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1.
J Healthy Eat Act Living ; 1(3): 127-141, 2023 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935885

RESUMO

Active travel to school is one way youths can incorporate physical activity into their daily schedule. It is unclear the extent to which active travel to school is systematically monitored at local, state, or national levels. To determine the scope of active travel to school surveillance in the US and Canada and catalog the types of measures captured, we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature documenting active travel to school surveillance published from 2004 to February 2018. A study was included if it addressed children's school travel mode across two or more time periods in the US or Canada. Criteria were applied to determine whether a data source was considered an active travel to school surveillance system. We identified 15 unique data sources; 4 of these met our surveillance system criteria. One system is conducted in the US, is nationally representative, and occurs every 5-8 years. Three are conducted in Canada, are limited geographically to regions and provinces, and are administered with greater frequency (e.g., 2-year cycles). School travel mode was the primary measure assessed, most commonly through parent report. None of the systems collected data on school policies or program supports related to active travel to school. We concluded that incorporating questions related to active travel to school behaviors into existing surveillance systems, as well as maintaining them over time, would enable more consistent monitoring. Concurrently capturing behavioral information along with related environmental, policy, and program supports may inform efforts to promote active travel to school.

2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(5): 390-393, Set.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376697

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the reality of the development of the national active lifestyle, clarify its limitations and countermeasures. Methodology: Official data and consultations in updated bibliographic references were employed for the survey of the main problems with a sedentary lifestyle and their possible solutions. Results: The three urgent problems to be solved in public services are the construction of sports facilities, the organization of regular sports activities, and the establishment of sports organizations. Only a few sports have been promoted in concrete operations. Inadequate physical education and deficient essential public services are also factors affecting national health. Conclusion: Building sports facilities and providing environments with sports equipment are not sufficient against sedentary lifestyles. Relevant policies must be implemented along with massive advertising about the benefits of active lifestyles. Continuous orientation of social workers in community sports groups to promote mass participation is also key to health promotion through sports interventions.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a realidade do desenvolvimento do estilo de vida ativo nacional, esclarecer suas limitações e contramedidas. Metodologia: Foram empregados dados oficiais e consultas em referências bibliográficas atualizadas para o levantamento dos principais problemas com o estilo de vida sedentário e suas possíveis soluções. Resultados: Os três problemas urgentes a serem resolvidos nos serviços públicos são a construção de instalações esportivas, organização de atividades esportivas regulares e o estabelecimento de organizações esportivas. Apenas alguns poucos esportes foram promovidos em operações concretas. A educação física inadequada e os serviços públicos essenciais deficitários também são fatores que afetam a saúde nacional. Conclusão: A construção de instalações esportivas e o fornecimento de ambientes com equipamentos esportivos não são suficientes contra o sedentarismo. Políticas relevantes devem ser executadas juntamente com uma propaganda massiva sobre os benefícios do estilo de vida ativo. A orientação contínua de assistentes sociais em grupos esportivos comunitários para promover a participação das massas também é fundamental para a promoção da saúde através de intervenções esportivas.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la realidad del desarrollo del estilo de vida activo nacional, aclarar sus limitaciones y contramedidas. Metodología: Para el estudio de los principales problemas del sedentarismo y sus posibles soluciones se emplearon datos oficiales y consultas en referencias bibliográficas actualizadas. Resultados: Los tres problemas urgentes que hay que resolver en los servicios públicos son la construcción de instalaciones deportivas, la organización de actividades deportivas regulares y la creación de organizaciones deportivas. Sólo unos pocos deportes fueron promovidos en operaciones concretas. Una educación física inadecuada y unos servicios públicos esenciales deficientes son también factores que afectan a la salud nacional. Conclusión: La construcción de instalaciones deportivas y la dotación de entornos con equipamiento deportivo no son suficientes contra el sedentarismo. Deben ejecutarse políticas pertinentes junto con una publicidad masiva sobre los beneficios del estilo de vida activo. La orientación continua de los trabajadores sociales en los grupos deportivos comunitarios para promover la participación masiva también es fundamental para la promoción de la salud a través de las intervenciones deportivas.

3.
Physiol Behav ; : 113977, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181787

RESUMO

Gestational weight gain (GWG) has been shown to impact several maternal-infant outcomes. Since healthcare provider guidance on weight gain and healthy behaviors alone has failed to help women to meet guidelines during pregnancy, a practical adjunctive approach is to deliver evidence-based behavior change programs through mobile interventions. The present study aimed to assess the short-term effect of the SmartMoms Canada app to promote adequate GWG and healthy behaviors. Twenty-nine pregnant women were recruited in this app-based intervention trial to test whether a higher app usage (≥ 3.8 min·week-1) between 12-20 gestational weeks and 24-28 gestational weeks improved GWG, diet, physical activity, and sleep, compared to women with a lower app usage (< 3.8 min·week-1). Two-way mixed ANOVA for repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of the app usage and time, as well as their interaction on GWG and healthy behaviors. The likelihood ratio was used to examine the association between app usage categorization and GWG classification. Cramer's V statistic was used to estimate the effect size for interpretation of the association. Pregnant women using the SmartMoms Canada app more frequently had a higher moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily average when compared with women with a lower usage (mean difference: 17.84 min/day, 95% CI: 2.44; 33.25). A moderate effect size (28.6% vs. 15.4%; Cramer's V = 0.212) was found for the association between app categorization and rate of GWG, representing a greater adherence to the GWG guidelines in women in the higher app usage group vs. the lower app usage group. Considering other physical activity, diet, and sleep variables, no app categorization effect was observed. A short-term higher usage of SmartMoms Canada app has a positive effect on objectively-measured MVPA.

4.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104292, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hard endpoint of death is one of the most significant outcomes in both clinical practice and research settings. Our goal was to discover direct causes of longevity from medically accessible data. METHODS: Using a framework that combines local causal discovery algorithms with discovery of maximally predictive and compact feature sets (the "Markov boundaries" of the response) and equivalence classes, we examined 186 variables and their relationships with survival over 27 years in 1507 participants, aged ≥71 years, of the longitudinal, community-based D-EPESE study. FINDINGS: As few as 8-15 variables predicted longevity at 2-, 5- and 10-years with predictive performance (area under receiver operator characteristic curve) of 0·76 (95% CIs 0·69, 0·83), 0·76 (0·72, 0·81) and 0·66 (0·61, 0·71), respectively. Numbers of small high-density lipoprotein particles, younger age, and fewer pack years of cigarette smoking were the strongest determinants of longevity at 2-, 5- and 10-years, respectively. Physical function was a prominent predictor of longevity at all time horizons. Age and cognitive function contributed to predictions at 5 and 10 years. Age was not among the local 2-year prediction variables (although significant in univariable analysis), thus establishing that age is not a direct cause of 2-year longevity in the context of measured factors in our data that determine longevity. INTERPRETATION: The discoveries in this study proceed from causal data science analyses of deep clinical and molecular phenotyping data in a community-based cohort of older adults with known lifespan. FUNDING: NIH/NIA R01AG054840, R01AG12765, and P30-AG028716, NIH/NIA Contract N01-AG-12102 and NCRR 1UL1TR002494-01.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1840, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated, through cluster analysis, the associations between behavioural characteristics, mental wellbeing, demographic characteristics, and health among university students in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) University Network - Health Promotion Network (AUN-HPN) member universities. METHODS: Data were retrieved from a cross-sectional self-administered online survey among undergraduate students in seven ASEAN countries. A two-step cluster analysis was employed, with cluster labels based on the predominant characteristics identified within the clusters. The 'healthy' cluster was assigned as the reference group for comparisons using multinomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The analytic sample size comprised 15,366 university students. Five clusters of student-types were identified: (i) 'Healthy' (n = 1957; 12.7%); (ii) 'High sugary beverage consumption' (n = 8482; 55.2%); (iii) 'Poor mental wellbeing' (n = 2009; 13.1%); (iv) 'Smoker' (n = 1364; 8.9%); and (v) 'Alcohol drinker' (n = 1554; 10.1%). Being female (OR 1.28, 95%CI 1.14, 1.45) and being physically inactive (OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.04, 1.39) increased the odds of belonging to the 'High sugary beverage consumption' cluster. Being female (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.04, 1.41), non-membership in a sports club (OR 1.83, 95%CI 1.43, 2.34) were associated with 'Poor mental wellbeing'. Obesity (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.47, 2.80), inactively commuting to campus (OR 1.34, 95%CI 1.09, 1.66), and living in high-rise accommodation (OR 2.94, 95%CI 1.07, 8.07) were associated with membership in the 'Smoker' cluster. Students living in The Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam had a higher likelihood of being alcohol drinkers, compared with those who lived in Brunei. CONCLUSIONS: ASEAN university students exhibited health-risk behaviours that typically clustered around a specific health behaviour and mental wellbeing. The results provided support for focusing interventions on one dominant health-risk behaviour, with associated health-risk behaviours within clusters being potential mediators for consideration.

6.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2022 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183279

RESUMO

Physical activity is deemed critical to successful ageing. Despite evidence and progress, there is still a need to determine more precisely the direction, magnitude, intensity, and volume of physical activity that should be performed on a daily basis to effectively promote the health of individuals. This study aimed to assess the clinical validity of new physical activity phenotypes derived from a novel distributional functional analysis of accelerometer data in older adults. A random sample of participants aged between 65 and 80 years with valid accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 was used. Five major clinical phenotypes were identified, which provided a greater sensitivity for predicting 5-year mortality and survival outcomes than age alone, and our results confirm the importance of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The new clinical physical activity phenotypes are a promising tool for improving patient prognosis and for directing to more targeted intervention planning, according to the principles of precision medicine. The use of distributional representations shows clear advantages over more traditional metrics to explore the effects of the full spectrum of the physical activity continuum on human health.

7.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135118

RESUMO

In this cross-sectional study, we tested the associations between teacher autonomy support, self-determined motivation for physical education (PE), physical activity habits and non-participation in physical education in a sample of adolescents. A total of 715 adolescents (of whom 371 (51.89%) were girls) participated. The ages ranged from 14 to 18 years, with mean ages of 16.00 (SD = 0.79) for girls and 15.99 (SD = 0.75) for boys. The study questionnaire consisted of demographic questions and the Learning Climate Questionnaire, Revised Perceived Locus of Causality in Physical Education Questionnaire, Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2, Self-Report Habit Index for Physical Activity, Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, perceived physical fitness and frequency of non-participation in PE classes. The results showed that perceived teacher autonomy support was directly positively associated with physical activity habits and negatively with non-participation in physical education classes. Autonomous motivation for PE was a mediator between perceived teacher autonomy support and physical activity habits, meaning that higher autonomous motivation was related to higher physical activity habits. Motivation for PE was also a mediator between teacher autonomy support and non-participation in PE. Higher autonomous motivation for PE was associated with less frequent non-participation in PE classes. The findings can inform PE teachers' practice by showing that supporting students' autonomy and strengthening their self-determined motivation can facilitate increased participation in PE classes and the formation of students' physical activity habits.

8.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current college lifestyle create more opportunities for students to develop unhealthy behaviors, especially physical inactivity. Nudging could be an effective tool to improve physical activity behaviors by changing college settings. One-nudge-fits-all leads to ineffective nudges, so it is necessary to develop a reliable and valid instrument capable of measuring the "nudgeability" of physical activity nudges for college students, which is for a higher level of nudge efficacy. METHOD: Developing the College Physical Activity Nudges Susceptibility Scale (CPANSS) that integrated the nudge method with the Likert scale, which is the first attempt to measure the susceptibility to nudges directly by a scale. There are four steps for developing CPANSS, including Scale Dimensions, Item Generation, Exploratory Factor Analysis (n = 294), and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (n = 293) with appropriate procedures. RESULTS: The five-factor 21-item CPANSS with good reliability and validity fitted the data reasonably well. CONCLUSION: The CPANSS was to provide a new tool for policymakers to design effective nudges in changing and promoting physical activity in college settings, and to provide a method for scholars to promote other healthy behaviors for different target groups.

9.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135133

RESUMO

The selection process for the teaching profession in public elementary education is difficult, which can lead to the appearance of disruptive states in applicants. For this reason, the present study aimed to establish the relationship between study hours and the levels of stress, burnout, and resilience in applicants to the Spanish public teaching profession. Accordingly, this objective was achieved by (a) developing an explanatory model of study hours according to levels of stress, burnout, and resilience, and (b) contrasting this model through a multigroup analysis according to whether students performed more than 3 h of physical activity per week. A descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 4117 applicants (31.03 ± 6.800), using an ad hoc socio-demographic questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale for data collection. The results revealed that participants who practiced more than 3 h of physical activity per week showed lower levels of stress and burnout syndrome, manifesting higher levels of resilience. Furthermore, better associations between resilience and the other constructs were also observed for people who practiced more than 3 h of physical activity per week. In conclusion, the practice of physical activity can help to decrease stress and develop key elements for the selective exam of the Spanish public teaching corps.

10.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135135

RESUMO

There has not been much study of risk profiles in older people according to different levels of practice in physical activity. For this reason, the aim of this research was to evaluate whether the elements that influence the quality of life and factors such as gender and education can predict the level of physical activity in the physically active elderly population. The Fernández-Ballesteros quality of life questionnaire and the WHO International Physical Activity Questionnaire were applied to a sample of 397 people with a mean age of 69.65 years (SD = 4.71). The results revealed the following predictive factors of practicing a low level of physical activity (p < 0.05): being a woman; having a low educational level; and low scores in activity and leisure and in functional skills. In conclusion, gender, education, functional skills, activity and leisure, and health are elements of quality of life that predict the level of physical activity performed by the elderly, where it is necessary to use leisure activities (visiting friends, playing games, running errands) as an indirect way to increase participation in physical activity.

11.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the controlling behaviour of physical education teachers might be detrimental to their students' psychological experiences. The purpose of this work was to examine whether and to what extent the different dimensions of the perceived controlling teaching questionnaire predict students' basic psychological needs, motivations, and physical activities during leisure-time. METHODS: A total of 299 students (164 boys and 135 girls) from four Estonian general education schools and two vocational education institutions participated in the study. Students filled in the questionnaire of study variables. A variance-based structural model was used to test the research hypotheses. RESULTS: The results revealed that different forms of controlling behaviours predicted psychological need frustration (ß = 0.09-0.37; p < 0.01). Psychological need frustration predicted controlled motivation (ß = 0.52; p < 0.01). Controlled motivation predicted subjective norms (ß = 0.51; p < 0.01). Intention was predicted by attitudes (ß = 0.30; p < 0.01), perceived behavioural control (ß = 0.37; p < 0.01), and subjective norms (ß = 0.15; p < 0. 01). Attitude was statistically significantly related to leisure-time physical activity (ß = 0.09; p < 0.05). The model describes 10% of students' physical activity in the context of leisure-time. CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight that physical education teachers should avoid using controlling behaviours if the aim is to avoid frustrating their students' psychological needs, which might have detrimental effect on students' leisure-time physical activity via controlled forms of motivation.

12.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135149

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical inactivity has become a public health issue as it can trigger many chronic diseases. Studies have found that an individual's social networks (SNs) influence their engagement in physical activity (PA). However, it remains unclear how the influence varies between different sociodemographic groups. This study examined the associations between the SN structures and the PA of young adults across sociodemographic groups. METHOD: Data on 14,595 young adults aged 24-32 were obtained from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Latent class analysis was conducted to identify heterogeneous subgroups of respondents with respect to their engagement in PA and SN structures were measured in terms of the relationship quality, contact frequency, network size, and spatial accessibility. Logistic regression and chi-square tests were used to further test the relationships between PA and SNs as well as the sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: SNs were found to have a significant influence on PA. Relationship quality was identified as the most important feature of an individual's SN, followed by network size, contact frequency, and accessibility. The effects of SNs on PA varied with the individuals' gender, ethnicity, income, and educational attainment. For example, male participants tended to be physically active if they had frequent connections with their neighbors, while the engagement in PA of the female participants was strongly related to the frequency of their contact with their children. CONCLUSIONS: This research has important implications for practitioners as it suggests that PA intervention programs should be designed to target specific population groups.

13.
Front Pain Res (Lausanne) ; 3: 949877, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36147035

RESUMO

Background: Accelerometry has been used to evaluate activity in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) pain, especially in relation to effect of treatment; however no studies have compared accelerometry-measured activity in dogs with OA-pain and healthy dogs. The aims of this study were to (1) compare activity output from the PetPace collar with the validated Actical monitor and (2) determine if PetPace collar outputs (overall activity, activity levels, body position, and vital signs) differed between healthy dogs and dogs with OA-pain. Methods: This was an observational, non-interventional study in healthy dogs and dogs with OA-pain. All dogs were outfitted with the PetPace collar and the Actical monitor simultaneously for 14 days. Output from these devices was compared (correlations), and output from the PetPace device was used to explore differences between groups across the activity and vital sign outputs (including calculated heart rate variability indices). Results: There was moderate correlation between the PetPace collar and Actical monitor output (R 2 = 0.56, p < 0.001). Using data generated by the PetPace collar, OA-pain dogs had lower overall activity counts and spent less time standing than healthy dogs. Healthy dogs spent more time at higher activity levels than OA-pain dogs. Certain heart rate variability indices in OA-pain dogs were lower than in healthy dogs. Conclusions and clinical relevance: The results of this study suggest that the PetPace collar can detect differences between healthy dogs and those with OA-pain, and that OA-pain negatively impacts overall activity levels in dogs, and especially higher intensity activity.

14.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 16: 943341, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36147297

RESUMO

Background: Physical activity is known to improve mental health, and is regarded as safe and desirable for uncomplicated pregnancy. In this novel study, we aim to evaluate whether there are associations between maternal physical activity during pregnancy and neonatal brain cortical development. Methods: Forty-four mother/newborn dyads were included in this longitudinal study. Healthy pregnant women were recruited and their physical activity throughout pregnancy were documented using accelerometers worn for 3-7 days for each of the 6 time points at 4-10, ∼12, ∼18, ∼24, ∼30, and ∼36 weeks of pregnancy. Average daily total steps and daily total activity count as well as daily minutes spent in sedentary/light/moderate/vigorous activity modes were extracted from the accelerometers for each time point. At ∼2 weeks of postnatal age, their newborns underwent an MRI examination of the brain without sedation, and 3D T1-weighted brain structural images were post-processed by the iBEAT2.0 software utilizing advanced deep learning approaches. Cortical surface maps were reconstructed from the segmented brain images and parcellated to 34 regions in each brain hemisphere, and mean cortical thickness for each region was computed for partial correlation analyses with physical activity measures, with appropriate multiple comparison corrections and potential confounders controlled. Results: At 4-10 weeks of pregnancy, mother's daily total activity count positively correlated (FDR corrected P ≤ 0.05) with newborn's cortical thickness in the left caudal middle frontal gyrus (rho = 0.48, P = 0.04), right medial orbital frontal gyrus (rho = 0.48, P = 0.04), and right transverse temporal gyrus (rho = 0.48, P = 0.04); mother's daily time in moderate activity mode positively correlated with newborn's cortical thickness in the right transverse temporal gyrus (rho = 0.53, P = 0.03). At ∼24 weeks of pregnancy, mother's daily total activity count positively correlated (FDR corrected P ≤ 0.05) with newborn's cortical thickness in the left (rho = 0.56, P = 0.02) and right isthmus cingulate gyrus (rho = 0.50, P = 0.05). Conclusion: We identified significant relationships between physical activity in healthy pregnant women during the 1st and 2nd trimester and brain cortical development in newborns. Higher maternal physical activity level is associated with greater neonatal brain cortical thickness, presumably indicating better cortical development.

15.
Digit Biomark ; 6(1): 19-29, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148249

RESUMO

Introduction: Clinical research and treatment of childhood obesity is challenging, and objective biomarkers obtained in a home-setting are needed. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of novel digital endpoints gathered by a home-monitoring platform in pediatric obesity. Methods: In this prospective observational study, 28 children with obesity aged 6-16 years were included and monitored for 28 days. Patients wore a smartwatch, which measured physical activity (PA), heart rate (HR), and sleep. Furthermore, daily blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed. Data from 128 healthy children were utilized for comparison. Differences between patients and controls were assessed via linear mixed effect models. Results: Data from 28 patients (average age 11.6 years, 46% male, average body mass index 30.9) and 128 controls (average age 11.1 years, 46% male, average body mass index 18.0) were analyzed. Patients were recruited between November 2018 and February 2020. For patients, the median compliance for the measurements ranged from 55% to 100% and the highest median compliance was observed for the smartwatch-related measurements (81-100%). Patients had a lower daily PA level (4,597 steps vs. 6,081 steps, 95% confidence interval [CI] 862-2,108) and peak PA level (1,115 steps vs. 1,392 steps, 95% CI 136-417), a higher nighttime HR (81 bpm vs. 71 bpm, 95% CI 6.3-12.3) and daytime HR (98 bpm vs. 88 bpm, 95% CI 7.6-12.6), a higher systolic BP (115 mm Hg vs. 104 mm Hg, 95% CI 8.1-14.5) and diastolic BP (76 mm Hg vs. 65 mm Hg, 95% CI 8.7-12.7), and a shorter sleep duration (difference 0.5 h, 95% CI 0.2-0.7) compared to controls. Conclusion: Remote monitoring via wearables in pediatric obesity has the potential to objectively measure the disease burden in the home-setting. The novel endpoints demonstrate significant differences in PA level, HR, BP, and sleep duration between patients and controls. Future studies are needed to determine the capacity of the novel digital endpoints to detect effect of interventions.

16.
Pediatr Exerc Sci ; : 1-9, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150707

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed maintenance of skeletal advantages 3 years after completion of a 2-year, school-based, controlled exercise trial in adolescent girls. METHOD: Middle-school girls participated in a resistance training program embedded in physical education classes. Effort groups (low-effort group [LO] and high-effort group [HI]) were identified; the control group (CON) participated in standard physical education at a separate school. Baseline and follow-up (FU) assessments at 6, 18, and 54 (FU3) months included densitometry, anthropometry, and questionnaires assessing physical maturity and nonintervention organized physical activity. Linear mixed effects models were fit to evaluate bone outcomes across all FU time points for CON versus LO/HI. RESULTS: Sixty-eight girls (23 CON/25 HI/20 LO) were 11.6 (0.3) years at baseline. Bone parameters did not differ at baseline, except femoral neck bone mineral density (LO < HI/CON, P < .05). Forty-seven participants provided FU3 assessment: 17 CON/16 HI/14 LO. After adjusting for height, gynecologic age, baseline bone, and organized physical activity, bone gains across all time points were greater for HI versus CON for legs bone mineral content, femoral neck bone mineral content/bone mineral density, and third lumbar vertebra bone mineral content/bone mineral density (P ≤ .05). At FU3, bone values were greater for HI versus CON at subhead, legs, femoral neck, and third lumbar vertebra (P < .03). CONCLUSION: Adolescent girls who exerted high effort in a school-based resistance training program demonstrated significant skeletal benefits 3 years after program completion.

17.
Fam Cancer ; 2022 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151358

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify determinants of adherence to lifestyle and body weight recommendations for cancer prevention among Lynch Syndrome (LS) patients. Cross-sectional baseline data of LS patients participating in the Lifestyle & Lynch (LiLy) study was used to assess determinants of adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund cancer prevention recommendations on body weight, physical activity, and red and processed meat intake. Adherence and potential determinants of adherence were assessed using questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify determinants of adherence. Of the 211 participants, 50.2% adhered to the body weight recommendation, 78.7% adhered to the physical activity recommendation, and 33.6% adhered to the red and processed meat recommendation. Being younger and having a higher level of education were associated with adherence to the recommendation on body weight. Having knowledge about the recommendation was associated with adherence to the recommendations on physical activity and red and processed meat. Results confirm that knowledge about recommendations for cancer prevention is an important determinant for adherence and suggest that strategies to increase knowledge should be included in lifestyle promotion targeted at LS patients, along with behavior change techniques influencing other modifiable determinants.

18.
Interact J Med Res ; 11(2): e34433, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incorporating physical activity into lifestyle routines is recommended for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Accelerometers offer a promising method for objectively measuring physical activity and for assessing interventions. However, the existing literature for accelerometer-measured physical activity among middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify research studies in which accelerometer-based cut points were used to classify the physical activity intensity of middle-aged to older adults with type 2 diabetes as sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous, and very vigorous, and to determine if validated accelerometer cut points specifically for this population exist. METHODS: We followed the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. Between June 23 and July 12, 2020, two reviewers independently screened records from four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Engineering Village) and the ActiGraph Corp web site for eligible studies that included patients with type 2 diabetes with a sample mean age ≥50 years, used research-grade accelerometers, applied cut points to categorize objectively measured physical activity, and were available in English. We excluded studies reporting exclusively steps or step counts measured by accelerometers or pedometers and conference abstracts or other sources that did not have a full text available. Data extraction was completed using Microsoft Excel. Data for the following variables were tabulated based on frequency distributions: study design, accelerometer type, device placement, epoch length, total wear time, and cut points used. Study aims and participant demographic data were summarized. RESULTS: A total of 748 records were screened at the abstract level, and 88 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Ultimately, 46 articles were retained and analyzed. Participants' mean ages ranged from 50 to 79.9 years. The ActiGraph accelerometer and the Freedson et al and Troiano et al counts-per-minute cut points were the most frequently used across the literature. Freedson et al and Troiano et al counts-per-minute cut points for light, moderate, and vigorous activity correspond to <1952, 1952-5724, and ≥5725, and 100-2019, 2020-5998, and ≥5999, respectively. The Lopes et al cut points were developed by calibrating the ActiGraph in middle-aged and older adults with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes. These counts-per-minute thresholds are ≥200 (light), ≥1240 (moderate), and ≥2400 (vigorous), and were applied in 1 interventional study. CONCLUSIONS: An assortment of accelerometer cut points have been used by researchers to categorize physical activity intensity for middle-aged and older adults with diabetes. Only one set of cut points was validated and calibrated in our population of interest. Additional research is warranted to address the need for diabetes-specific cut points to inform public health recommendations. This includes confirmation that the Lopes et al cut points reflect clinically meaningful changes in physical activity for adults with diabetes who have comorbidities other than overweight/obesity and the development of relative intensity cut points that may be more suitable for those with suboptimal physical functioning.

19.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(9): e39188, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity is a critical contributing risk factor to cardiovascular disease. Hence, regular physical activity is a mainstay in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Despite the extensive promotion of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention programs, including cardiac rehabilitation, physical activity levels in the cardiac population remain low. Therefore, it is crucial to understand critical determinants that influence physical activity behavior. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to deliver a systematic review of studies with collated observational data exploring the association between determinants and physical activity behavior in the target population. These new insights inform the design of future interventions targeted at lasting heart-healthy physical activity behavior in the cardiac population. METHODS: Primary studies with observational quantitative data on determinants and their association with physical activity behavior in the cardiac population will be included. Information on relevant primary studies will be retrieved from various databases, including Embase, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and Web of Science Core Collection. Six reviewers will independently double-screen articles. Studies will be selected according to the prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data will be extracted and entered into suitable worksheets. The US-based National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Study Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Studies will be used to assess the quality of all eligible primary studies. The results will be presented in a descriptive and narrative synthesis. If the type and quality of data are suitable, meta-analyses will be conducted. Study reporting will follow the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. RESULTS: Data collection started in September 2020, and the literature search was updated in July 2021. Data synthesis is ongoing, and the literature search will be updated in October 2022. CONCLUSIONS: This review will be valuable to relevant stakeholders, including clinicians and health care professionals, intervention developers, and decision makers in health care. It lays a comprehensive foundation for understanding the determinants of physical activity to inform the design of secondary prevention interventions relevant to the cardiac population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020206637; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=206637. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR1-10.2196/39188.

20.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(9): e37563, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Web-based multiple health behavior change (MHBC) interventions have demonstrated effectiveness in promoting physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) among Chinese college students. However, there is limited research examining their effects on promoting a healthy lifestyle (ie, adhering to both PA and FVC behavioral recommendations) among Chinese college students. In addition, the salient psychosocial mediators of successful MHBC interventions need to be researched. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a previous 8-week web-based MHBC program for promoting a healthy lifestyle and enhancing the psychosocial determinants (intention, self-efficacy, planning, and social support) of behavior change among Chinese college students. Furthermore, the study aims to identify whether changes in these psychosocial determinants mediate intervention effectiveness on the immediate and sustained lifestyle changes. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis for a 3-arm randomized controlled trial. Chinese college students (N=552) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a PA-first group (4-week PA intervention followed by 4-week FVC intervention), an FVC-first group (4-week FVC intervention followed by 4-week PA intervention), and a placebo control group. The intervention content was designed based on the health action process approach model. Data for analyses were collected at baseline (T0), postintervention assessment (T1), and 12-week follow-up assessment (T2). RESULTS: At baseline, 13.9% (77/552) of the participants maintained a healthy lifestyle. After 8 weeks, more (200/552, 36.2%) participants achieved a healthy lifestyle. PA-first and FVC-first groups were, respectively, 3.24 times and 5 times more likely to adopt a healthy lifestyle than the control group at T1. After 12 weeks, 35.5% (196/552) of the participants adopted a healthy lifestyle. Intervention groups were approximately 2.99 times (PA first) and 4.07 times (FVC first) more likely to adopt a healthy lifestyle than the control group at T2. Intervention effects favored both intervention groups in self-efficacy and planning for PA and in intention and planning for FVC compared with the control condition. In addition, changes in PA self-efficacy and FVC intention mediated intervention effectiveness on the immediate lifestyle change after 8 weeks. Changes in FVC intention were identified as a salient mediator for facilitating sustained lifestyle change after 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides empirical evidence for the effectiveness of an 8-week theory- and web-based MHBC intervention program on promoting a healthy lifestyle, self-efficacy and planning for PA, and intention and planning for FVC among Chinese college students. These research findings add new knowledge to the underlying psychosocial mechanisms of successful MHBC interventions. Overall, this study has considerable implications for future web-based MHBC research and practice in terms of addressing PA self-efficacy and FVC intention and helping students to adopt and maintain a healthy lifestyle independently of whether PA or FVC is addressed first. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03627949; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03627949.


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet , China , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Estudantes/psicologia , Verduras
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