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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253616, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355880

RESUMO

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do óleo volátil de Alpinia zerumbet (OVAz) na expressão do gene da caveolina-1 e na fibrose muscular. Os ratos foram imobilizados para induzir a fibrose do músculo gastrocnêmio, e foram tratados com OVAz. A qualidade do colágeno foi avaliada com histologia e à expressão do gene caveolina-1 (CAV-1) foi avaliada usando qPCR. A análise histomorfológica indicou uma redução significativa no perímetro, largura e intensidade do colágeno nos grupos tratados. Os resultados dos níveis de expressão sugeriram diminuição nos grupos de lesão e em dois grupos de tratamento (0,0115 µg/g e 0,009 µg/g). No entanto, com a menor concentração (0,0065 µg/g), não foi observada diferença significativa, apresentando níveis semelhantes aos encontrados em tecido saudável. O uso do OVAz foi eficaz para reverter as alterações do colágeno causadas pela fibrose, e sua menor concentração apresentou uma possível tendência de aumento na expressão do CAV-1. Portanto, os resultados mostraram que o OVAz tem potencial para ser uma alternativa não invasiva e de baixo custo para auxiliar no tratamento da fibrose muscular.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Alpinia/química , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brasil , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Músculos/patologia
2.
Front Nutr ; 9: 868209, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662938

RESUMO

Asparagus [Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.] is a traditional herbal medicine plant commonly used to nourish yin, moisten dryness, and clear fire cough symptoms. Drying is an excellent option to conserve food materials, i.e., grains, fruits, vegetables, and herbs, reducing the raw materials volume and weight. This study aims to evaluate different drying approaches that could increase the value of asparagus, particularly as an ingredient in fast foods or as nutraceutical byproducts. The volatile components of asparagus roots were analyzed by using headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectroscopy under different drying conditions, i.e., natural drying (ND) at ambient air temperature in the dark, well-ventilated room, temperature range 28-32°C, blast or oven drying at 50°C, heat pump or hot-air drying at temperature 50°C and air velocity at 1.5 ms-1 and vacuum freeze-drying at the temperature of -45°C and vacuum pressure of 10-30 Pa for 24 h. The findings revealed that the various drying processes had multiple effects on the color, odor index, and volatile compounds of the asparagus roots. As a result of the investigations, multiple characteristics of components, therefore, exploitation and comparison of various flavors; a total of 22 compounds were identified, such as alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, acids, esters, heterocyclic, and terpene. The present findings may help understand the flavor of the processed asparagus roots and find a better option for drying and processing.

3.
Front Nutr ; 9: 884400, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662941

RESUMO

Stropharia rugosoannulata is an extremely perishable edible fungi product, and drying can delay its deterioration, however, drying will affect its flavor, especially the non-volatile taste substances dominated by amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and carbohydrates. Currently, which drying method is the most suitable for the drying of S. rugosoannulata remains unknown, we need to fully consider the economic efficiency of the method and the impact on flavor. But we have limited comprehensive knowledge of the changed non-volatile taste metabolites as caused by drying processes. Here, an LC-MS/MS-based widely targeted metabolome analysis was conducted to investigate the transformation mechanism of S. rugosoannulata non-volatile taste components after undergoing hot air drying (HAD), vacuum freeze drying (VFD), and microwave vacuum drying (MVD). A total of 826 metabolites were identified, 89 of which-48 amino acids, 25 nucleotides, 8 organic acids, and 8 carbohydrates-were related to non-volatile taste. The drying method used and the parts of S. rugosoannulata (stipe and pileus) influenced the differences found in these metabolites. The possible mechanisms responsible for such chemical alterations by different drying methods were also investigated by a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. Amino acid metabolism (alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism; glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism; arginine and proline metabolism; valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis) was the main metabolic pathway involved. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified differences in non-volatile taste components among three drying methods that may be closely related to the applied drying temperature. Altogether, the results indicated that as an economical and convenient drying method, HAD is conducive to improving the flavor of S. rugosoannulata and thus it harbors promising potential for practical applications.

4.
Saf Health Work ; 13(2): 155-162, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664908

RESUMO

Background: Workers are exposed to several risks in academic laboratories due to the presence of potentially hazardous substances. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of accident occurrence and associated risk factors among laboratory workers at the scientific laboratories of the public university in Lebanon and the impact of safety measures training and availability. Methods: In this observational study, a survey was conducted for one year in scientific laboratories at faculties of the public university. Results: Among the participants (N = 220), 45.0% have had accidents; the main cause was exposure to chemicals (73.7%) and more specifically by inhalation (45.4%). Females (85.9%) were more exposed to accidents than males. Laboratory workers with a master's degree, a full-time schedule, and more than ten years of experience were significantly more exposed to accidents (p < 0.05). A significant association was found between accident occurrence and training on management of hazardous products (p = 0.044), risks related to workplace (p = 0.030), eyewash and emergency shower (p < 0.001), first aid (p = 0.012), and facial protection availability (p = 0.019). In spite of the lack of safety culture and efficient training on laboratory safety, participants have shown a very good perception regarding safety measures to be applied in case of work accidents. Conclusion: Based on our findings, the prevalence of accident occurrence is elevated among lab workers at the public university. The impact of regular training on laboratory safety preventive measures is of great importance to ensure the efficiency of occupational health and safety in scientific laboratories.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 891245, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668752

RESUMO

To investigate the mechanism underlying the plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of strain Streptomyces sp. TOR3209, PGP traits responsible for indoleacetic acid production, siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization were tested by culturing the strain TOR3209 in the corresponding media. The effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the strain TOR3209 on plant growth were observed by co-culturing this strain with tobacco seedlings in I-plates. Meanwhile, the effects of VOCs on tobacco gene expression were estimated by performing a transcriptome analysis, and VOCs were identified by the solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) method. The results showed positive reactions for the three tested PGP traits in the culture of strain TOR3209, while the tobacco seedlings co-cultured with strain TOR3209 revealed an increase in the fresh weight by up to 100% when compared to that of the control plants, demonstrating that the production VOCs was also a PGP trait. In transcriptome analysis, plants co-cultured with strain TOR3209 presented the highest up-regulated expression of the genes involved in plant growth and development processes, implying that the bacterial VOCs played a role as a regulator of plant gene expression. Among the VOCs produced by the strain TOR3209, two antifungal molecules, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol and hexanedioic acid dibutyl ester, were found as the main compounds. Conclusively, up-regulation in the expression of growth- and development-related genes via VOCs production is an important PGP mechanism in strain TOR3209. Further efforts to explore the effective VOCs and investigate the effects of the two main VOCs in the future are recommended.

6.
Essays Biochem ; 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642866

RESUMO

Plants host a multipart immune signalling network to ward off pathogens. Pathogen attack upon plant tissues can often lead to an amplified state of (induced) defence against subsequent infections in distal tissues; this is known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The interaction of plants with beneficial microbes of the rhizosphere microbiome can also lead to an induced resistance in above-ground plant tissues, known as induced systemic resistance. Second messengers such as calcium (Ca2+), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for cell-to-cell signal propagation during SAR and show emergent roles in the mediation of other SAR metabolites. These include the lysine-derived signals pipecolic acid (Pip) and N-hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP), which are key signalling metabolites in SAR. Emerging evidence additionally pinpoints plant volatiles as modulators of defence signalling within and between plants. Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as monoterpenes can promote SAR by functioning through ROS. Furthermore, plant-derived and additionally also microbial VOCs can target both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling pathways in plants and modulate defence against pathogens. In this review, an overview of recent findings in induced defence signalling, with a particular focus on newer signalling molecules and how they integrate into these networks is discussed.

7.
Foods ; 11(11)2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681280

RESUMO

Tieguanyin (TGY) is one kind of oolong tea that is widely appreciated for its aroma and taste. To study the difference of volatile compounds among different types of TGY and other oolong teas, solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometrics analysis were conducted in this experiment. Based on variable importance in projection > 1 and aroma character impact > 1, the contents of heptanal (1.60-2.79 µg/L), (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal (34.15-70.68 µg/L), (E)-2-octenal (1.57-2.94 µg/L), indole (48.44-122.21 µg/L), and (E)-nerolidol (32.64-96.63 µg/L) in TGY were higher than in other varieties. With the increase in tea fermentation, the total content of volatile compounds decreased slightly, mainly losing floral compounds. Heavily fermented tea contained a higher content of monoterpenoids, whereas low-fermentation tea contained higher contents of sesquiterpenes and indole, which could well distinguish the degree of TGY fermentation. Besides, the volatiles analysis of different grades of TGY showed that the special-grade tea contained more aroma compounds, mainly alcohols (28%). (E,E)-2,4-Heptadienal, (E)-2-octenal, benzeneacetaldehyde, and (E)-nerolidol were the key volatile compounds to distinguish different grades of TGY. The results obtained in this study could help enrich the theoretical basis of aroma substances in TGY.

8.
Foods ; 11(11)2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681313

RESUMO

Fatty acids (FAs) are important precursors of oolong tea volatile substances, and their famous derivatives have been shown to be the key aroma components. However, the relationship between fatty acids and their derivatives during oolong tea production remains unclear. In this study, fresh Tieguanyin leaves were manufactured into oolong tea and green tea (control), and fatty acids and fatty acid-derived volatiles (FADV) were extracted from processed samples by the sulfuric acid-methanol method and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), respectively. The results showed that unsaturated fatty acids were more abundant than saturated fatty acids in fresh leaves and decreased significantly during tea making. Relative to that in green tea, fatty acids showed larger variations in oolong tea, especially at the green-making stage. Unlike fatty acids, the FADV content first increased and then decreased. During oolong tea manufacture, FADV contents were significantly and negatively correlated with total fatty acids; during the green-making stage, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) content was significantly and negatively correlated with abundant fatty acids except steric acid. Our data suggest that the aroma quality of oolong tea can be improved by manipulating fatty acid transformation.

9.
Foods ; 11(11)2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681317

RESUMO

Soil burial is a survival strategy for grapevines that can safely overwinter in north-western regions of China. A suitable training system was beneficial for soil burial to provide winter protection. Moreover, the training system can also significantly affect fruit quality during the development of grape berries, such as primary and secondary metabolites. In this study, four-year-old Cabernet Gernischt grapevines were used as experimental material and exposed to four training systems, including the Ningxia traditional vertical trunk (control, CK); the gobelet (T1); single guyot (T2); slant trunk with vertical shoot positioning (STVSP) (T3). The results showed that total soluble solid total phenol content was 12.69%, 57% higher under T3 training systems than in the control, and T3 alleviated the canopy density, leading to improving the leaf photosynthetic efficiency gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assay used to detect the aroma compounds. The results indicated that the T3 training system enhanced the accumulation of alcohols, carbonyl compounds, C6/C9 and esters, which account for the largest proportion of volatile compounds, and the qRT-PCR reveals that VvEcar, Vvter, VvCCD1, and VvLis were raised under T3 at the transcriptional level. Moreover, T3 contributes to most free amino acid synthesis. Additionally, the PCA reveals the correlation of free amino acids under four training systems, which reflected the mostly amino acid related to T3, and thus, we could speculate that T3 enhances the overall aroma. These results may lead to new strategies to select a new, short trunk training system to achieve mechanized buried soil, to prevent cold and produce high-quality wine in this area.

10.
Foods ; 11(11)2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681361

RESUMO

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is one of the most popular spices in the world, with its unique odor. Due to its health benefits, ginger is also widely used as a dietary supplement and herbal medicine. In this study, the main flavor components of gingers processed by different drying methods including hot air drying, vacuum drying, sun-drying, and vacuum-freeze drying, were identified on the basis of headspace-gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) and fast gas chromatography electronic-nose (fast GC e-nose) techniques. The results showed that the ginger dried by hot air drying exhibited high contents of volatile compounds and retained the richest odor in comparison with those dried by other methods, which indicated that hot air drying is more suitable for the production of dried ginger. Sensory description by fast GC e-nose exhibited that ginger flavor was mainly concentrated in the spicy, sweet, minty, fruity, and herbaceous odor. The relative content of the zingiberene was significantly higher in the hot air drying sample than those by other methods, suggesting that dried ginger by hot air drying can retain more unique spicy and pungent odorants. Furthermore, the results of chemometrics analyses showed that the main variance components among the samples by different drying methods were α-naginatene, (+)-cyclosativene, and sulcatone in HS-GC-MS analysis, and α-terpinen-7-al, dimethyl sulfide, and citronellal in fast GC e-nose analysis. For comparison of fresh and dried gingers, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, 2,4-decadienal, (E, Z)-, and linalool were considered the main variance components. This study generated a better understanding of the flavor characteristics of gingers by different drying methods and could provide a guide for drying and processing of ginger.

11.
Foods ; 11(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681382

RESUMO

Forty-one apple samples from 7 geographical regions and 3 botanical origins in China were investigated. A total of 29 volatile compounds have been identified by flash GC E-nose. They are 17 esters, 5 alcohols, 3 aldehydes, 1 ketone, and 3 others. A principal component analysis was employed to study the relationship between varieties and volatiles. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA), and decision tree (DT) are used to discriminate apples from 4 geographical regions (34 apple samples) and 3 botanical origins (36 apple samples). The most influential markers identified by PLS-DA are 2-hexadecanone, methyl decanoate, tetradecanal, 1,8-cineole, hexyl 2-butenoate, (Z)-2-octenal, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butyrate, dimethyl trisulfide, methyl formate, ethanol, S(-)2-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl acetate, pentyl acetate, butyl butanoate, butyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. From the present work, SLDA reveals the best discrimination results in geographical regions and botanical origins, which are 88.2% and 88.9%, respectively. Although machine learning DT is attempted to classify apple samples, the results are not satisfactory.

12.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681832

RESUMO

Lipids represent a significant energy source in dogs' diets. Moreover, dogs need some essential fatty acids, such as linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acids, because they are not able to produce them endogenously. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different dietary lipid sources on faecal microbial populations and activities using different evaluations. Hemp seed oil and swine tallow were tested as lipid supplements in a commercial canned diet at a ratio of 3.5% (HL1 and HL2, respectively). These diets were compared with one rich in starch (HS). Twelve dogs were recruited and equally divided into three groups. Faeces samples at 30 days were used as inoculum and incubated with three different substrates (MOS, inulin, and cellulose) using the in vitro gas production technique. The faecal cell numbers of relevant bacteria and secondary metabolites were analysed (in vivo trial). In vitro evaluation showed that the faeces of the group fed the diet with hemp supplementation had better fermentability despite lower gas production. The in vivo faecal bacterial count showed an increase in Lactobacillus spp. In the HL1 group. Moreover, a higher level of acetate was observed in both evaluations (in vitro and in vivo). These results seem to indicate a significant effect of the dietary fatty acid profile on the faecal microbial population.

13.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681855

RESUMO

Here, we established a method to produce dry-aged beef (DAB) by rub inoculation with fungal flora on the prepared DAB surface. Portions of Holstein steers' rumps were prepared by direct rub inoculation of fungal flora or without treatment (conventional DAB) and dry-aged for 26 days in an aging room at 2.9 °C and 90% relative humidity. We compared the fungal covering and meat quality, including fatty acid composition and volatile aromatic compounds, of fungal-inoculated DAB with those of the conventional DAB. The fungal-inoculated DAB was almost entirely covered with white mold, in contrast to the conventional DAB. Moreover, the proportion of oleic acid and the concentration of nine volatile compounds significantly increased in the raw meat of fungal-inoculated DAB compared with those in the conventional DAB (p < 0.05). These results suggested that direct rub inoculation of fungal flora from prepared DAB may accelerate DAB production and efficiently enhance the "melt-in-the-mouth" feeling and flavors of DAB.

14.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684184

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum is a popular ornamental plant with a long history of cultivation. Both the leaf and flowerhead of Chrysanthemum are known to produce diverse secondary metabolites, particularly terpenoids. Here we aimed to determine the relationship between terpene chemistry and the trichome traits in Chrysanthemum. In our examination of three cultivars of C. morifilium and three accessions of C. indicum, all plants contained T-shaped trichomes and biseriate peltate glandular trichomes. The biseriate peltate glandular trichome contained two basal cells, two stalk cells, six secondary cells and a subcuticular space, while the non-glandular T-shaped trichome was only composed of stalk cells and elongated cells. Histochemical staining analysis indicated that the biseriate peltate glandular trichome contained terpenoids and lipid oil droplets but not the T-shaped trichome. Next, experiments were performed to determine the relationship between the accumulation and emission of the volatile terpenoids and the density of trichomes on the leaves and flowerheads in all six Chrysanthemum cultivars\accessions. A significant correlation was identified between the monoterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid content and the density of glandular trichomes on the leaves, with the correlation coefficients being 0.88, 0.86 and 0.90, respectively. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between the volatile terpenoid content and the density of T-shaped trichomes on the leaves. In flowerheads, a significant correlation was identified between the emission rate of terpenoids and the number of glandular trichomes on the disc florets, with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. Interestingly, the correlation between the density of glandular trichomes and concentrations of terpenoids was insignificant. In summary, the relationship between trichomes and terpenoid chemistry in Chrysanthemum is clearly established. Such knowledge may be helpful for breeding aromatic Chrysanthemum cultivars by modulating the trichome trait.

15.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684282

RESUMO

The chemical composition of the liquid and vapor phases of leaf essential oils (EOs) obtained from two species of Gymnosperms (Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Willd. and Larix decidua Mill.) was investigated using the SPME-GC-MS technique. The results highlighted a composition characterized by 51 identified volatile compounds (34 in J. communis and 39 in L. decidua). In both bloils, monoterpenes prevailed over the sesquiterpenes, albeit with qualitative and quantitative differences. Sabinene (37.5% and 34.5%, respectively) represented the two most abundant components in the liquid and vapor phases of J. communis, and α-pinene (51.0% and 63.3%) was the main constituent in L. decidua. The phytotoxic activity of the two EOs was assessed in pre-emergence conditions using three concentrations in contact (2, 5, 10 µL/mL) and non-contact (2, 20, 50 µL) tests against Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Poaceae) and Sinapis alba L. (Brassicaceae). Treatments were effective in a dose-dependent manner by significantly reducing the germination (up to 100% and 45-60%, respectively, with filter paper and soil as a substrate) and the seedling development (1.3 to 8 times) of both target species. Moreover, an exploratory survey on the residual presence of volatile compounds in the soil at the end of the tests was carried out.

16.
Clin Orthop Surg ; 14(2): 310-317, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685978

RESUMO

Background: While low-cost, small-scale, desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are gaining popularity in the education sector, some studies have reported harmful emissions of particles and volatile organic compounds during the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process, posing a potential health risk. Sarcomas are rare tumors, constituting a group of diverse rare malignant tumors. While some genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of sarcomas, most cases are idiopathic and sporadic. Methods: We secured the medical records and statements about work environment from teachers diagnosed with sarcomas after frequent use of 3D printers in high schools, reviewed the cases, and described them in narrative format. Furthermore, popularization of FDM 3D printers, worrisome emissions released during the printing process, and related precautions and countermeasures were discussed through literature review. Results: Exceptionally, the cases of sarcomas, such as Ewing's sarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and well-differentiated liposarcoma, arose in a common specific condition. All the teachers regularly operated 3D printers in poorly ventilated spaces for at least 2 years. They had no past or family history of relevant diseases. Conclusions: We first reported three cases of sarcoma in teachers who used 3D printers in poorly ventilated conditions. Although a relationship between the use of 3D printers and the development of sarcomas has not been determined yet, it is important to come up with measures to protect teachers and students using 3D printers from the potential hazard.


Assuntos
Sarcoma , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(6): 2966-2978, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686766

RESUMO

The hourly concentrations of 102 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Wuhan from June to July in 2019 were obtained using an online monitoring instrument. The ρ(VOCs) varied from 24.9 to 254 µg·m-3, with a mean value of (67.7±32.2) µg·m-3. According to the air quality standard of ozone, the observation period was divided into clean and polluted episodes of O3. The differences in meteorological parameters, VOC concentrations, compositions, sources, and ozone formation potential (OFP) between clean and polluted episodes were analyzed and compared. The average mass concentrations of NOx, CO, and VOCs in polluted periods exceeded those of clean periods by 34.9%, 25.0%, and 27.8%, respectively. The mass concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and oxygenated volatile organic compounds in polluted periods were higher than those in clean periods by 40.7%, 39.5%, 26.9%, and 21.5%, respectively. The average OFP in polluted periods[(102±69.6) µg·m-3] exceeded that of clean periods by 33.5%. The average contribution rates of LPG combustion, industrial sources, vehicle emissions, natural sources, and solvent usage to VOCs were 3.4%, 2.5%, 0.2%, 1.3%, and 1.4% lower than those of the clean periods, respectively, whereas the gasoline evaporation increased by 8.8% in polluted periods. The contributions of vehicle emissions and gasoline evaporation exhibited higher values in the morning and evening, with lower values in the afternoon, which may have been related to peak vehicles emissions. The contribution of LPG combustion peaked along with the cooking time. The concentration weighted trajectory showed that the main sources of VOCs in polluted periods were from local emissions and surrounding regions in the northeastern direction of Wuhan. In polluted periods, gasoline evaporation and LPG combustion should be emphasized for preventing O3 pollution in the summer in Wuhan.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gasolina , Ozônio/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(6): 2979-2986, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686767

RESUMO

Based on the online monitoring data of VOCs, O3, and NO2 in Yuncheng City from June to August 2020, the pollution characteristics of VOCs in Yuncheng City in summer were analyzed. At the same time, the main emission sources were determined using a PMF model, and the chemical reactivity of VOCs was evaluated using the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method and fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC). The results showed that the urban area of Yuncheng was seriously polluted by VOCs and NO2 in the early morning and evening during summer, the peak value of VOCs daily variation occurred at 08:00 and 20:00, respectively, and was mainly affected by the morning and evening peaks in traffic. The ρ(VOCs) from June to August was 50.52 µg·m-3, and the species with the highest proportion were alkanes (39.39%) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, 34.63%). Five VOCs emission sources were determined by the PMF model, of which the largest contribution was from motor vehicle exhaust emission sources (33.10%), followed by industrial emission sources (29.46%), natural gas and coal combustion sources (17.31%), solvent use sources (11.94%), and plant emission sources (8.19%). Controlling motor vehicle exhaust emission sources is the key to alleviate VOCs pollution in summer in Yuncheng City. The average ozone formation potential (OFP) of VOCs was 162.88 µg·m-3, in which OVOCs had the highest contribution rate (45.37%); acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, ethylene, isoprene, and toluene were the key active components; and industrial emission sources were the emission sources with the highest contribution rate. The average value of secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOAp) of VOCs was 0.40 µg·m-3, in which the contribution rate of aromatic hydrocarbons was the highest (88.00%), and the solvent use source was the emission source with the highest contribution rate.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Ozônio/análise , Solventes , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
Sci Total Environ ; : 156631, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691353

RESUMO

The fate of antimony (Sb) in submerged soils and the impact of common agricultural practices (e.g., manuring) on Sb release and volatilization is understudied. We investigated porewater Sb release and volatilization in the field and laboratory for three rice paddy soils. In the field study, the porewater Sb concentration (up to 107.1 µg L-1) was associated with iron (Fe) at two sites, and with pH, Fe, manganese (Mn), and sulfate (SO42-) at one site. The surface water Sb concentrations (up to 495.3 ±â€¯113.7 µg L-1) were up to 99 times higher than the regulatory values indicating a potential risk to aquaculture and rice agriculture. For the first time, volatile Sb was detected in rice paddy fields using a validated quantitative method (18.1 ±â€¯5.2 to 217.9 ±â€¯160.7 mg ha-1 y-1). We also investigated the influence of two common rice agriculture practices (flooding and manuring) on Sb release and volatilization in a 56-day microcosm experiment using the same soils from the field campaign. Flooding induced an immediate, but temporary, Sb release into the porewater that declined with SO42-, indicating that SO42- reduction may reduce porewater Sb concentrations. A secondary Sb release, corresponding to Fe reduction in the porewater, was observed in some of the microcosms. Our results suggest flooding-induced Sb release into rice paddy porewaters is temporary but relevant. Manuring the soils did not impact the porewater Sb concentration but did enhance Sb volatilization. Volatile Sb (159.6 ±â€¯108.4 to 2237.5 ±â€¯679.7 ng kg-1 y-1) was detected in most of the treatments and was correlated with the surface water Sb concentration. Our study indicates that Sb volatilization could be occurring at the soil-water interface or directly in the surface water and highlights that future works should investigate this potentially relevant mechanism.

20.
Food Chem X ; 14: 100357, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693452

RESUMO

This research aimed to analyze variations in chemical properties, microbiological characteristics and generated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile during sourdough fermentation. Sourdoughs were collected from different cities in Turkey at two different times and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the samples were identified with culture-independent and culture-dependent molecular methods. According to culture-dependent methodology, thirteen LAB species were identified. Lactobacillus spp. were identified as the major group according to MiSeq Illumina analysis. Technological potential of commonly isolated LAB species was evaluated. Due to high frequency of isolation, Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strains were better investigated for their technological traits useful in sourdough production. Experimental sourdoughs were produced with mono- and dual-culture of the selected strains and chemical properties and microbiological characteristics, as well as VOCs profile of the sourdoughs, were subjected to multivariate analysis which showed the relevance of added starter, in terms of acidification and VOCs profile.

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