies are still in need. Although peptaibols produced by Trichoderma spp. can inhibit the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria and plant fungal pathogens, it still remains unclear whether peptaibols have anti-Xoo activity to control bacterial leaf blight on rice. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial effects of Trichokonins A (TKA), peptaibols produced by Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, against Xoo. The in vitro antibacterial activity analysis showed that the growth of Xoo was significantly inhibited by TKA, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 54 µg/mL and that the three TKs in TKA all had remarkable anti-Xoo activity. Further inhibitory mechanism analyses revealed that TKA treatments resulted in the damage of Xoo cell morphology and the release of intracellular substances, such as proteins and nucleic acids, from Xoo cells, suggesting the damage of the permeability of Xoo cell membrane by TKA. Pathogenicity analyses showed that the lesion length on rice leaf was significantly reduced by 82.2% when treated with 27 µg/mL TKA. This study represents the first report of the antibacterial activity of peptaibols against a Gram-negative bacterium. Thus, TKA can be of a promising agent in controlling bacterial leaf blight on rice.

13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant bacterial diseases have seriously affected the yield and quality of crops, among which rice bacterial leaf blight (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae has seriously affected the yield of rice. As plant-pathogenic bacteria gradually become resistant to existing bactericides, it is necessary to find effective bactericides with novel structures. RESULTS: Herein, a series of compounds containing quinazolin-4(3H)-one and disulfide moieties were designed and synthesized using a facile synthetic method. The bioassay results revealed that most target compounds possessed noticeable antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Particularly, compound 2-(butyldisulfanyl) quinazolin-4(3H)-one (1) exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity with the half effective concentration (EC50 ) of 0.52 µg mL-1 . Additionally, compound 1 was confirmed to inhibit the growth of the bacteria, change the bacterial morphology, and increase the level of reactive oxygen species. Proteomics, and RT-qPCR analysis results indicated that compound 1 could downregulate the expression of Pil-Chp histidine kinase chpA encoded by the pilL gene, and the potting experiments proved that compound 1 exhibits significant protective activity against BLB. CONCLUSIONS: Compound 1 may weaken the pathogenicity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae by inhibiting the bacterial growth and blocking the pili-mediated twitching motility without inducing the bacterial apoptosis. This study indicates that such derivatives could be a promising scaffold to develop a bacteriostat to control BLB. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

14.
Plant Pathol J ; 38(5): 490-502, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36221921

RESUMO

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB) disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and it is among the most destructive pathogen responsible for severe yield losses. Potential bacterial biocontrol agents (BCAs) with plant growth promotion (PGP) abilities can be applied to better manage the BLB disease and increase crop yield, compared to current conventional practices. Thus, this study aimed to isolate, screen, and identify potential BCAs with PGP abilities. Isolation of the BCAs was performed from internal plant tissues and rhizosphere soil of healthy and Xoo-infected rice. A total of 18 bacterial strains were successfully screened for in vitro antagonistic ability against Xoo, siderophore production and PGP potentials. Among the bacterial strains, 3 endophytes, Bacillus sp. strain USML8, Bacillus sp. strain USML9, and Bacillus sp. strain USMR1 which were isolated from diseased plants harbored the BCA traits and significantly reduced leaf blight severity of rice. Simultaneously, the endophytic BCAs also possessed plant growth promoting traits and were able to enhance rice growth. Application of the selected endophytes (BCAs-PGP) at the early growth stage of rice exhibited potential in suppressing BLB disease and promoting rice growth.

15.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36177860

RESUMO

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a notorious plant pathogen that causes leaf blight of rice cultivars. The pathogenic bacteria possess numerous transcriptional regulators to regulate various biological processes, such as pathogenicity in the host plant. Our previous study identified a new master regulator PXO_RS20790 that is involved in pathogenicity for Xoo against the host rice. However, the molecular functions of PXO_RS20790 are still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that transcriptional regulator Sar (PXO_RS20790) regulates multiple secretion systems. The RNA-sequencing analysis, bacterial one-hybrid assay, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that Sar enables binding of the promoters of the T1SS-related genes, the avirulence gene, raxX, and positively regulates these genes' expression. Meanwhile, we found that Sar positively regulated the T6SS-1 clusters but did not regulate the T6SS-2 clusters. Furthermore, we revealed that only T6SS-2 is involved in interbacterial competition. We also indicated that Sar could bind the promoters of the T3SS regulators, hrpG and hrpX, to activate these two genes' transcription. Our findings revealed that Sar is a crucial regulator of multiple secretion systems and virulence.

16.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(9): 566, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982196

RESUMO

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo), is one of the most damaging rice diseases, causing severe production losses depending on the rice variety. The purpose of this study was to develop an antibacterial photodynamic treatment (aPDT) using riboflavin for the treatment of BLB disease. Combining light and riboflavin (RF) therapy significantly reduced bacterial planktonic cells compared to RF alone. Photoactivated riboflavin also decreased biofilm biomass by reducing the number of viable sessile cells and the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in Xoo cells treated with photoactivated riboflavin were found to be significantly higher than in cells treated with riboflavin and light individually. Malondialdehyde (MDA) increased greatly in photoactivated riboflavin treated cells, indicating that severe oxidative damage was induced. Subsequently, a reduction in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in photoactivated riboflavin treated Xoo cells indicates that oxidative stress has disrupted the respiratory system, leading to bacterial cell death. In an ex vivo aPDT assay, photoactivated riboflavin successfully eradicated Xoo on the surface of rice leaves. Photoactivated riboflavin had no side effects on rice seed germination in subsequent trials, indicating that it is safe for agricultural applications. Therefore, all these findings suggest that aPDT is a potential alternative management strategy for BLB disease.


Assuntos
Oryza , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Riboflavina/metabolismo , Riboflavina/farmacologia , Xanthomonas
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955958

RESUMO

The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates various aspects of plant growth, development, and stress responses. ABA suppresses innate immunity to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in rice (Oryza sativa), but the identity of the underlying regulator is unknown. In this study, we revealed that OsWRKY114 is involved in the ABA response during Xoo infection. ABA-induced susceptibility to Xoo was reduced in OsWRKY114-overexpressing rice plants. OsWRKY114 attenuated the negative effect of ABA on salicylic acid-dependent immunity. Furthermore, OsWRKY114 decreased the transcript levels of ABA-associated genes involved in ABA response and biosynthesis. Moreover, the endogenous ABA level was lower in OsWRKY114-overexpressing plants than in the wild-type plants after Xoo inoculation. Taken together, our results suggest that OsWRKY114 is a negative regulator of ABA that confers susceptibility to Xoo in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética
18.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956994

RESUMO

Actinomycetes play a vital role as one of the most important natural resources for both pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. The actinomycete strain SPRI-371, isolated from soil collected in Jiangsu province, China, was classified as Streptomyces aureus based on its morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular biological characteristics. Its bacterial activity metabolites were identified as aureonuclemycin (ANM), belonging to adenosine derivatives with the molecular formula C16H19N5O9 for ANM A and C10H13N5O3 for ANM B. Simultaneously, the industrial fermentation process of a mutated S. aureus strain SPRI-371 was optimized in a 20 m3 fermentation tank, featuring a rotation speed of 170 rpm, a pressure of 0.05 MPa, an inoculum age of 36-40 h and a dissolved oxygen level maintained at 1-30% within 40-80 h and at >60% in the later period, resulting in an ANM yield of >3700 mg/L. In the industrial separation of fermentation broth, the sulfuric acid solution was selected to adjust pH and 4# resin was used for adsorption. Then, it was resolved with 20% ethanol solution and concentrated in a vacuum (60-65 °C), with excellent results. Antibacterial experiments showed that ANM was less active or inactive against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and most bacteria, yeast and fungi in vitro. However, in vivo experiments showed that ANM exhibited extremely significant protective and therapeutic activity against diseases caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola in rice and X. citri in oranges and lemons. In field trials, ANM A 150 gai/ha + ANM B 75 gai/ha exhibited excellent therapeutic activity against rice bacterial leaf blight, citrus canker and rice bacterial leaf streak. Furthermore, as the dosage and production cost of ANM are lower than those of commercial drugs, it has good application prospects.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptomyces , Virulência
19.
Cell Rep ; 40(7): 111235, 2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977497

RESUMO

Rice blast and bacterial blight, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), respectively, are devastating diseases affecting rice. Here, we report that a rice valine-glutamine (VQ) motif-containing protein, OsVQ25, balances broad-spectrum disease resistance and plant growth by interacting with a U-Box E3 ligase, OsPUB73, and a transcription factor, OsWRKY53. We show that OsPUB73 positively regulates rice resistance against M. oryzae and Xoo by interacting with and promoting OsVQ25 degradation via the 26S proteasome pathway. Knockout mutants of OsVQ25 exhibit enhanced resistance to both pathogens without a growth penalty. Furthermore, OsVQ25 interacts with and suppresses the transcriptional activity of OsWRKY53, a positive regulator of plant immunity. OsWRKY53 downstream defense-related genes and brassinosteroid signaling genes are upregulated in osvq25 mutants. Our findings reveal a ubiquitin E3 ligase-VQ protein-transcription factor module that fine-tunes plant immunity and growth at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Resistência à Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Magnaporthe/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Xanthomonas
20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(16): e0055022, 2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916503

RESUMO

The advent of high-throughput sequencing and population genomics has enabled researchers to investigate selection pressure at hypervariable genomic loci encoding pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) molecules like lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Xanthomonas is a model and a major group of phytopathogenic bacteria that infect hosts in tissue-specific manner. Our in-depth population-based genomic investigation revealed the emergence of major lineages in two Xanthomonas pathogens that infect xylem of rice and sugarcane is associated with the acquisition and later large-scale replacement by distinct type of LPS cassettes. In the population of the rice xylem pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and sugarcane pathogens Xanthomonas sacchari (Xsac) and Xanthomonas vasicola (Xvv), the BXO8 type of LPS cassette is replaced by a BXO1 type of cassette in Xoo and by Xvv type LPS cassette in Xsac and Xvv. These findings suggest a wave of parallel evolution at an LPS locus mediated by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events during its adaptation and emergence. Aside from xylem pathogens, two closely related lineages of Xoo that infect parenchyma of rice and Leersia hexandra grass have acquired an LPS cassette from Xanthomonas pathogens that infect parenchyma of citrus, walnut, and strawberries, indicating yet another instance of parallel evolution mediated by HGT at an LPS locus. Our targeted and megapopulation-based genome dynamic studies revealed the acquisition and dominance of specific types of LPS cassettes in adaptation and success of a major group of phytopathogenic bacteria. IMPORTANCE Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major microbe associated molecular pattern and hence a major immunomodulator. As a major and outer member component, it is expected that LPS is a frontline defense mechanism to deal with different host responses. Limited studies have indicated that LPS loci are also highly variable at strain and species level in plant-pathogenic bacteria, suggesting strong selection pressure from plants and associated niches. The advent of high-throughput genomics has led to the availability of a large set of genomic resources at taxonomic and population levels. This provides an exciting and important opportunity to carryout megascale targeted and population-based comparative genomic/association studies at important loci like those encoding LPS biosynthesis to understand their role in the evolution of the host, tissue specificity, and also predominant lineages. Such studies will also fill major gap in understanding host and tissue specificity in pathogenic bacteria. Our pioneering study uses the Xanthomonas group of phytopathogens that are known for their characteristic host and tissue specificity. The present deep phylogenomics of diverse Xanthomonas species and its members revealed lineage association and dominance of distinct types of LPS in accordance with their origin, host, tissue specificity, and evolutionary success.


Assuntos
Oryza , Saccharum , Xanthomonas , Genoma Bacteriano , Lipopolissacarídeos , Metagenômica , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Saccharum/genética , Xanthomonas/genética
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