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1.
An. psicol ; 38(3): 508-517, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-208822

RESUMO

La información sobre el uso de Videojuegos (VJ) en muestras generales refleja fundamentalmente las características de los hombres, por su mayor participación en VJ, dificultando identificar las características de las mujeres y su actividad de juego. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento lúdico de adolescentes y jóvenes madrileñas y su relación con el desarrollo de problemas de juego. Método: Se aplicó un cuestionario de autoinforme (Gamertest) a una muestra de 1.228 mujeres (12 -22 años) (M = 14.84; DT= 2.469), seleccionadas mediante muestreo aleatorio en centros educativos de la Comunidad de Madrid. Resultados: el 51% de las mujeres admite jugar. El perfil típico es una mujer que juega a VJ de forma esporádica y por cortos periodos de tiempo, preferiblemente juegos de Acción y Aventura o Puzles y Plataformas; principalmente en smartphones, en casa y sola, con el propósito de divertirse. Las principales variables predictivas de problemas de juego, identificadas con el Trastorno del Juego de Internet (TJI) en mujeres son: mayor número de horas de uso, participación en juegos de rol multijugador masivo online (MMORPG) y VJ de estrategia. El factor protector más importante es jugar a VJ acompañado. Se discuten los resultados.(AU)


The information on the use of Videogames (VG) in general samples fundamentally reflects the characteristics of men, because of their greater participation in VG, making it difficult to identify the characteristics of women and their gaming activity. Objective: To describe the gaming behaviour of adolescent and young women in Madrid, and its relation with the development of gaming problems. Method: A self-report questionnaire(Gamertest) was applied to a sample of 1,228 women (12 -22 years old) (M= 14.84; SD= 2.469), selected by randomized sampling in schools in the Community of Madrid. Results: 51% of women admit gaming. The typical profile is a woman who plays VG sporadically and for short periods of time, preferably Action and Adventure games or Puzzlesand Platforms, mainly on smartphones, at home and alone, with the purpose of having fun. The main predictive variables of gaming problems, identified with the Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in women are: a greater number of hours of use, playing MassivelyMultiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG), and Strategy VG. The most protective factor is playing VG accompanied. The results are discussed.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Aditivo , Smartphone , Espanha , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Medicina do Comportamento , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Psicol. conduct ; 30(2): 427-445, Sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-208437

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la relación entre el apego y lasatisfacción con la relación de pareja, considerando el papel mediador de lascompetencias emocionales, y controlando la influencia del género, la edad y laduración de la relación. En el estudio participaron 265 jóvenes españoles (59,2%mujeres) de entre 18 y 36 años con pareja. Los resultados más relevantes indicanque el estilo evitativo alejado presenta una menor satisfacción en la relación. Juntocon el estilo temeroso son los que tienen las habilidades emocionales más pobres.La ansiedad y la evitación del apego se relacionan negativamente con la satisfacciónen la relación, siendo mediadas por la regulación emocional. Se discute laimportancia de desarrollar programas de educación emocional en los jóvenes comoforma de mitigar el efecto de un estilo de apego inseguro. (AU)


The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between attachment andsatisfaction with the partner relationship, considering the mediating role ofemotional competences, and taking into account the influence of gender, age, andduration of the relationship. 265 Spanish youths (59.2% women) between 18 and36 years of age with a current partner participated in the study. The most relevantresults indicate that subjects with a dismissive avoidant style show less relationshipsatisfaction. Along with the fearful style, they are the ones with the poorestemotional skills. Attachment anxiety and avoidance are negatively related torelationship satisfaction, being mediated by emotional regulation. The importanceof developing emotional education programs in youths as a way of mitigating theeffect an insecure attachment style is discussed. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Relações Interpessoais , Emoções , Codependência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espanha
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053312

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine prospectively associations between substance use and subsequent employment among young students. METHODS: From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 1427 students who never worked were included between 2012 and 2018 and followed up for 2.1 years on average. Generalized estimating equations computed the odds of being unemployed versus employed according to substance use at baseline controlling for sociodemographic factors and depressive state. Tobacco use (smoking status and number of cigarettes), cannabis use frequency, and at-risk alcohol use according to the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (total score > 7) were introduced separately in the models. RESULTS: Tobacco use was not significantly associated with employment. Cannabis use at least weekly was associated with increased odds of being unemployed OR 1.73 (1.16-2.57). At-risk alcohol use was no longer significantly associated with employment after adjustment for depressive state, while analyses on sub-scores of alcohol use suggested that alcohol dependence was associated with increased odds of being unemployed OR 1.65 (1.16-2.34). CONCLUSION: Public health campaigns targeting youth should include lower chances of getting employed among the detrimental roles of regular cannabis use and at-risk alcohol use.

4.
Child Abuse Negl ; 133: 105866, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LGBTQ+ youth frequently experience disparities in outcomes related to permanency and overall well-being while in out-of-home care. These negative outcomes often persist after youth have transitioned out of care, particularly in the domains of housing, education, employment, and mental health. Initial research has found that the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated negative physical and mental health outcomes, as well as decreased economic stability among transition age youth. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to determine if COVID-19 has resulted in unique impacts on foster care alumni, and if these impacts are the same for LGBTQ+ and non-LGBTQ+ transition age youth. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: This study used data from the 2020 Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative Opportunity Passport Survey to explore these questions. METHODS: This survey was administered electronically to a national sample of 1223 youth ages 18-26 with lived experience in foster care. RESULTS: Results indicate that relative to non-LGBTQ+ foster care alumni, LGBTQ+ foster care alumni experienced more negative outcomes in housing stability, employment, and mental health/trauma due to COVID-19. No significant differences were found for education-related impacts. Outcomes varied by sex assigned at birth, ethnicity, and sexual orientation, gender identity and expression (SOGIE) of respondents, with female respondents, black, indigenous and other people of color (BIPOC) youth and LGBTQ+ youth being most frequently impacted. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that relative to non-LGBTQ+ foster care alumni, LGBTQ+ foster care alumni experienced more negative outcomes in housing stability, employment, and mental health/trauma due to COVID-19. No significant differences were found for education-related impacts. Outcomes varied by sex assigned at birth, ethnicity, and sexual orientation, gender identity and expression (SOGIE) of respondents, with female respondents, BIPOC youth and LGBTQ+ youth being most frequently impacted. Implications for practice and policy are explored.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criança Acolhida , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
5.
Physiol Meas ; 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137538

RESUMO

ActiGraph sampling frequencies of more than 30 Hz may result in overestimation of activity counts in both children and adults, but research on free-living individuals has not included the range of sampling frequencies used by researchers. OBJECTIVE: We compared count- and raw-acceleration-based metrics from free-living children and adolescents across a range of sampling frequencies. APPROACH: Participants (n=445; 10-15 y) wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for at least one 10-h day. Vector Magnitude counts, Mean Amplitude Deviation, Monitor-Independent Movement Summary units, and activity intensity classified using six methods (four cut-points, two-regression model, and artificial neural network) were compared between 30 Hz and 60, 80, 90, and 100 Hz sampling frequencies using mean absolute differences, correlations, and equivalence testing. MAIN RESULTS: All outcomes were statistically equivalent, and correlation coefficients were ≥0.970. Absolute differences were largest for the 30 vs. 80 and 30 vs. 100 Hz count comparisons. For comparisons of 30 with 60, 80, 90, or 100 Hz, mean (and maximum) absolute differences in minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 (0.4 to 1.5), 0.3 to 1.3 (1.6 to 8.6), 0.1 to 0.3 (1.1 to 2.5), and 0.3 to 2.5 (1.6 to 14.3) across the six classification methods. SIGNIFICANCE: Acceleration-based outcomes are comparable across the full range of sampling rates and therefore recommended for future research. If using counts, we recommend a multiple of 30 Hz because using a 100 Hz sampling rate resulted in large maximum individual differences and epoch-level differences, and increasing differences with activity level.

6.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098850

RESUMO

Numerous studies reported a significant decline in physical activity level in adolescents as a result of the COVID-19 lockdown. Physical fitness is recognized as a powerful marker of health in youth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on health-related physical fitness in French adolescents. Two cross-sectional studies were performed comparing two different groups of French adolescents, before (sample 1) and after the first lockdown (sample 2). A total of 1231 adolescents (aged to 16.5 ± 1.5 years) participated in the two cross-sectional studies. Complete data for physical fitness and anthropometrics data were obtained. Adolescents from sample 2 showed lower physical fitness levels compared to adolescents from sample 1. Regarding physical fitness for boys and girls, physical fitness levels were significantly lower in both sex between adolescents from the sample 1 and adolescents from the sample 2, except for cardiorespiratory fitness and flexibility for boys and girls, respectively. The physical fitness global score was also significantly lower between adolescents from the sample 1 and 2 for boys (-9.8%, p < 0.01) and girls (-16.2%; p < 0.01), respectively. Overall, the higher difference was found for performance in the speed body displacement test (-30%). A difference of 12.8% and 25% was observed for boys and girls, respectively.   Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic lockdown had a negative impact on physical fitness in French youth. This study highlights the need to develop, in a near future, prevention programmes in order to improve the physical fitness in youth. What is Known: • COVID-19 pandemic deeply impacted lifestyle habits. A worrying decrease of physical activity, associated to a dramatic increase of time spent in sedentary behaviors was found in many coutries. What is New: • Our study bring first data on the health-related physical fitness consequences due to lockdown in French adolescents. Our study demonstrate the negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on health-related physical fitness in French adolescents.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many young people with mental ill-health do not seek support, and developmental growth in self-reliance may be a barrier to help-seeking. Increasing autonomy is a positive developmental task for youth and a key aspect of resilience. This study examined the influence of perceived social support and resilience on the previously unexamined relationship between self-reliance and intentions to seek help from informal, professional, and self-help sources for mental health problems. METHODS: An online survey was completed by a representative Australian community sample of 5,203 young people aged 12-25 years (half female), in May-June 2020. RESULTS: Path analysis showed the hypothesised conceptual model did not fit the data well, but a modified model was a good fit. Higher self-reliance was associated with lower intentions to seek informal and professional help, as expected, but not with greater intentions for self-help. The relationship between self-reliance and informal help-seeking intentions was fully mediated by perceived social support, whereas the relationship between self-reliance and professional help-seeking was also direct. Perceived social support fully mediated the relationship between self-reliance and resilience. Intentions to use self-help were not influenced by variables in the study, but higher self-help intentions were associated with higher professional help-seeking intentions. Associations were consistent across age and gender groups. CONCLUSION: The results show the critical role of social support for combating some of the unhelpful aspects of self-reliance for mental health help-seeking in young people. Future research should explore how self-reliance can hinder or be harnessed to facilitate accessing appropriate mental health.

8.
Sci Med Footb ; : 1-7, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103671

RESUMO

Relative Age Effects (RAEs) appear largely throughout youth soccer. However, little is known about how RAEs at youth levels can impact transition at senior levels. Accordingly, this study aimed to : (a) provide further test of RAEs by exploring the birth quarter (BQ) distribution of 2,030 Italian players born from 1975 to 2001 who have played in any of the Youth National Italian Soccer Teams ; and (b) investigate how RAEs influence future career outcomes, by exploring the BQ distribution of players who completed the transition from youth squads to the Senior National Team (n = 182) Chi-square statistics revealed significantly skewed BQ distributions for all Youth squads (P values <0.0001), and for the cohort of players who completed the transition (P = 0.003). In contrast, results from the Odds Ratios highlighted how BQ4s were more likely to transition from youth-to-senior compared to BQ1s . Results showed BQ1s remained overrepresented at senior level due to a residual bias effect. Whereas BQ4s who were able to overcome selection processes at youth levels recorded the highest likelihood of competing at senior levels. Involving players' career trajectories in RAEs studies is needed to understand how RAEs impacts career outcomes of early selected players.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1748, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Youth of color growing up in poverty face many challenges that children from more affluent families never experience. These children often reside in disadvantaged neighborhoods with substandard housing, inadequate medical care, and under resourced schools. This places these children at risk for poor academic achievement, school dropout, abuse and neglect, behavioral and socioemotional problems, and physical health problems. In spite of these risks, some children "beat the odds" and overcome the challenges and adversities in their external contexts. The paper reports the findings of a draw-and-write activity designed to learn the processes whereby protective factors promote resilience from a child's point of view. METHODS: In this qualitative study, a draw-and-write activity was conducted with a convenience sample of 33 children, (23 females and 10 males of which 10 were Hmong, 11 were Middle Eastern, and 12 were African Americans) .The children were asked to make visual representations of resources (persons or things that, in their view, contribute to their wellbeing.) In depth interviews with a subset of 15 of the children was conducted to discuss the meaning of the images in their drawings. A summative content analysis of the visual and narrative data was performed using a resilience framework. RESULTS: Regardless of racial/ethnic background, parents, and especially mothers, were the main "person or thing" identified by these children living in poverty as helping them "make it thus far in life." Ninety seven percent of the participants in this study described their parent(s) as nurturing and supportive, enabling them to overcome obstacles and adversities within their environment. Forty five percent of participants identified their mother as a key anchor in their life Fifty eight percent of the African American children indicated that their parent(s) encouraged education to escape poverty. CONCLUSION: The findings support that families, particularly parents have the strongest influence on supporting the resilience process in a child. These findings were consistent across ethnicity and gender. Families, particularly parents, should be the target of future interventions designed to produce resilient behaviors in youth of color living in poverty.


Assuntos
Mães , Pais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Populações Vulneráveis
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1749, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a leading cause of harm in young people and increases the risk of alcohol dependence in adulthood. Alcohol use is also a key driver of rising health inequalities. Quantifying inequalities in exposure to alcohol outlets within the activity spaces of pre-adolescent children-a vulnerable, formative development stage-may help understand alcohol use in later life. METHODS: GPS data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 10-and-11-year-old children (n = 688, 55% female). The proportion of children, and the proportion of each child's GPS, exposed to alcohol outlets was compared across area-level income-deprivation quintiles, along with the relative proportion of exposure occurring within 500 m of each child's home and school. RESULTS: Off-sales alcohol outlets accounted for 47% of children's exposure, which was higher than expected given their availability (31% of alcohol outlets). The proportion of children exposed to alcohol outlets did not differ by area deprivation. However, the proportion of time children were exposed showed stark inequalities. Children living in the most deprived areas were almost five times more likely to be exposed to off-sales alcohol outlets than children in the least deprived areas (OR 4.83, 3.04-7.66; P < 0.001), and almost three times more likely to be exposed to on-sales alcohol outlets (OR 2.86, 1.11-7.43; P = 0.03). Children in deprived areas experienced 31% of their exposure to off-sales outlets within 500 m of their homes compared to 7% for children from less deprived areas. Children from all areas received 22-32% of their exposure within 500 m of schools, but the proportion of this from off-sales outlets increased with area deprivation. CONCLUSIONS: Children have little control over what they are exposed to, so policies that reduce inequities in alcohol availability should be prioritised to ensure that all children have the opportunity to lead healthy lives.


Assuntos
Comércio , Etanol , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Escócia/epidemiologia
11.
AIDS Behav ; 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112258

RESUMO

Active visualization, the use of dynamic representation of internal processes, is associated with increased knowledge and adherence to ART among people living with HIV. The current pilot intervention study tested the effectiveness of an online visualization for HIV prevention among 146 at-risk youth. Youth were randomized to a standard PrEP briefing or an online visualization. PrEP knowledge, attitudes, and uptake were self-reported at baseline and 3-months. Knowledge of PrEP increased, but there were no changes in preferences or uptake. Active visualization delivered online may be a useful educational tool for PrEP but not for shifting youth's uptake.

12.
Public Health Rep ; : 333549221123582, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: During June-July 2021, an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 occurred among attendees of a summer youth camp in Nebraska. We assessed the factors that contributed to onward transmission of disease. METHODS: The Four Corners Health Department conducted an outbreak investigation and recorded both laboratory-confirmed and self-reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 and mitigation measures employed. We generated sequences on positive specimens, created an epidemic curve to assist with outbreak visualization, and examined epidemiologic, genomic, and laboratory outcomes. RESULTS: Evaluation of 3 index cases led to the identification of 25 people with COVID-19 who interacted directly with the camp. Contact tracing revealed an additional 18 cases consistent with onward community transmission. Most (24 of 35, 68.5%) vaccine-eligible community cases were not vaccinated. We sequenced 8 positive specimens; all were identified as the Delta variant. Precamp planning incorporated local health officials who recommended wearing face masks, practicing social distancing, and using attendee cohorts to limit mixing of people involved in various activities. CONCLUSION: Low vaccination levels and poor face mask-wearing habits among attendees resulted in secondary and tertiary spread of SARS-CoV-2 and severe outcomes among young adults. This outbreak of COVID-19 at a youth camp highlights the importance of vaccination and use of other measures to interrupt opportunities for SARS-CoV-2 spread in the community and shows that vaccinated people remain vulnerable to infection when in an environment of high exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Proactive case identification and interruption of chains of transmission can help decrease the number of cases and avoid further severe outcomes.

13.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 67: 161-167, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152476

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Between 33 and 59% of youth with chronic health conditions experience mental health conditions. Transition readiness, or the acquisition of knowledge and self-management skills, facilitates successful transition to adult care. Transition readiness among youth with co-occurring chronic health and mental health conditions has not been explored. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study used a sample of 201 patients (aged 16-21) with chronic conditions. All patients completed the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionniare (TRAQ) and were grouped into Cohort A: chronic health conditions only (n = 140), and Cohort B: co-occurring chronic health and mental health conditions (n = 61). A quantile regression at the 50th percentile was conducted to examine associations between TRAQ score and mental health comorbidity, age, gender and immigration status. RESULTS: The median TRAQ score for Cohort A was 3.87 (IQR 0.84) versus 4.00 (IQR 0.87) for Cohort B. Our analysis revealed that having a mental health comorbidity (b = 0.402, p = 0.034), being older in age (b = 0.540, p = 0.004) and being female (b = 0.388, p = 0.001) were associated with higher overall TRAQ score. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a mental health comorbidity was associated with greater transition readiness as measured by the TRAQ in our sample. Future research should explore why youth with co-occurring chronic health and mental health conditions exhibit greater transition readiness. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Youth with co-occurring chronic health and mental health conditions may develop transition readiness as a result of coping with mental health challenges. Practitioners could invite them to reflect on how their physical and mental health are related and affect their level of preparedness for adult care.

14.
Sports Health ; : 19417381221123510, 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participation in high school cross-country and track has increased over the last few decades. At the same time, the rate of pedestrian-involved motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) has also increased. In the context of organized sport, pedestrian safety among runners is often not highlighted, despite the risk of catastrophic injury. PURPOSE: To describe incidents of pedestrian-involved MVCs involving student athletes captured by the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research (NCCSIR) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 5. METHODS: This study utilized surveillance data from the NCCSIR from 2011 to 2020. It presents descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages, detailed summaries, and a Haddon Matrix. RESULTS: There were 8 incidents involving 11 student athletes, resulting in 9 fatalities. Of these, 5 cases occurred in the afternoon or early evening, 4 occurred in the Fall, and 6 occurred in a rural area. Haddon Matrix analyses of case descriptions indicate schools should implement a runner safety program for all new runners and ensure that runner safety measures are included in emergency action plans. CONCLUSION: Runner-related MVCs are relatively rare, but tragic, incidents. Pedestrian safety measures should be incorporated into school-sponsored practices and training runs. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Pedestrian safety should be incorporated into runner safety and injury prevention efforts.

15.
Health Promot Pract ; : 15248399221098349, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154511

RESUMO

"Bring Change 2 Mind" (BC2M) high school clubs may destigmatize mental illness among club members, but clubs' (1) reach and impact on non-club members at the same school, (2) connection to student help-seeking attitudes, and (3) mechanisms by which they destigmatize mental illness, are unknown. This community-partnered evaluation involved pre/post surveys of predominantly Latino (72%) students at three urban public schools and focus groups and interviews with a sample of club members (n = 26/65, 40%) and all club staff (n = 7, 100%). Multivariate regressions tested relationships between variables. In 84% of the student body responded in the Fall (n = 1,040) and Spring (n = 1,031). Non-club member engagement in BC2M (reach) increased from 25% (Fall) to 44% (Spring) (p < .01). Engagement with BC2M clubs was associated with decreased stigma among members (p < .05) but not non-members (p = .19). Decreased stigma was associated with help-seeking attitudes (p < .01). Possible BC2M mechanisms identified by students and staff include the following: (1) fostering a positive campus climate, (2) normalizing mental health discussions, (3) increasing peer support and help-seeking, and (4) increasing awareness of positive coping behaviors. While BC2M clubs likely reduce stigma for members, effects did not reach non-members, challenging the potential of BC2M clubs as a schoolwide strategy to destigmatize mental health services. Future projects could investigate how to reach non-BC2M members, complement BC2M with other school climate interventions to increase impact, and measure BC2M impact alongside other outcomes relevant to schools, such as academic achievement.

16.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161685

RESUMO

Since the 2018 ISPAD guidelines on this topic, follow-up of large cohorts from around the globe have continued informing the current incidence and prevalence of co-morbidities and complications in young adults with youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). This chapter focuses on the risk factors, diagnosis and presentation of youth-onset T2D, the initial and subsequent management of youth-onset T2D, and management of co-morbidities and complications. We include key updates from the observational phase of the multi-center Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial, the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study and new data from the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) study, a head-to-head comparison of youth onset vs adult-onset T2D. We also include an expanded section on risk factors associated with T2D, algorithms and tables for treatment, management, and assessment of co-morbidities and complications, and sections on recently approved pharmacologic therapies for the treatment of youth-onset T2D, social determinants of health, and settings of care given COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
Front Sports Act Living ; 4: 952779, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36157901

RESUMO

Background: Agility is acknowledged as a crucial factor of performance in various open skill sports in both adult and youth athletes. However, despite its significance for sports performance the development and the trainability of agility are under-researched within the pediatric literature. A systematic scoping review was considered most appropriate to provide researchers and practitioners with an overview of the current body of literature approaching agility in youth. Objectives: The objectives of this scoping review were to map the extent, range, and nature of existing evidence regarding trainability and "natural" development of agility and to summarize corresponding study results. Methods: The scoping review protocol was pre-registered at Open Science Framework. Systematic searches were conducted using the databases PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Web of Science, SURF, and SPONET to identify sources covering agility in youth. Among other inclusion criteria, only references applying unplanned agility concepts were included. Results: Ultimately, 41 reports were included comprising 23 observational studies, 14 experimental studies, and 4 references of secondary research. A total of 3,087 subjects were assessed in the included studies. Subject groups were predominantly male, above 10 years of age, and soccer athletes. Outcomes of observational studies indicate an effect of age and maturation on agility performance resulting in a non-linear "natural" development of agility. Furthermore, relationships between contributing perceptual-cognitive factors and agility performance tend to increase with progressing age, whereas relationships between physical factors and agility performance diminish. Evidence of training studies suggests that agility is trainable in youth, albeit with various underlying mechanisms. Conclusions: This systematic scoping review is the first mapping of the body of literature about agility in youth. It outlines the current evidence base, reveals research gaps, and points out future directions to support researchers and practitioners in this field. Although, increasing research activity in this field is discernible, agility research in youth is still in its infancy. Considering the significance of agility for sports performance, future research is postulated to design evidence-based strategies for long-term agility development in young athletes.

18.
J Hum Kinet ; 83: 77-86, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36157964

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop accurate, reliable, and reproductive equations for the prediction of maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O2max) in male and female high-level adolescent rowers. This study included two parts. In the first part, V̇O2max was evaluated in 106 male and 83 female high-level adolescent rowers during an incremental step test (IRT) on a rowing ergometer, and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used for the development of new equations. In the second part, these equations were tested in 26 new high-level adolescent rowers of the same age and anthropometrical characteristics (boys: 15.27 ± 2.70 yrs and 15.34 ± 2.80 yrs; 72.37 ± 10.96 kg and 70.96 ± 10.65 kg; girls: 15.00 ± 2.11 yrs and 15.94 ± 2.71 yrs; 62.50 ± 7.14 kg and 63.41 ± 6.72 kg for parts 1 and 2, respectively; p > 0.05). V̇O2max was predicted from the combination of lean body mass (LBM) and the distance covered during the last 4 min stage of the IRT (boys: r2 = 0.715, F = 68.74, p = 0.001; girls: r2 = 0.769, F = 57.81, p = 0.001). In the second part, no significant differences were identified when the new equations were tested against measured V̇O2max (boys: 3971.15 ± 713.38 mL·min-1 vs. 3915.83 ± 704.43 mL·min-1; girls: 3272.75 ± 551.46 mL·min-1 vs. 3308.94 ± 557.59 mL·min-1 for measured and predicted values, respectively; p > 0.05). In conclusion, V̇O2max of high-level adolescent rowers can be predicted with high accuracy, reliability, and repeatability using simple and easily evaluated anthropometric and performance variables.

19.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 30: 100991, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36159000

RESUMO

Background: Group Motivational Interviewing for Teens (GMIT) has been effective in reducing youth substance use in diverse communities, yet more research is needed to determine its efficacy in reducing tobacco and alternative tobacco products (ATP) use among Latine adolescents. This study modified GMIT to include a focus on ATPs (GMIT-ATP). GMIT was also linguistically translated so it could be offered in English and Spanish, culturally enhanced, and parent sessions were added (GMIT-ATP + P). Methods: The study's aims were to 1) Develop a model of how cultural context, family relationships, and adolescent tobacco-related skills/beliefs are associated with smoking and ATP use; 2) Examine the impact of the GMIT-ATP intervention on adolescent tobacco use; 3) Examine whether the GMIT-ATP + P intervention improves family/parenting factors associated with reduced adolescent tobacco use; 4) Examine whether GMIT-ATP + P is more effective than GMIT-ATP in improving adolescent tobacco use; 5) Explore whether essential components of our behavior change model mediate the impact on tobacco use, and 6) Explore whether cultural factors influence the impacts of our intervention. Latine adolescents (ages 10-16) and their parents/guardians were recruited throughout Virginia. Parents and adolescents completed three surveys: before and immediately after the program ends and at 3-months post-intervention. Families attended 3 GMIT-ATP or GMIT-ATP + P sessions. Conclusion: Findings from this study will be disseminated in Latine communities and with providers working with Latine youth and can serve as a community-based model to reduce substance and tobacco use (e.g., ATP) in these Latine communities.

20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 954621, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36159259

RESUMO

Background: The first Uruguay's Report Card in 2018 based on the Global Matrix initiative showed the lack of information on physical activity in children and adolescents. This study mapped and examined the available evidence on physical activity-related indicators based on Uruguay's 2022 Report Card. Methods: The scoping review was reported using the Joanna Briggs Institute and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was performed for the period between 2018 and 2021, including electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, Scielo, and Latindex), gray literature (Google Scholar, open access thesis, relevant websites of State-agencies and International Organizations), national and regional relevant journals, and reference lists of key texts. Two researchers independently conducted both the selection and data-charting process. Data items from each paper were charted based on the Population, Concept, and Context elements reflected in the objective of the review. A narrative synthesis and network plots were conducted to summarize the evidence. Results: A total of 20 papers were included in this review, consisting of four peer-reviewed scientific papers, three bachelor's theses, four official documents of State-agencies, four Government reports, of which three included national surveys, and five laws. Strengths, weaknesses, and knowledge gaps were identified from the available evidence. We synthesized main challenges such as publishing scientific studies, establishing cross-national and cross-sectoral collaborations in research projects, generating high-quality data, reporting information on social inequality indicators that influence equitable distribution, or increasing access to public information. Our results support early emerging and growth research on this topic. However, despite existing papers on physical activity-related indicators in Uruguayan youths, the lack of high-quality evidence remains clear. Conclusion: The findings of this scoping review provide the best available evidence for identifying and overcoming the challenges of physical activity-related indicators research in Uruguay. The methodological framework used could be useful for countries involved in future editions of the Global Matrix initiative. Systematic review registration: Open Science Framework, https://osf.io/hstbd/.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Uruguai
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