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1.
Can J Dent Hyg ; 58(2): 81-87, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38974826

RESUMO

Background: Dental plaque is a common issue that can be effectively managed with proper oral hygiene practices and regular oral health care. The aim of this crossover study was to assess dental plaque using different methods (digital and clinical plaque scores) and evaluate the effectiveness of toothbrushing with a triple-headed manual toothbrush compared to a single-headed manual toothbrush in removing dental plaque. Methods: Plaque staining was performed to assess dental plaque amounts before and after brushing with the triple-headed (test) and single-headed (control) manual toothbrush in 21 study participants after plaque was allowed to accumulate for 48 hours. Dental plaque was scored both clinically as well as digitally. Results: Toothbrushing with a manual single-headed toothbrush and a triple-headed toothbrush was found to be equally effective when comparing plaque removal ability. Brushing time was shorter when using a triple-headed toothbrush, compared to a single-headed toothbrush. Conclusion: The triple-headed manual toothbrush may be a good alternative to the single-headed manual toothbrush for certain patient groups.


Contexte: La plaque dentaire est un problème courant qui peut être géré efficacement en adoptant de bonnes pratiques d'hygiène buccale et en obtenant régulièrement des soins buccodentaires. L'objectif de cette étude croisée était d'évaluer l'état de la plaque dentaire à l'aide de différentes méthodes (cotes de plaque numériques et cliniques) et d'évaluer l'efficacité du brossage à l'aide d'une brosse à dents manuelle à 3 côtés comparativement au brossage avec une brosse à dents manuelle à 1 côté pour éliminer la plaque dentaire. Méthodes: On a coloré la plaque dentaire pour en évaluer la quantité avant et après le brossage avec une brosse à dents manuelle à 3 côtés (essai) et à 1 côté (contrôle) parmi les 21 participants à l'étude après avoir laissé la plaque s'accumuler pendant 48 heures. On a attribué une cote clinique et numérique à la plaque dentaire. Résultats: Le brossage avec une brosse à dents manuelle à 3 côtés s'est révélé tout aussi efficace que le brossage avec une brosse manuelle à 1 côté sur le plan de l'élimination de la plaque. Le temps de brossage était plus court avec une brosse à dents à 3 côtés qu'avec une brosse à dents à 1 côté. Conclusion: Pour certains groupes de patients, la brosse à dents à 3 côtés peut être une bonne alternative à la brosse à dents ordinaire.


Assuntos
Estudos Cross-Over , Índice de Placa Dentária , Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Escovação Dentária , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Placa Dentária/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Tempo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Can J Dent Hyg ; 58(2): 120-134, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38974822

RESUMO

Introduction: Numerous clinical trials and systematic reviews have investigated the effectiveness of both herbal and conventional oral care approaches to reducing plaque and gingivitis. However, their findings vary and are inconsistent. Thus, the objective of this umbrella review is to compile data from systematic reviews and provide an overview of the effects of herbal oral care products on tooth plaque and gingivitis. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature was performed in 6 databases for systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses, published up to 30 May 2023, without any language restrictions. Only clinical trials comparing herbal oral care products (in the form of mouthrinse or toothpaste) against standard oral care products or placebo were considered. Results: Some herbal oral care products, particularly in the form of mouthrinses, have a similar level of positive effect on plaque and gingivitis reduction and, thus, can be used as an adjunct to traditional dentifrices. However, the shorter duration of trials (<4 weeks) and reported publication bias in the clinical trials mean that these findings must be interpreted with caution. Conclusion: To accurately determine the impact of various herbal extracts on periodontal health, well-designed, long-term, and controlled trials that adhere to standardized protocols must be carried out.


Introduction: On a étudié l'efficacité d'approches de soins buccodentaires classiques et à base de plantes pour lutter contre la plaque dentaire et la gingivite dans le cadre de nombreux essais cliniques et revues systématiques. Toutefois, leurs conclusions ont été variables et incohérentes. Cette revue générale vise donc à compiler des données issues de revues systématiques et de présenter un aperçu des effets des produits de soins buccodentaires à base de plantes sur la plaque dentaire et la gingivite. Méthodes: On a procédé à une recherche documentaire exhaustive dans 6 bases de données pour effectuer des revues systématiques, avec ou sans méta-analyses, sans aucune restriction relative à la langue de l'étude, publiées avant le 30 mai 2023. Seuls des essais cliniques comparant des produits de soins buccodentaires à base de plantes (sous forme de rincebouche ou de dentifrice) à des produits de soins buccodentaires classiques ou à des placebos ont été envisagés. Résultats: Quelques produits de soins buccodentaires à base de plantes, en particulier les rince-bouches de ce type, ont des effets positifs comparables en matière de réduction de la plaque et de la gingivite et peuvent donc être utilisés en complément des dentifrices ordinaires. Toutefois, ces résultats doivent être interprétés avec prudence du fait de la durée relativement courte des essais (moins de 4 semaines) et du biais de publication signalé dans les essais cliniques. Conclusion: Pour déterminer avec précision les effets de divers extraits de plantes sur la santé parodontale, il est nécessaire d'avoir recours à des essais bien conçus, à long terme et contrôlés, qui respectent des protocoles normalisés.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Humanos , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 757, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the toothbrush handle on video-observed toothbrushing behaviour and toothbrushing effectiveness. METHODS: This is a randomized counterbalanced cross-over study. N = 50 university students and employees brushed their teeth at two occasions, one week apart, using either a commercial ergonomically designed manual toothbrush (MT) or Brushalyze V1 (BV1), a manual toothbrush with a thick cylindrical handle without any specific ergonomic features. Brushing behaviour was video-analysed. Plaque was assessed at the second occasion immediately after brushing. Participants also rated their self-perceived oral cleanliness and directly compared the two brushes regarding their handling and compared them to the brushed they used at home. RESULTS: The study participants found the BV1 significantly more cumbersome than the M1 or their brush at home. (p < 0.05). However, correlation analyses revealed a strong consistency of brushing behavior with the two brushes (0.71 < r < 0.91). Means differed only slightly (all d < 0.36). These differences became statistically significant only for the brushing time at inner surfaces (d = 0.31 p = 0.03) and horizontal movements at inner surfaces (d = 0.35, p = 0.02). Plaque levels at the gingival margins did not differ while slightly more plaque persisted at the more coronal aspects of the crown after brushing with BV1 (d = 0.592; p 0.042). DISCUSSION: The results of the study indicate that the brushing handle does not play a major role in brushing behavior or brushing effectiveness.


Assuntos
Estudos Cross-Over , Escovação Dentária , Humanos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Desenho de Equipamento , Placa Dentária , Gravação em Vídeo , Hábitos , Índice de Placa Dentária , Ergonomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Higiene Bucal , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 22: 211-221, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864380

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of the adjunctive use of tea tree oil (TTO) for dental plaque control and nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three electronic databases were searched from 2003. The reference lists of the included articles and relevant reviews were also manually searched. Randomised controlled trials reporting the clinical outcomes of the topical use of TTO as an adjunct to daily oral hygiene or scaling and root planing (SRP) were included. Regarding the use of TTO as an adjunctive to daily oral hygiene, the primary outcome was plaque index (PI) reduction. Regarding the use of TTO as an adjunctive to SRP, probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction and clinical attachment level (CAL) gain were the primary outcomes. The secondary outcomes were adverse events. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included for qualitative analysis, 9 studies were included for quantitative analysis, and 6 studies were included to examine the application of TTO mouthwash as an adjunctive to daily oral hygiene. In addition, three studies were included to analyse the subgingival use of TTO adjunctive to SRP at selected sites. The results indicated a nonsignificant improvement in PI reduction in the TTO mouthwash group compared with placebo. The incidence of adverse events was statistically significantly greater in the CHX group than in the TTO group. For subgingival use of TTO adjunctive to SRP, beneficial effects were observed in the TTO group compared with SRP alone in terms of PPD and CAL at both three and six months post-treatment. However, an unpleasant taste was reported in three out of four studies. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of strong evidence to support the beneficial effects of TTO. Studies with larger sample sizes and standardised evaluation criteria are needed to further demonstrate the clinical relevance of TTO.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Raspagem Dentária , Antissépticos Bucais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Óleo de Melaleuca , Humanos , Óleo de Melaleuca/uso terapêutico , Óleo de Melaleuca/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Higiene Bucal/educação , Aplainamento Radicular , Índice de Placa Dentária , Terapia Combinada , Resultado do Tratamento , Fitoterapia/métodos , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 10(3): e912, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38881230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Self-performed oral hygiene is essential for preventing dental caries, periodontal, and peri-implant diseases. Oral irrigators are adjunctive oral home care aids that may benefit oral health. However, the effects of oral irrigation on oral health, its role in oral home care, and its mechanism of action are not fully understood. A comprehensive search of the literature revealed no existing broad scoping reviews on oral irrigators. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a comprehensive systematic review of the literature on oral irrigation devices and identify evidence gaps. METHODS: The Joanna Briggs Institute and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines were utilized to prepare the review. Four databases and eight gray literature sources were searched for English publications across any geographical location or setting. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy-five sources were included, predominantly from scientific journals and academic settings. Most studies originated from North America. Research primarily involved adults, with limited studies in children and adolescents. Oral irrigation was safe and well-accepted when used appropriately. It reduced periodontal inflammation, potentially by modulating the oral microbiota, but further research needs to clarify its mechanism of action. Promising results were reported in populations with dental implants and special needs. Patient acceptance appeared high, but standardized patient-reported outcome measures were rarely used. Anti-inflammatory benefits occurred consistently across populations and irrigant solutions. Plaque reduction findings were mixed, potentially reflecting differences in study designs and devices. CONCLUSIONS: Oral irrigators reduce periodontal inflammation, but their impact on plaque removal remains unclear. Well-designed, sufficiently powered trials of appropriate duration need to assess the clinical, microbiological, and inflammatory responses of the periodontium to oral irrigation, particularly those with periodontitis, dental implants, and special needs. Patient-reported outcome measures, costs, caries prevention, and environmental impact of oral irrigation need to be compared to other oral hygiene aids.


Assuntos
Higiene Bucal , Irrigação Terapêutica , Humanos , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Irrigação Terapêutica/instrumentação , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Saúde Bucal , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle
6.
J Periodontol ; 2024 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38924066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present cross-sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the periodontal and microbiological parameters in patients with surgically repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) undergoing orthodontic correction in comparison to patients without any cleft or orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A total of 120 patients, out of initial 148 patients, between the age group 6 and 18 years were enrolled and divided into four groups with 30 patients each: non-cleft patients without orthodontic treatment in Group 1, non-cleft patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment in Group 2, patients with UCLP without any orthodontic treatment in Group 3, and patients with UCLP undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment in Group 4. Periodontal parameters including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) index, pocket probing depth (PD), and tooth mobility were measured in all the groups. The subgingival plaque samples of all the patients were subjected to microbial evaluation using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: The periodontal parameters were significantly raised in Group 4, followed by Group 3 and Group 2 in comparison to Group 1 (p < 0.01), thereby suggesting poor periodontal health in patients with UCLP undergoing orthodontic treatment. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) in counts of micro-organisms among the groups were observed for P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, Veillonella, and Capnocytophaga, with the highest proportions in Group 4, indicating a deteriorating oral health in these patients. CONCLUSION: Poor periodontal and microbial health in patients with UCLP undergoing orthodontic treatment indicates a need for reinforcement of oral hygiene practices among these patients.

7.
J Oral Microbiol ; 16(1): 2369350, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38919384

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the modulating effects of five commonly used sweetener (glucose, inulin, isomaltulose, tagatose, trehalose) containing mouth rinses on the oral microbiome. Methods: A single-centre, double-blind, parallel randomized clinical trial was performed with healthy, 18-55-year-old volunteers (N = 65), who rinsed thrice-daily for two weeks with a 10% solution of one of the allocated sweeteners. Microbiota composition of supragingival dental plaque and the tongue dorsum coating was analysed by 16S RNA gene amplicon sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region (Illumina MiSeq). As secondary outcomes, dental plaque red fluorescence and salivary pH were measured. Results: Dental plaque microbiota changed significantly for two groups: inulin (F = 2.0239, p = 0.0006 PERMANOVA, Aitchison distance) and isomaltulose (F = 0.67, p = 0.0305). For the tongue microbiota, significant changes were observed for isomaltulose (F = 0.8382, p = 0.0452) and trehalose (F = 1.0119, p = 0.0098). In plaque, 13 species changed significantly for the inulin group, while for tongue coating, three species changed for the trehalose group (ALDEx2, p < 0.1). No significant changes were observed for the secondary outcomes. Conclusion: The effects on the oral microbiota were sweetener dependant with the most pronounced effect on plaque microbiota. Inulin exhibited the strongest microbial modulating potential of the sweeteners tested. Further full-scale clinical studies are required.

8.
J Dent ; 147: 105107, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of daily use of a multiple-enzyme lozenge on de novo plaque formation, on gingivitis development, and on the oral microbiome composition. METHODS: This trial with two parallel arms included 24 healthy adults allocated to the Active (n = 12) or Placebo (n = 12) group. Subjects consumed one lozenge three times daily for seven days, and no oral hygiene procedures were allowed. Differences in de novo plaque accumulation between a baseline period, and one and seven days of intervention were assessed by the Turesky-modification of the Quigley-and-Hein-Plaque-Index (TM-QHPI). The development of gingivitis after seven days of intervention was assessed by the Gingival Index (GI). Plaque and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after seven days of intervention, and evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: All subjects completed the study, and no adverse events were reported. After one day, the average TM-QHPI was significantly lower in the Active than in the Placebo group, as compared to baseline (p = 0.012). After 7 days, average TM-QHPI values did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.37). GI values did not increase during the intervention period, with no difference between groups (p = 0.62). Bacterial richness increased in both plaque and saliva samples over a seven-day oral hygiene-free period, with a statistically significant difference for the saliva samples (p = 0.0495) between groups. CONCLUSIONS: A multiple-enzymes lozenge decreased the build-up of de novo plaque after one day and slowed down the process of species increment in saliva. The lozenge may be an adjunct to regular mechanical plaque removal. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Dental plaque is the main cause of caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis. The search for therapeutic adjuncts to mechanical plaque removal that have no harmful effects on the oral microbiome is important. Treatment with multiple plaque-matrix degrading enzymes is a promising non-biocidal approach to plaque control.

9.
Cureus ; 16(3): e57334, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comprehensively analyze the microbiome of dental plaque in individuals with varying periodontal statuses, encompassing both periodontal health and disease. The primary objectives were to identify microbial markers associated with different clinical conditions, explore variations in microbial diversity, and investigate potential correlations between the oral microbiome and clinical parameters. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was employed, involving 164 participants aged 18 to 65 years. Inclusion criteria comprised individuals with good oral and systemic health for the periodontal health group and those diagnosed with various stages of periodontal disease for the periodontal disease group. Dental plaque samples were meticulously collected from diverse tooth surfaces, and clinical examinations were conducted to assess periodontal health status. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was utilized for microbiome analysis. RESULTS: Demographic characteristics revealed a balanced distribution between the periodontal health and disease groups. Clinical parameters, including probing depth, clinical attachment loss, and bleeding on probing, exhibited significant differences between the two groups (p < 0.001). Microbial diversity indices indicated a higher diversity in the periodontal health group compared to the disease group (p < 0.001). Analysis of relative abundance of bacterial phyla identified significant variations, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria showing differential prevalence between health and disease (p < 0.05). Differentially abundant taxa analysis highlighted specific species associated with each clinical condition, including Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Network analysis revealed complex microbial interactions within the oral microbiome. Functional predictions indicated variations in metabolic capabilities between health and disease, with potential implications for virulence and antibiotic resistance. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the oral microbiome in periodontal health and disease, revealing significant associations between microbial composition and clinical parameters. The identification of microbial markers and functional insights enhances our understanding of the complex interplay within the oral ecosystem. These findings hold promise for advancing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches tailored to individual microbial profiles.

10.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 575, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Translational microbiome research using next-generation DNA sequencing is challenging due to the semi-qualitative nature of relative abundance data. A novel method for quantitative analysis was applied in this 12-week clinical trial to understand the mechanical vs. chemotherapeutic actions of brushing, flossing, and mouthrinsing against the supragingival dental plaque microbiome. Enumeration of viable bacteria using vPCR was also applied on supragingival plaque for validation and on subgingival plaque to evaluate interventional effects below the gingival margin. METHODS: Subjects with gingivitis were enrolled in a single center, examiner-blind, virtually supervised, parallel group controlled clinical trial. Subjects with gingivitis were randomized into brushing only (B); brushing and flossing (BF); brushing and rinsing with Listerine® Cool Mint® Antiseptic (BA); brushing and rinsing with Listerine® Cool Mint® Zero (BZ); or brushing, flossing, and rinsing with Listerine® Cool Mint® Zero (BFZ). All subjects brushed twice daily for 1 min with a sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste and a soft-bristled toothbrush. Subjects who flossed used unflavored waxed dental floss once daily. Subjects assigned to mouthrinses rinsed twice daily. Plaque specimens were collected at the baseline visit and after 4 and 12 weeks of intervention. Bacterial cell number quantification was achieved by adding reference amounts of DNA controls to plaque samples prior to DNA extraction, followed by shallow shotgun metagenome sequencing. RESULTS: 286 subjects completed the trial. The metagenomic data for supragingival plaque showed significant reductions in Shannon-Weaver diversity, species richness, and total and categorical bacterial abundances (commensal, gingivitis, and malodor) after 4 and 12 weeks for the BA, BZ, and BFZ groups compared to the B group, while no significant differences were observed between the B and BF groups. Supragingival plaque vPCR further validated these results, and subgingival plaque vPCR demonstrated significant efficacy for the BFZ intervention only. CONCLUSIONS: This publication reports on a successful application of a quantitative method of microbiome analysis in a clinical trial demonstrating the sustained and superior efficacy of essential oil mouthrinses at controlling dental plaque compared to mechanical methods. The quantitative microbiological data in this trial also reinforce the safety and mechanism of action of EO mouthrinses against plaque microbial ecology and highlights the importance of elevating EO mouthrinsing as an integral part of an oral hygiene regimen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov on 31/10/2022. The registration number is NCT05600231.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Microbiota , Antissépticos Bucais , Escovação Dentária , Humanos , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Gengivite/microbiologia , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salicilatos/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Terpenos/uso terapêutico , Terpenos/farmacologia , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 45(2): 41-47, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Digit ratio (2D:4D), as endocrine fingerprint, can indicate prenatal androgen exposure. It serves as an anatomical marker for various systemic diseases and a few studies relating it to oral health. The present study aims to evaluate the association between digit ratio and susceptibility to dental plaque formation. METHODS: The study was conducted on young adults aged between 18 and 25 years. Digit ratio and reproductive hormones were measured; dental plaque score and gingival index (GI) were recorded. Data were analysed using the MedCalc. v.20. RESULTS: Male and female participants were categorized into two groups based on their digit ratios being either above or below the calculated average (0.99 for females, 0.98 for males). Those with a digit ratio below the average had a significantly higher mean dental plaque score (p < 0.0001) than those with ratios at or above the average. However, there was no significant difference in the GI between the two groups. Reproductive hormone profiles varied significantly between the higher and lower digit ratio groups for both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Digit ratio may find potential to be used as an anatomical marker to identify the susceptibility to dental plaque build-up.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Dedos , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Biomarcadores
12.
J Orthod Sci ; 13: 21, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38784071

RESUMO

White spot lesions (WSLs) refer to localized areas of hypo-mineralization limited to the enamel of the teeth surface, which is noticeable clinically to the naked eye on drying of the teeth. During fixed orthodontic treatment, it is very hard for the patient to maintain excellent oral hygiene as the brackets, bands, wires, elastics, and other appliances and attachments worn intra-orally provide a platform for food retention, plaque formation, and then colonization by acidogenic bacteria like Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. This review aims to elaborate and focus on etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment aspect, and future scope for research about the WSLs occurring due to fixed orthodontic treatment.

13.
Biomed Rep ; 20(6): 99, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765863

RESUMO

Capnocytophaga species are commonly found in human oral microbiome. The aim of the present study was to understand the association of the prevalence of oral Capnocytophaga species with oral hygiene and periodontal inflammation. A total of 136 patients (median age 72 years) who visited the Hiroshima University Hospital (Hiroshima, Japan) between April 2021 and June 2023 were enrolled. Swab samples were obtained from the tongue surface. DNA from Capnocytophaga species (C. ochracea and C. sputigena) was detected by real-time PCR analysis. Dental plaque accumulation was observed to assess the oral hygiene condition of participants. Additionally, clinical periodontal inflammation was assessed with periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) scores. Clinical confounding factors such as age, sex, lifestyle-related disease, remaining teeth and denture wearing between Capnocytophaga species-positive and -negative groups were adjusted with a propensity score matching method. Mann-Whitney U and χ2 or Fisher's exact test were employed for statistical analysis. The prevalence rate was 67.6% for oral C. ochracea and 83.1% for C. sputigena. C. ochracea-positive participants showed significantly higher plaque control record scores (an indicator of dental plaque accumulation) than C. ochracea-negative participants (P=0.03). Additionally, C. ochracea/C. sputigena dual-positive participants exhibited significantly higher plaque control record and PISA scores than non-dual-positive participants (P=0.01 and P=0.04, respectively). Propensity score matching was conducted in the C. ochracea/C. sputigena dual-positive group and the non-dual-positive group for adjustment of clinical factors, resulting in 51 matched patient pairs. C. ochracea/C. sputigena dual-positive participants had significantly higher plaque control record scores than non-dual-positive participants (P=0.02). The present results suggest that the prevalence of both oral C. ochracea and C. sputigena is associated with poor oral hygiene in middle-aged and older people.

14.
J Microbiol Methods ; 223: 106961, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788981

RESUMO

The high prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease place a significant burden on society, both socially and economically. Recent advances in genomic technologies have linked both diseases to shifts in the oral microbiota - a community of >700 bacterial species that live within the mouth. The development of oral microbiome transplantation draws on the success of fecal microbiome transplantation for the treatment of gut pathologies associated with disease. Many current in vitro oral biofilm models have been developed but do not fully capture the complexity of the oral microbiome which is required for successful OMT. To address this, we developed an in vitro biofilm system that maintained an oral microbiome with 252 species on average over 14 days. Six human plaque samples were grown in 3D printed flow cells on hydroxyapatite discs using artificial saliva medium (ASM). Biofilm composition and growth were monitored by high throughput sequencing and confocal microscopy/SEM, respectively. While a significant drop in bacterial diversity occurred, up to 291 species were maintained in some flow cells over 14 days with 70% viability grown with ASM. This novel in vitro biofilm model represents a marked improvement on existing oral biofilm systems and provides new opportunities to develop oral microbiome transplant therapies.

15.
Res Vet Sci ; 174: 105304, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759349

RESUMO

Periodontosis is the most common clinical disease in adult dogs, which is mainly caused by plaque accumulation and seriously endangers the oral health of dogs and even cause kidney, myocardial, and liver problems in severe cases. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of dental chew (Cature Brushing Treats product) with mechanical and chemical properties in beagles. The dogs in the experimental group were fed with a dental chew twice a day after meals; The control group had no treatment. Dental plaque was evaluated on the 14th day and 29th day, respectively. The concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the breath and dental calculus were also evaluated on the 29th day. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the indexes of dental plaque on the 14th day. While they had significantly reduced accumulation of plaque (37.63%), calculus (37.61%), and VSC concentration (81.08%) compared to when receiving no chew on the 29th day.


Assuntos
Cálculos Dentários , Placa Dentária , Doenças do Cão , Halitose , Animais , Cães , Halitose/veterinária , Halitose/prevenção & controle , Placa Dentária/veterinária , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cálculos Dentários/veterinária , Cálculos Dentários/química , Cálculos Dentários/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Feminino , Compostos de Enxofre/análise
16.
Int Dent J ; 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bovine trypsin on the adhesion and pH of dental plaque biofilms. METHODS: A multispecies dental plaque biofilm model and a single-species dental plaque biofilm model were established in vitro. Three groups were tested: (1) blank control group (aseptic ultrapure water); (2) negative control group (1M Tris-HCl buffer, pH = 7.4); and (3) experimental group (bovine trypsin). Adhesion ability was measured using an automatic microplate reader and visualised by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The pH was measured using a pH meter. The expression of gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD was analysed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Adhesion ability in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the blank group and the negative control group (P < .05); readhesion ability in the experimental group was inhibited for a certain period of time (24-hour multispecies biofilms were inhibited from 4 to 8 hours, and the 48- and 72-hour multispecies biofilms were inhibited from 2 to 6 hours; P < .05). The decrease in pH was inhibited for a certain period of time (24-hour multispecies biofilms were inhibited from 2 to 8 hours, and the 48- and 72-hour multispecies biofilms were inhibited from 1 to 8 hours; P < .05). Expression levels of gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, and ldh in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the blank group (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial adhesion, and readhesion, decreasd pH, and expression of adhesion- and acid-related genes by Streptococcus mutans in biofilms could be reduced by bovine trypsin for a certain period of time.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791329

RESUMO

The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect of thioglycosides has already been established. This study investigates the effects of thioglycosides extracted from white mustard, specifically the "Bamberka" variety, in the context of oral hygiene. The aim of the study is to clarify an evidence-based link between the documented antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects attributed to thioglycosides and their practical application in oral care. A randomized, single-blinded (patient-blinded) clinical study was performed on 66 patients using mustard-based toothpaste for oral hygiene. The patients were examined at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. The values of the Approximal Plaque Index (API), the Plaque Index (PI), and Bleeding on probing (BOP) were taken into consideration. The results show a significant reduction in plaque accumulation, especially after 6 months of using mustard-based toothpaste in all examined parameters. This suggests that thioglycosides from mustard contribute to a considerable decrease in dental plaque accumulation, confirming their potential in natural oral care solutions, which is indicated in the main conclusions or interpretations.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Tioglicosídeos , Humanos , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Tioglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Tioglicosídeos/farmacologia , Tioglicosídeos/química , Método Simples-Cego , Mostardeira/química , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Higiene Bucal/métodos
18.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 10(3): e885, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), referred to as nanobacteria (NB), are recognized to be associated with ectopic calcification. This study aims to isolate and culture CNPs from the dental plaque of patients with periodontal disease and investigate their possible role in unravelling the aetiology of periodontal disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Supragingival and subgingival plaques were sampled from 30 periodontitis patients for CNPs isolation and culture. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) content changes were tracked over time. Positive samples underwent thorough morphological identification via hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Alizarin red S (ARS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The chemical composition of CNPs analysis involved calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content determination, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). RESULTS: The subgingival plaque dental group exhibited a higher CNPs isolation rate at 36.67% (11/30) compared to the supragingival dental plaque group at 66.67% (20/30). ALP activity varied among the positive, negative and control groups. Morphological observation characterized the CNPs as round, oval, and ellipsoid particles with Ca deposits. Chemical analysis revealed the Ca/P ratio was 0.6753. Hydroxyl, methyl, carbonate, phosphate, hydrogen phosphate, and dihydrogen phosphate were detected by FTIR; the main chemical components detected by XRD were hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate. CONCLUSION: CNPs were found in periodontitis-related dental plaque and exhibited the potential to develop calcified structures resembling dental calculus. However, the potential involvement of ALP in CNPs formation requires deeper exploration, as does the precise nature of its role and the interrelation with periodontitis demand a further comprehensive investigation.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina , Nanopartículas Calcificantes , Placa Dentária , Difração de Raios X , Humanos , Nanopartículas Calcificantes/metabolismo , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/patologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Feminino , Adulto , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Microb Pathog ; 192: 106701, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754566

RESUMO

Plaque-induced gingivitis is an inflammatory response in gingival tissues resulting from bacterial plaque accumulation at the gingival margin. Postbiotics can promote the proliferation of beneficial bacteria and optimise the state of microbiota in the oral cavity. In this study, we investigated the effect of inactivated Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Probio-01 on plaque-induced gingivitis and the dental plaque microbiota. A total of 32 healthy gingival participants (Group N, using blank toothpaste for 3 months) and 60 patients with plaque-induced gingivitis (30 in Group F, using inactivated Probio-01 toothpaste for 3 months, and 30 in Group B, using blank toothpaste for 3 months, respectively) were recruited. Clinical indices, which included bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI), were used to assess the severity of gingivitis. Furthermore, 16SrDNA amplicon sequencing was used to explore changes in the gingival state and dental plaque microbiota in patients with plaque-induced gingivitis. The results showed that inactivated Probio-01 significantly reduced clinical indices of gingivitis, including BOP, GI, and PI, in participants with plaque-induced gingivitis and effectively relieved gingival inflammation, compared with that observed in the control group (group B). Inactivated Probio-01 did not significantly influence the diversity of dental plaque microbiota, but increased the relative abundance of dental plaque core bacteria, such as Leptotrichia and Fusobacterium (P < 0.05). Strong correlations were observed between the indices and abundance of dental plaque microbiota. Overall, the inactivated Probio-01 significantly reduced the clinical indices of gingivitis and effectively improved gingival inflammation in patients with plaque-induced gingivitis. The activity of inactivated Probio-01 against plaque-induced gingivitis was possibly mediated by its ability to regulate the dental plaque microbiota, as indicated by the close correlation between the plaque microbiota and clinical indices of gingivitis.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Microbiota , Cremes Dentais , Humanos , Gengivite/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem , Índice Periodontal , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Índice de Placa Dentária , Gengiva/microbiologia , Gengiva/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Imaging Sci Dent ; 54(1): 43-48, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571782

RESUMO

Purpose: Oral hygiene, maintained through plaque control, helps prevent periodontal disease and dental caries. This study was conducted to examine the accuracy of plaque detection with an intraoral scanner (IOS) compared to images captured with an optical camera. Materials and Methods: To examine the effect of color tone, artificial tooth resin samples were stained red, blue, and green, after which images were acquired with a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and an IOS device. Stained surface ratios were then determined and compared. Additionally, the deviation rate of the IOS relative to the DSLR camera was computed for each color. In the clinical study, following plaque staining with red disclosing solution, the staining was captured by the DSLR and IOS devices, and the stained area on each image was measured. Results: The stained surface ratios did not differ significantly between DSLR and IOS images for any color group. Additionally, the deviation rate did not vary significantly across colors. In the clinical test, the stained plaque appeared slightly lighter in color, and the delineation of the stained areas less distinct, on the IOS compared to the DSLR images. However, the stained surface ratio was significantly higher in the IOS than in the DSLR group. Conclusion: When employing IOS with dental plaque staining, the impact of color was minimal, suggesting that the traditional red stain remains suitable for plaque detection. IOS images appeared relatively blurred and enlarged relative to the true state of the teeth, due to inferior sharpness compared to camera images.

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