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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253508, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360218

RESUMO

Present research work represents antiviral and antibacterial value of body fat of Saara hardwickii commonly called as spiny tailed lizard. Oil was extracted from body fats located in the ventral region of this animal using hydrocarbons e.g., n-hexane, methanol, butanol and ethyl acetate as a solvent. The antibacterial activity of lizard oil was tested against standard as well as multi-resistant lines ofEscherichia coli, Styphalococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris alone and with antibiotic ampicillin. For antibacterial potential, Ethyl acetate and Butanol solvent extract showed best zone of inhibition (7mm) with P. aeruginosa and S. aureus respectively. For antiviral potential, Butanol and Methanol extract showed best HA (Hemagglutination) titer of 04 with NDV and IBV viral strain respectively. It is concluded that lizard oil has antimicrobial potential against different pathogens strains (virus, bacteria).


O presente trabalho de pesquisa apresenta a importância antiviral e antibacteriana da gordura corporal de Saara hardwickii, comumente chamado de lagarto de cauda espinhosa. O óleo foi extraído de gorduras corporais localizadas na região ventral desse animal usando hidrocarbonetos, por exemplo, n-hexano, metanol, butanol e acetato de etila, como solvente. A atividade antibacteriana do óleo do lagarto foi testada em linhagens padrão e multirresistentes de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Proteus vulgaris, de forma isolada e com antibiótico ampicilina. Para o potencial antibacteriano, acetato de etila e extrato de butanol apresentaram melhor zona de inibição (7 mm) com P. aeruginosa e S. aureus, respectivamente. Para o potencial antiviral, o extrato de butanol e o extrato de metanol apresentaram melhor título de hemaglutinação de 4 com as cepas virais NDV e IBV, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o óleo do lagarto possui potencial antimicrobiano contra diferentes cepas de patógenos (vírus e bactérias).


Assuntos
Animais , Antivirais , Tecido Adiposo , Lagartos , Antibacterianos
2.
J Biophotonics ; : e202200333, 2023 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36883954

RESUMO

A simple, portable, economical low-temperature atmospheric plasma (LTAP) for bactericidal efficacy of Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) with different carrier gases (argon, helium, and nitrogen) using the quality by design (QbD) approach, design of experiments (DoE), and response surface graphs (RSG) is presented. Box-Behnken design was used as the DoE to narrow down and further optimize the experimental factors of LTAP. Plasma exposure time, input DC voltage, and carrier gas flow rate were varied to examine the bactericidal efficacy using the zone of inhibition (ZOI). A higher bactericidal efficacy was achieved under the optimal bactericidal factors having ZOI of 50.837 ± 2.418 mm2 with the plasma power density of 132 mW/cm3 for LTAP-Ar at 61.19 s, 14.8747 V, and 219.379 sccm than LTAP-He and LTAP-N2 . The LTAP-Ar was further evaluated at different frequencies and probe lengths to achieve a ZOI of 58.237 ± 4.01 mm2 .

3.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 30(3): 103582, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36852413

RESUMO

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is an essential task for selecting appropriate antimicrobial agents to treat infectious diseases. Constant evolution has been observed in methods used in the diagnostic microbiology laboratories. Disc diffusion or broth microdilution are classical and conventional phenotypic methods with long turnaround time and labour-intensive but still widely practiced as gold-standard. Scientists are striving to develop innovative, novel and faster methods of antimicrobial susceptibility testing to be applicable for routine microbiological laboratory practice and research. To meet the requirements, there is an increasing trend towards automation, genotypic and micro/nano technology-based innovations. Automation in detection systems and integration of computers for online data analysis and data sharing are giant leaps towards versatile nature of automated methods currently in use. Genotypic methods detect a specific genetic marker associated with resistant phenotypes using molecular amplification techniques and genome sequencing. Microfluidics and microdroplets are recent addition in the continuous advancement of methods that show great promises with regards to safety and speed and have the prospect to identify and monitor resistance mechanisms. Although genotypic and microfluidics methods have many exciting features, however, their applications into routine clinical laboratory practice warrant extensive validation. The main impetus behind the evolution of methods in antimicrobial susceptibility testing is to shorten the overall turnaround time in obtaining the results and to enhance the ease of sample processing. This comprehensive narrative review summarises major conventional phenotypic methods and automated systems currently in use, and highlights principles of some of the emerging genotypic and micro/nanotechnology-based methods in antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36779478

RESUMO

Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) remains the gold standard antibiotic carrier in the management of osteomyelitis. However, biodegradable ceramic carriers may exhibit more efficient antibiotic elution properties. Through zone of inhibition (ZOI) testing and biofilm killing assays, we assessed the in vitro elution efficacy of vancomycin released from calcium sulfate (PG-CSH) and PMMA beads as carriers on clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, which were isolated from sonication fluid of orthopedic implant-associated infections. Overall, vancomycin-loaded PMMA and PG-CSH beads showed potency (ZOI above 4 cm2 ) for up to 14 days against ATCC and clinical strains. Vancomycin-loaded PG-CSH beads displayed higher rates, exhibited a more stable antibiotic elution, had greater impacts on bacterial colony-forming unit counts and produced higher ZOIs; additionally, statistically significant differences (Student's t test) were observed in different time sets during the experiment. In the biofilm killing assay, PG-CSH loaded with vancomycin resulted in more bacterial deaths. In conclusion, in the present study, both PG-CSH and PMMA beads acted as good carriers, but greater antimicrobial elution and biofilm bacterial killing were observed with PG-CSH than PMMA. Future in vitro research should focus on testing other difficult-to-treat clinical strains, including multidrug resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and Gram-negative bacilli.

5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 891577, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36779191

RESUMO

In insects, antibacterial immunity largely depends on the activation of downstream signaling and effector responses, leading to the synthesis and secretion of soluble effector molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). AMPs are acute infection response peptides secreted into the hemolymph upon bacterial stimulation. The transcription of innate immunity genes encoding for AMPs is highly dependent on several signaling cascade pathways, such as the Toll pathway. In the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, AMPs hold a special interest as their upregulation have been shown to limit the growth of malaria parasites, bacteria, and fungi. Most of the current knowledge on the regulation of insect AMPs in microbial infection have been obtained from Drosophila. However, largely due to the lack of convenient assays, the regulation of antimicrobial activity in mosquito hemolymph is still not completely understood. In this study, we report a zone of inhibition assay to identify the contribution of AMPs and components of the Toll pathway to the antimicrobial activity of A. gambiae hemolymph. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that Micrococcus luteus challenge induces antimicrobial activity in the adult female mosquito hemolymph, which is largely dependent on defensin 1. Moreover, by using RNAi to silence Cactus, REL1, and MyD88, we showed that Cactus kd induces antimicrobial activity in the mosquito hemolymph, whereas the antimicrobial activity in REL1 kd and MyD88 kd is reduced after challenge. Finally, while injection itself is not sufficient to induce antimicrobial activity, our results show that it primes the response to bacterial challenge. Our study provides information that increases our knowledge of the regulation of antimicrobial activity in response to microbial infections in mosquitoes. Furthermore, this assay represents an ex vivo medium throughput assay that can be used to determine the upstream regulatory elements of antimicrobial activity in A. gambiae hemolymph.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Feminino , Hemolinfa , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , Anopheles/parasitologia , Antibacterianos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413

RESUMO

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.


Assuntos
Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Resíduos Industriais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Extratos Vegetais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Escherichia coli , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
7.
J Indian Soc Periodontol ; 26(6): 539-543, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36582963

RESUMO

Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the common postoperative complications observed after various periodontal surgeries, and sutures play a vital role in its causation. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of a novel tetracycline-coated suture with triclosan-coated and nonantibacterial-coated sutures on bacterial load reduction to prevent SSI by measuring the zone of inhibition. Materials and Methods: Twenty systemically healthy individuals with moderate chronic periodontitis were included in this study. Fresh unstimulated saliva was collected from each patient and inoculated on three different blood agar plates. Sutures were divided into three groups (Group A: Tetracycline-coated suture, Group B: Triclosan-coated suture, Group C [control group]: Nonantibacterial-coated suture). The antibacterial efficacy of each suture was evaluated by performing agar diffusion test. The zone of inhibition around each suture was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed for the same using Kruskall-Wallis ANOVA test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: On intergroup comparison, there was a statistically highly significant difference seen for the zone of inhibition between the groups (P < 0.01) with the highest values in Group A (14.45 mm), followed by Group B (1.4 mm) and least in Group C (0 mm). Conclusion: Tetracycline-coated suture is more efficacious than triclosan-coated suture to reduce bacterial load and further prevent SSIs. However, in vivo clinical trial is must to prove the same.

8.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358206

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to review the physicochemical characterization of Romanian honey and propolis and their antifungal effect on different strains. As an indicator of environmental pollution, lead exceeded the allowed limits in two study areas. The relationship between the acidity and electrical conductivity of polyfloral honey and the antioxidant activity with the total content of phenolics and flavonoids was investigated. The antifungal activity of 13 polyfloral honey and propolis samples from North-West and Central Romania and 12 samples from Alba County was investigated against six fungal strains: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium oxysporum. All honey and propolis samples exhibited an antifungal effect. The most sensitive strains were P. chrysogenum and R. stolonifer for honey and P. chrysogenum and F. oxisporumn for propolis. A two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the correlations between the diameter of the inhibition zones for the strains and the propolis extracts. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the diameter of the inhibition zone was influenced by the strain type and the geographical origin of honey and propolis. Pearson's correlation coefficient shows a significant positive linear relationship between the diameter of the inhibition zone and the flavonoid and phenol concentration of honey and propolis, respectively.

9.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358220

RESUMO

This investigation was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of coated titanium plates against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) using various methods. The Colony-forming unit "CFU" was higher in chitosan (CH) in relation to PA than in poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) in relation to SA, followed by meropenem-chitosan "MC" coated plates in relation to PA and SA. A significant difference in the zone of inhibition (ZOI) of SA was determined in MP, MC, and meropenem (MEM). PA was significantly inhibited by MP, MEM, then MC, and the largest ZOI among SA and PA groups were MP coating. Using an MTT assay, MP had the lowest bacterial viability in the SA group, followed by MC and MEM, with no statistically significant difference between the PLGA or CH alone nor the polymers augmented with MEM. Using confocal microscopy, MP-coated plates were seen to have the highest bacterial inhibition, followed by MC, MEM, PLGA, and CH. In the PA group, MP had the highest bacterial inhibition, followed by MEM, MC, CH, and PLGA. The uncoated group presented the lowest inhibition in relation to both SA and PA. Conclusively, coating titanium plates with PLGA or CH with MEM appeared to enhance the antibacterial efficacy as opposed to MEM without polymers through bacterial adhesion inhibition, hindering biofilm formation and preventing bacterial proliferation.

10.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(10)2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36297652

RESUMO

Achyranthes aspera seeds and leaves are believed to reverse antibiotic resistance and increase the efficacy of current drugs. Achyranthes aspera seeds and leaves contain many secondary metabolites needed for the redressal of antibiotic resistance. In the present study, seven different antibiotics were used against five different strains of bacteria such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Cefoxitin, Penicillin, and Co-trimoxazole were resistant out of seven antibiotics. The zone of inhibition for all these three antibiotics goes from the resistant to the sensitive range after the combination with plant extracts. For Enterococcus faecalis, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Imipenem, and Vancomycin were resistant after treatment with the plant extracts, and the Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Imipenem, and Vancomycin zones of inhibition were from the resistant to the sensitive range. An increase in zone sizes was observed for Penicillin, but it remained resistant while no zone of inhibition was observed for Amoxicillin. For Acinetobacter baumannii, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, and Imipenem were resistant. After a combination of these antibiotics with plant extracts, a change in zone sizes was observed for Levofloxacin and Ceftriaxone, but it was not considerable as it remained in the resistance and intermediate ranges. No zones of inhibition were observed for Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidime, or Imipenem. For Klebsiella pneumoniae, all the antibiotics were resistant. An increase in zone sizes was observed after a combination with plant extracts for Ceftazidime and Imipenem in Klebsiella pneumoniae, but it remained in the resistance category. No zone of inhibition was observed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa before or after using plant extracts against any antibiotic. This study suggests that the Achyranthes aspera seed and leaf extracts can reverse antibiotic resistance without any side effects on the human body, and that they can reverse antibiotic resistance naturally.

11.
J Pharm Bioallied Sci ; 14(Suppl 1): S318-S322, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36110729

RESUMO

Background: Microorganisms in the oral cavity are still considered serious public health problems and position a costly burden on health-care services worldwide and elsewhere. Mouthrinses have been used in the oral cavity for decades with the intention of reducing the amount of microorganisms. Mouthrinses are used as additives to oral mechanical hygiene. Therapeutic mouthwashes are also prescribed as an alternative to mechanical plaque control for plaque accumulation prevention and for gingival and peri-implant health maintenance. Mechanical control alone has been questioned to eliminate recalcitrant biofilms in the oral cavity because it is known to be very time-consuming and, most significantly, inadequate for good oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and antimicrobial efficacy of herbal and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthrinse against Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: For MIC (macrobroth dilution method), MBC and antimicrobial effectiveness (zone of inhibition) of an herbal mouthrinse and 0.2% CHX mouthrinse were determined by the agar well diffusion method. Results: The zone of inhibition of S. aureus was 24 mm for the CHX mouthrinse. The arowash liquid mouthrinse shows that S. aureus does not produce a zone of inhibition. Conclusion: CHX mouthrinse (0.2%) has a better antimicrobial efficacy against the S. mutans when compared to herbal mouthrinse (arowash liquid).

12.
Chemosphere ; 307(Pt 3): 136059, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977569

RESUMO

The rapid reproduction of foodborne bacteria in food packaging threatens the health of consumers, the massive use and waste of packaging also causes serious environmental pollution. In this study, novel biodegradable antibacterial membranes based on silver-modified carboxymethyl chitosan (Ag-CMCS) were prepared. Polylactic acid (PLA) and polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) were used as the base membrane materials. Characterization of the prepared membranes was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle, and so on. Especially, the silver on the surface of Ag-CMCS was proved to be metallic silver. For the first cycle of zone of inhibition test, the diameter of inhibition zone could reach up to 17 mm while the mass of silver released was negligible. The prepared antibacterial membranes could kill almost 100% of bacteria under certain conditions and inhibition zone still existed after more than 7 cycles of tests, indicating the prepared antibacterial membranes were effective. This study could provide new ideas for preparing efficient and environment-friendly antibacterial food packaging membranes.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Adipatos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Poliésteres , Polímeros/farmacologia , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Água
13.
Recent Adv Antiinfect Drug Discov ; 17(2): 131-138, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of multidrug resistant pathogenic microbes has initiated the development of natural antimicrobial agents from plants. Oils from herbal sources have drawn scientific interest due to their potential source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to examine the physicochemical and biological activities including antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the oil extracted from basil leaves and flowers. METHODS: The physicochemical properties of the oil extracts were measured based on oil yield, specific gravity, acid value, free fatty acids and peroxide values whilst the antioxidant activities were assessed by ascorbic acid, DPPH (2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging activities. The antimicrobial experiment was conducted based on disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. RESULTS: The result of antioxidant activity of Ocimum basilicum indicated significantly higher DPPH (86.45%) for leaf oil extract. The strongest antibacterial activity with maximum zone of inhibition (15.47 mm), minimum inhibitory concentration MIC (0.09 µg/ml), and corresponding minimum bactericidal concentration MBC (0.19 µg/ml) was exhibited by the flower oil extract against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-25923. The strongest antifungal activity with maximum zone of inhibition (15.90 mm), MIC (0.125 µg/ml, the least value), and minimum fungicidal concentration MFC (0.09 µg/ml) were recorded for leaf oil against Candida albicans. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded from the present study that the sweet basil flower and leaf oil extracts can be potential antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Ocimum basilicum , Óleos Voláteis , Ocimum basilicum/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Etiópia , Folhas de Planta/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Flores , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Heliyon ; 8(7): e09948, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859642

RESUMO

Scientists are indeed fascinated by the pharmacologically important chemicals found in medicinal plants. Citrus fruits possess several curing agents for the prevention of diseases. Therefore, experiments were carried out to test the antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of peels from various locally available citrus fruits such as citron (Citrus medica), satkora (Citrus macroptera) and adajamir (Citrus assamensis) against Bacillus spp. and E. coli using the disc diffusion method. Different physicochemical characteristics of fruit juice were also determined. Methanolic extract of satkora peel had the highest antibacterial activity of 2.2 and 2.6 cm while adajamir had the lowest antibacterial activity of 1.7 and 2.1 cm as ZOI against Bacillus spp. and E. coli, respectively. In the case of pH and total soluble solids (TSS), the three citrus varieties showed a small variation where satkora showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC), vitamin C content, and antioxidant activity than the others. Citrus fruits can be exploited as antibacterial and antioxidant ingredients in food and nutraceuticals, according to the findings of this study.

15.
Saudi Pharm J ; 30(6): 793-814, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35812152

RESUMO

Multitude of diseases and side effects from conventional drugs have surged the use of herbal remedies. Thus, the current study aimed to appraise various pharmacological attributes of Artemisia brevifolia Wall. ex DC. Extracts prepared by successive solvent extraction were subjected to phytochemical and multimode antioxidant assays. Various polyphenolics and artemisinin derivatives were detected and quantified using RP-HPLC analysis. Compounds present in methanol (M) and distilled water (DW) extracts were identified using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Extracts were pharmacologically evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, antileishmanial and antidiabetic potentials. Moreover, cytotoxicity against Artemiasalina, human cancer cell lines and isolated lymphocytes was assessed. Genotoxicity was evaluated using comet, micronucleus and chromosomal aberration assays. Lastly, anti-inflammatory potential was determined through a series of in vitro and in vivo assays using BALB/c mice. Maximum extract recovery (5.95% w/w) was obtained by DW extract. Highest phenolics and flavonoids content, total antioxidant capacity, total reduction potential, percentfree radical scavenging, ß-carotene scavenging and iron chelating activities were exhibited by M extract. RP-HPLC analysis revealed significant amounts of various polyphenolic compounds (vanillic acid, syringic acid, emodin and luteolin), artemisinin, dihydro artemisinin, artesunate and artemether in ethyl acetate (EA) extract. Total 40 compounds were detected through HRMS. A noteworthy antimicrobial activity (MIC 22.22 µg/ml) was exhibited by EA extract against A. fumigatus and several bacterial strains. Maximum antimalarial, antileishmanial, brine shrimp lethality and cytotoxic potential against cancer cells was manifested by EA extract. None of the extracts exhibited genotoxicity and toxicity against isolated lymphocytes. Highest α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition capacities were demonstrated by DW extract. Various in-vivo anti-inflammatory models revealed significant (p < 0.05) anti-inflammatory potential of M and DW extracts. In conclusion, present findings divulged theremarkable pharmacological potential of A. brevifolia and endorse its richness in artemisinin.

16.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(5)2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35604937

RESUMO

Introduction. Diabetic foot infection (DFI) is the main reason for diabetes-related hospitalisation and is a major cause of diabetes-related amputation. DFIs are often complicated by ischaemia in the affected limb, the presence of polymicrobial biofilms and increasingly the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria.Hypothesis/Gap statement. Antibiotic loaded beads could inhibit the growth of polymicrobial DFI communities with differing compositions in vitro.Aim. This study investigates the in vitro efficacy of antibiotic loaded calcium sulfate beads (Stimulan Rapid Cure, Biocomposites Ltd., UK) against polymicrobial DFI communities and individual bacterial strains derived from DFIs.Methodology. Debrided tissue obtained from the base of infected diabetic foot ulcers was homogenised and spread over the surface of Columbia blood agar (CBA) and fastidious anaerobe agar (FAA) plates. Calcium sulfate beads containing a combination of vancomycin and gentamicin were then placed on the surface of the agar and following incubation, zones of inhibition (ZOI) were measured. For individual bacterial strains isolated from the infected tissue, calcium sulfate beads containing vancomycin, gentamicin, flucloxacillin or rifampicin and beads containing a combination of vancomycin and gentamicin or flucloxacillin and rifampicin were tested for their ability to inhibit growth.Results. Calcium sulfate beads loaded with a combination of vancomycin and gentamicin were able to inhibit bacterial growth from all polymicrobial tissue homogenates tested, with ZOI diameters ranging from 15 to 40 mm. In the case of individual bacterial strains, beads containing combinations of vancomycin and gentamicin or flucloxacillin and rifampicin were able to produce ZOI with Gram-positive facultatitive anaerobic strains such as Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, Gram-negative facultative anaerobic strains such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and obligate anaerobic strains such as Finegoldia magna even where acquired resistance to one of the antibiotics in the combination was evidenced.Conclusion. The local use of calcium sulfate beads containing a combination of two antibiotics demonstrated high efficacy against polymicrobial DFI communities and individual DFI bacterial strains in in vitro zone of inhibition tests. These results show promise for clinical application, but further research and clinical studies are required.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Ágar , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias , Sulfato de Cálcio/farmacologia , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Pé Diabético/microbiologia , Floxacilina , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Rifampina , Vancomicina/farmacologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564857

RESUMO

Various plants have been used by humans for a very long time, and the uses vary, including food, medicine, toothpaste, dyes, food preservatives, water treatment, and beer brewing, among others. For food preservation and water treatment, the plant must have antimicrobial properties which are biocidal. For this research, extracts were obtained from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. The extracts were assessed for the presence of antimicrobial properties against three groups of bacteria, including faecal coliforms, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Dosages of ground sunflower seeds ranging from 0.5 g to 4 g were administered to the three bacterial species and their susceptibilities to the antimicrobial agents were measured and recorded. The results indicate the presence of antimicrobial properties in sunflower. The antimicrobial activities were more effective on E. coli, with an average zone of inhibition of 12 mm with a 3 g dosage of sunflower seed extract. This was followed by total coliforms (11 mm) and lastly faecal coliforms (11 mm). These findings suggested that sunflower seeds proved to be potentially effective in treating water against microbial contaminants.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Helianthus , Purificação da Água , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Escherichia coli , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Helianthus/microbiologia , Helianthus/fisiologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas , Sementes/microbiologia , Zimbábue
18.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(5)2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35625324

RESUMO

The overuse of antibiotics has resulted in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, not only in bacteria but also in fungi. Streptomyces are known to produce numerous secondary metabolites including clinically useful antibiotics. In this study, we screened for antibiotic-producing actinobacteria from soils in Taipei and discovered a Streptomyces strain SC26 that displayed antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, but the compounds are heat-labile. Upon UV mutagenesis, a late-sporulation mutant SC263 was isolated with the same antibiotic spectrum but increased in thermostability. The nature of the antibiotic is not clear, but its activity was resistant to proteolytic, nucleolytic and pancreatic digestions, and was retained by the 100 kDa membrane during filtration. To gather more information on SC263, the genome was sequenced, which produced three contigs with a total of 8.2 Mb and was assigned to the species of Streptomyces spororaveus based on the average nucleotide identity to the reference species S. spororaveus NBRC 15456.

19.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132131, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492413

RESUMO

Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are widely used in water treatment applications such as electrodialysis. However, the exploration of IEMs as effective antibacterial food contact materials (e.g., food packaging membranes) against pathogenic bacteria to ensure food safety has not been reported. Here, we report a simple but effective method to prepare high performance antibacterial membranes via ion exchange coupled with in-situ reduction. The general membrane properties are characterized using SEM, EDS, FTIR, XPS, XRD, DSC, TGA, water uptake, etc. The distribution of silver and copper in the membranes are generally in line with the distribution of sulfur, indicating that the antibacterial ions are introduced into the membranes via ion exchange and are bonded with the sulfonate groups in the membranes. The antibacterial performance is investigated using zone of inhibition tests and continuous bacteria growth inhibition tests. All of the prepared membranes show obvious antibacterial activities compared to the bare cation exchange membranes. The diameters of inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are all larger than those of Escherichia coli (E. coli), indicating that the prepared membranes are more efficient in inhibiting S. aureus compared to E. coli. Furthermore, the silver-based membrane shows more sustainable antibacterial activities compared to the copper-based membrane. Especially, the results clearly reveal that the silver-based membrane is capable of killing bacteria instead of just inhibiting the growth of bacteria. We have shown for the first time that membranes derived from IEMs have the potential as food contact materials to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria so as to eliminate the risk of bacterial infections and meanwhile delay food spoilage due to bacteria growth.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cobre , Escherichia coli , Troca Iônica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prata/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
20.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132282, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826941

RESUMO

The discharge of effluents from the textile industry is a multidimensional problem that affects the ecosystem in many ways. Though many new technologies are being developed, it remains to be seen which of those can be practiced in a real scenario. The current investigation attempts to absorb the Malachite Green, an effluent from textile dye using Chinese Fan Palm Seed Biochar. Accordingly, biochar was prepared using fruits of Chinese Fan Palm (Livistona chinensis) tree. The fruit also yielded a significant amount of biochar and bio-oil. 1.346 kg of fresh and cleaned fruit was fast pyrolyzed at 500 °C in a laboratory-scale Pyrolyzer resulting in 0.487 kg of biochar and 0.803 L of bio-oil. The remaining fruit matter was converted to gaseous products. The kinetics of dye removal were studied and the parameters were determined. The study advocates that the Langmuir isotherm model simulates the adsorption experiment, to a good extent. From the plot, the maximum (monolayer) adsorption capacity, Qm was determined to be 21.4 mg/g. The suitability of the Langmuir isotherm model onto biochar was established by the high correlation coefficient, R2 that was higher than 0.97.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , China , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Corantes de Rosanilina
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