Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.770.362
J Exp Child Psychol ; 237: 105764, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37690347


We report two experiments on children's tendency to enhance their reputations through communicative acts. In the experiments, 4-year-olds (N = 120) had the opportunity to inform a social partner that they had helped him in his absence. In a first experiment, we pitted a prosocial act ("Let's help clean up for Doggie!") against an instrumental act ("Let's move these out of our way"). Children in the prosocial condition were quicker to inform their partner of the act and more likely to protest when another individual was given credit for it. In a second experiment, we replicated the prosocial condition but with a new manipulation: high-cost versus low-cost helping. We manipulated both the language surrounding cost (i.e., "This will be pretty tough to clean up" vs. "It will be really easy to clean this up") and how difficult the task itself was. As predicted, children in the high-cost condition were quicker to inform their partner of the act and more likely to take back credit for it. These results suggest that even 4-year-old children make active attempts to elicit positive reputational judgments for their prosocial acts, with cost as a moderating factor.

Comunicação , Julgamento , Masculino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Idioma
J Exp Child Psychol ; 237: 105772, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37690348


Determining when to ask for help is a critical self-regulated strategy that can benefit children's learning. Despite its importance, we have a limited understanding about the developmental mechanisms that support adaptive help-seeking. In the current preregistered study, predominately White children aged 8 to 13 years (N = 69, ngirls = 37) had the option to seek help during an online science learning task. Results revealed that children's ability to adaptively seek help improved throughout childhood and early adolescence. Critically, developing metacognitive skills contributed to greater help-related memory benefits (compared with conditions where help was not previously available). Overall, these findings highlight the role of metacognition in children's ability to adaptively seek and benefit from help during online science learning.

Educação a Distância , Metacognição , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Aprendizagem
Talanta ; 266(Pt 2): 125025, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37586282


The detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) allows for the determination of pregnancy and is thus crucial during early pregnancy testing. This study introduces a novel liquid crystal (LC) biosensor that employs Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) for signal amplification, thus enabling the detection of the HCG antigen in a micro, efficient, and cost-effective manner. The sensor design capitalizes on the unique properties of LC to facilitate the detection of HCG. In this research, the surface of the base substrate was first modified with material from DMOAP and APTES, and EDC/sulfo-NHS was used to couple AuNPs and ß-hCG to form an AuNP-ß-hCG conjugate that improves the coupling rate. The carboxyl group of the antibody was reacted with the aldehyde group of glutaraldehyde, which helps to fix the ß-hCG antibody to the surface of the substrate. The HCG sample is immobilized on the surface of the substrate via antigen-antibody immunobinding. As signal amplifiers, the AuNPs can have a significant effect on the topology of the interface and the vertical order of the LC molecules, thus reducing the limit of detection. Finally, the limit of detection was calculated using the SPSS system, and the relationship between grey values and concentrations was also obtained. The detection limit for HCG can be as low as 1.916 × 10-3 mIU·mL-1 under ideal conditions. Compared to other detection methods for HCG, this structure provides a detection pathway with excellent sensitivity, low detection limits, and better specificity, thus offering a new idea for HCG or any other target requiring trace detection.

Técnicas Biossensoriais , Cristais Líquidos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Gonadotropina Coriônica , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos
Talanta ; 266(Pt 2): 125027, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37597341


In this work, a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method combined with two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC × GC-MS) was optimized and used to assess the authenticity of pomegranate juice to prevent fraudulent practices. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was used for the extraction of the volatiles. The critical parameters that affect the extraction process, such as the sample volume, and the extraction time were studied. The optimized protocol involved the addition of 15 mL of juice in 50 mL vial and saturation with 30% w/v NaCl.The extraction was carried out within 45 min under 1000 rpm stirring and was applied in the analysis of real juice samples to assess authenticity and detect low levels of pomegranate juice adulteration with grape and apple juice down to 1%. Commercially available pomegranate juice samples were acquired (n1 = 6) and adulterated with 1% of apple juice (n2 = 6), 1% of grape juice (n3 = 6), and a mixture of 1% apple juice and 1% grape juice (n4 = 6). Authentic pomegranate juice samples and adulterated mixtures were analyzed by SPME-GC × GC-MS. The analysis resulted in the identification of 123 volatile compounds that were further processed with chemometric tools. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to visualize the clustering of the samples, and a two-way orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (O2PLS-DA) chemometric model was developed and successfully classified the samples to authentic pomegranate juice or adulterated with an explained total variance of 87.4%. The O2PLS-DA prediction model revealed characteristic volatile markers that could be used to detect pomegranate juice fraud.

Quimiometria , Punica granatum , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Análise por Conglomerados
Talanta ; 266(Pt 2): 125083, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37598443


Metalloporphyrins are often found in nature as coordination recognition sites within biological process, and synthetically offer the potential for use in therapeutic, catalytic and diagnostic applications. While porphyrin containing biological recognition elements have stability limitations, molecularly imprinted polymers bearing these structures offer an alternative with excellent robustness and the ability to work in extreme conditions. In this work, we synthesised a polymerizable porphyrin and metalloporphyrin and have incorporated these as co-monomers within a hydrogel thin-sheet MIP for the specific recognition of bovine haemoglobin (BHb). The hydrogels were evaluated using Scatchard analysis, with Kd values of 10.13 × 10-7, 5.30 × 10-7, and 3.40 × 10-7 M, for the control MIP, porphyrin incorporated MIP and the iron-porphyrin incorporated MIP, respectively. The MIPs also observed good selectivity towards the target protein with 73.8%, 77.4%, and 81.2% rebinding of the BHb target for the control MIP, porphyrin incorporated MIP and the iron-porphyrin incorporated MIP, respectively, compared with the non-imprinted (NIP) counterparts. Specificity was determined against a non-target protein, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). The results indicate that the introduction of the metalloporphyrin as a functional co-monomer is significantly beneficial to the recognition of a MIP, further enhancing MIP capabilities at targeting proteins.

Metaloporfirinas , Porfirinas , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Hidrogéis , Ferro
Talanta ; 266(Pt 2): 125060, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37598445


Pterostilbene is a promising molecule with superior pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic characteristics compared to its structural analogue resveratrol, which could be used to treat ischemic stroke. However, its mechanism is still unclear. The cutting-edge air flow-assisted desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AFADESI-MSI) and spatial metabolomics analysis were applied to investigate the distribution of pterostilbene in ischemic rat brain and the changes of related small molecule metabolic pathways to further explore the potential mechanisms of pterostilbene against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. This research found that pterostilbene could significantly restore cerebral microcirculation blood flow, reduce infarct volume, improve neurological function and ameliorate neuronal damage in ischemic rats. Moreover, pterostilbene was widely and abundantly distributed in ischemic brain tissue, laying a solid foundation for the rescue of ischemic penumbra. Further study revealed that pterostilbene played a therapeutic role in restoring energy supply, rebalancing neurotransmitters, reducing abnormal polyamine accumulation and phospholipid metabolism. These findings offer an opportunity to illustrate novel mechanisms of pterostilbene in the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury resulting from ischemic stroke.

Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Animais , Ratos , Reperfusão , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Encéfalo , Metabolômica , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico
Talanta ; 266(Pt 2): 125093, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37611368


Biorecognition components with high affinity and selectivity are vital in bioassay to diagnose and treat epidemic disease. Herein a phage display strategy of combining single-amplification-panning with non-amplification-panning was developed, by which a phage displaying cyclic heptapeptide ACLDWLFNSC (peptide J4) with good affinity and specificity to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP) was identified. Molecular docking suggests that peptide J4 binds to S2 subunit by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. Then the J4-phage was used as the capture antibody to establish phage-based chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analytical systems. The as-proposed dual-modal immunoassay platform exhibited good sensitivity and reliability in SARS-CoV-2 SP and pseudovirus assay. The limit of detection for SARS-CoV-2 SP by EIS immunoassay is 0.152 pg/mL, which is dramatically lower than that of 42 pg/mL for J4-phage based CLIA. Further, low to 40 transducing units (TU)/mL, 10 TU/mL SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses can be detected by the proposed J4-phage based CLIA and electrochemical immunosensor, respectively. Therefore, the as-developed dual mode immunoassays are potential methods to detect SARS-CoV-2. It is also expected to explore various phages with specific peptides to different targets for bioanalysis.

Bacteriófagos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptídeos
Talanta ; 266(Pt 2): 125054, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37611367


Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic, stable, fluorinated molecules widely used in consumer products. They are non-biodegradable, persistent and bio-accumulating. In 2020 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) lowered the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) for the four PFASs (PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFHxS) and in 2022, the EU issued a Recommendation asking to monitor twenty-one PFASs in food. Since 1st January 2023 limits in food were set. Here we report a sensitive, straightforward and robust procedure enabling the determination of 19 PFAS in food matrices using a liquid chromatography mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). Few are the published methods applicable to the different food matrices and covering the molecules listed in Recommendation 2022/1431, fulfilling the LOQs requested. The method was satisfactory validated (UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025:2018 and Regulation (EU) 2022/1428) and used to investigate hen egg samples, highlighting home-produced eggs as the more critical egg farming process for PFAS accumulation.

Galinhas , Fluorocarbonos , Animais , Feminino , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ovos
Talanta ; 266(Pt 2): 125091, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37625291


We demonstrated temperature-insensitive, label-free detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SSP) by harnessing the complementary refractive index and temperature dependence of multi-mode interference (MMI) created by a no-core fiber (NCF) and phase-matched resonance generated by a long-period fiber grating (LPFG). To combine MMI and grating resonance, primarily sensitive to the surrounding medium refractive index (SMRI) and ambient temperature, respectively, a fiber-optic transducer was fabricated by splicing an NCF segment with an LPFG inscribed on double-clad fiber. The transducer was functionalized with human ACE2 receptors to selectively capture SSP. The functionalized sensor head exhibited high SSP selectivity, with overall average wavelength displacements of ∼253.33 and ∼160.00 pm in PBS and saliva, respectively, for SSP with concentrations ranging from 1 to 104 ng/mL. These spectral shifts are associated with localized SMRI modulations on the sensor surface induced by specific binding between SSP and ACE2. We also examined the cross-reactivity of the sensor head for MERS-CoV spike protein to confirm its SSP specificity. Moreover, we proved the capability of temperature-independent SSP detection and ambient temperature measurement by scrutinizing the temperature effect on the sensor performance. Our functionalized fiber transducer showed great promise as a temperature-insensitive and portable platform for rapid SSP detection.

COVID-19 , Refratometria , Humanos , Temperatura , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249169, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345546


Abstract The American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata) lives in urban, periurban and wild environments and feeds mainly on small rodents, meaning it has great importance in the biological control of pests. The aim of this work was to describe the reproductive, parental and eating habits of a pair of American barn owls naturally living outside a residence in the urban area of the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A wood box was installed on an outside wall of the home, monitored by a video camera. A spreadsheet was created to keep track of the observations recorded. The female laid four eggs, and after an incubation period of 30-32 days all the eggs hatched, but only two chicks survived after cannibalism among the chicks. Initially, the male provided the food to the chicks and the female remained in the nest caring for the brood. After approximately a month, the female also began to leave the nest and return with prey, which was offered to the chicks, with the male also continuing this behavior. The chicks left the nest in September, 2017. The data obtained show the existence of cooperation and division of tasks between male and female owls during the reproductive period.

Resumo A coruja-das-torres americana (Tyto furcata) vive em ambientes urbanos e se alimenta principalmente de pequenos roedores, sendo de grande importância no controle biológico de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os hábitos alimentares, parentais e reprodutivos de um casal de corujas-das-torres americanas, naturalmente vivendo fora de uma residência na zona urbana do município de Campos dos Goytacazes, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma caixa de madeira foi instalada em uma parede externa da casa, monitorada por uma câmera de vídeo. Uma planilha foi criada para manter o controle das observações registradas. A fêmea pôs quatro ovos, e após período de incubação de 30-32 dias todos os ovos eclodiram, mas apenas dois filhotes sobreviveram após o canibalismo entre os filhotes. Inicialmente, o macho fornecia a comida aos filhotes e a fêmea permanecia no ninho cuidando da ninhada. Depois de cerca de um mês, a fêmea também começou a sair do ninho e voltar com a presa, que era oferecida aos filhotes, com o macho também continuando com esse comportamento. Os filhotes deixaram o ninho em setembro de 2017. Os dados obtidos mostram a existência de cooperação e divisão de tarefas entre corujas machos e fêmeas durante o período reprodutivo.

Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Estrigiformes , Reprodução , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250936, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345557


Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.

Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.

Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Glutamina , Ratos Wistar , Dipeptídeos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Aminoácidos
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856


Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.

Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Brasil/epidemiologia , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252575, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355869


Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).

Resumo O aumento da ansiedade e dos sintomas depressivos têm relatado sua associação com doenças de longa duração. Por causa dos efeitos indesejáveis dos novos medicamentos disponíveis, os pacientes que administram medicamentos ansiolíticos geralmente interrompem o tratamento antes de estarem completamente recuperados. Portanto, há uma necessidade séria de desenvolver novos medicamentos ansiolíticos. Foi avaliado o efeito ansiolítico do extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei em modelos animais. Vinte e quatro camundongos machos (gênero Mus musculus) foram incluídos no estudo. Quatro grupos foram preparados, e cada grupo continha seis animais. Os grupos foram controle de veículo, controle positivo (diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p.), bem como dois grupos de tratamento recebendo extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 136,50 mg/kg e 273,0 mg/kg por via oral. O teste de enterrar Marble, o teste de retalhamento Nestlet e o teste de caixa clara e escura são usados ​​para avaliar a atividade ansiolítica. Camundongos foram administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p., enquanto o extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) foi administrado por via oral, que exibiu redução acentuada no número de mármores enterrados em comparação com o grupo de controle de veículo. Camundongos administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p. e a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) exibiu diminuição significativa na trituração de ninhos em comparação ao grupo de controle de veículo. A administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico na dose de 136,5mg/kg e 273mg/kg mostrou elevação no tempo gasto na caixa de luz e foi comparável ao grupo tratado padrão, enquanto o tempo gasto por camundongos após a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 273,0 mg/kg também mostrou elevação e foi mais próximo do grupo tratado padrão (diazepam 1 mg/kg, ip).

Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Agaricus , Comportamento Exploratório , Modelos Animais de Doenças
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886


Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.

Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Reprodução , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Búfalos , Progesterona , Bovinos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Pasteurella multocida
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246463, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355899


Abstract Quilombola communities are present in many Brazilian states living in precarious health conditions. This is due to geographic isolation, limitations to the access of the area in which they live in, and the lack of quality in the service when it is needed to be provided. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the quality of life of women from a quilombola community in northeastern Brazil. It is an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. 160 adult women were first interviewed through a form to collect a profile and then it was applied the WHOQOL Quality of Life questionnaire - bref. It was observed that the women were on average 40.7 years old (±17.25), married, self-declared black, who did not finish elementary school, housewife, had no income, with their own masonry house, with up to 6 rooms, supplied by a box of community treated water. Quality of Life had median scores in the domains: physical (3.18), psychological (3.4), social relationships (3.45) and environment (2.59). With this research, it was possible to characterize the quilombola community of Santa Luzia do Norte-AL regarding the difficulties of access to health and income generation, issues that affect their health condition. The problems described in this study can contribute to health actions being planned and carried out in order to improve socioeconomic and health conditions in this community, considering the social, political and environmental context, valuing their traditional knowledge and practices.

Resumo As comunidades quilombolas, estão presentes em diversos estados brasileiros, vivendo em condições de saúde mais precárias. Isto ocorre por conta do isolamento geográfico, das limitações de acesso e da falta de qualidade no serviço quando este é prestado. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar a qualidade de vida de mulheres de uma comunidade quilombola do nordeste brasileiro. Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo. Foram entrevistadas 160 mulheres adultas, através de um formulário para a coleta de perfil e do questionário de Qualidade de Vida WHOQOL - bref. Foi observado que as mulheres tinham em média 40,7 anos (±17,25), casadas, autodeclaradas negras, com fundamental incompleto, do lar, sem renda, com moradia de alvenaria, própria, com até 6 cômodos, abastecidas por caixa de água comunitária, tratada. A Qualidade de Vida, apresentou escores medianos nos domínios: físico (3,18), psicológico (3,4), relações sociais (3,45) e meio ambiente (2,59). Com a realização desta pesquisa foi possível caracterizar a comunidade quilombola de Santa Luzia do Norte-AL quanto as dificuldades de acesso a saúde e geração de renda, fatos que repercutem na sua condição de saúde. Os problemas descritos neste estudo podem contribuir para que ações de saúde sejam planejadas e efetivadas com o intuito de melhorar as condições socioeconômicas e de saúde nessa comunidade, considerando-se o contexto social, político e ambiental, valorizando seus saberes e práticas tradicionais.

Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255916, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364509


This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World's largest artificial planted forest "Changa Manga", Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds.

Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica L. e A. indica A. Juss. O maior número de espécies foi usado para curar distúrbios gastrointestinais. O maior nível de fidelidade (68,18%) foi de E. helioscopia para cura de distúrbios gastrointestinais. Os usos máximos em fresco (17) foram relatados por C. dactylon (L.) Pars. enquanto o maior número de espécies relatando usos frescos em número semelhante foi de 13. Neste estudo, cinco novas plantas estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez no Paquistão por seu valor etnomedicinal. Nossos dados refletem o uso exclusivo das plantas medicinais na área de estudo. As ferramentas estatísticas utilizadas no estudo mostraram-se úteis para apontar as plantas mais importantes e específicas da categoria de doença. Plantas de alto valor de uso e as novas plantas medicinais relatadas podem ser uma importante fonte de isolamento de compostos farmacologicamente ativos.

Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Florestas , Gastroenteropatias , Povos Indígenas , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256817, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364511


The basic aim of this study was aimed to determine the ichthyofaunal diversity of River Panjkora in both upper and lower Dir districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.Fish samples were collected by using fishnets from March to September 2020. A total of 724 specimens were collected and classified into 5 families, 14 genera, and 18 species. The overall results revealed that most fish fauna of river Panjkora contains 8 species of family Cyprinidae (56.49%) followed by 4 species of Nemacheilidae (24.44%), 2 species of Channidae (10.63%), and Sisoridae (7.04%), and 1 species of Mastacembelidae (1.38%), respectively. Among all kinds of fish species, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16.57%) was highly dominated and followed by Carassius auratus (11.87%) and Racoma labiata (9.66%) and were reported as highly abundant, especially during April, May, and June. The least abundant species were Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii, and Mastacembelus armatus, that constituting 2.48%, 2.20%, and 1.38% of the total fish samples. The Overall Simpson's diversity (1-D= 0.919) and Simpson's Reciprocal index values (1/D= 12.3876), and Shannon's index (H= 2.68) were indicating that river Panjkora contains a quite rich and diverse group of fish species. The highest microplastics observed in site 7 compared to other study area. Conservation steps should be taken as a top priority to protect and conserve the marine environment and natural heritage from further loss, extinction and stop or minimize losses incurred through irresponsible fishery practices

O objetivo básico deste estudo foi determinar a diversidade ictiofaunística do rio Panjkora nos distritos de Lower e Upper de Dir, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Amostras de peixes foram coletadas com redes de arrasto de março a setembro de 2020. Foram coletados 724 espécimes, classificados em 5 famílias, 14 gêneros e 18 espécies. Os resultados gerais revelaram que a maioria da ictiofauna do rio Panjkora contém 8 espécies da família Cyprinidae (56,49%), seguidas por 4 espécies de Nemacheilidae (24,44%), 2 espécies de Channidae (10,63%) e Sisoridae (7,04%) e 1 espécie de Mastacembelidae (1,38%). Entre todas as espécies de peixes, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16,57%) foi altamente predominante, seguida por Carassius auratus (11,87%) e Racoma labiata (9,66%), e elas foram relatadas como altamente abundantes, especialmente nos meses de abril, maio e junho. As espécies menos abundantes foram Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii e Mastacembelus armatus, que constituíram 2,48%, 2,20% e 1,38%, respectivamente, do total de peixes amostrados. O índice de diversidade de Simpson (1-D = 0,919), o índice recíproco de Simpson (1/D = 12,3876) e o índice de Shannon (H = 2,68) indicaram que o rio Panjkora contém um grupo bastante rico e diversificado de espécies de peixes. Os microplásticos mais altos foram observados no local 7 em comparação com outra área de estudo. Medidas de conservação devem ser tomadas como prioridade máxima para proteger e conservar o ambiente marinho e o patrimônio natural de novas perdas e extinção e para parar ou minimizar as perdas ocorridas por práticas de pesca irresponsáveis.

Animais , Biodiversidade , Rios , Poluição Ambiental , Peixes , Microplásticos , Paquistão
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249472, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364512


Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most common rust disease of wheat. The fungus is an obligate parasite capable of producing infectious urediniospores. To study the genetic structure of the leaf rust population 20 RAPD primers were evaluated on 15 isolates samples collected in Pakistan. A total of 105 RAPD fragments were amplified with an average of 7 fragments per primer. The number of amplified fragments varied from 1 to 12. GL Decamer L-07 and GL Decamer L-01 amplified the highest number of bands (twelve) and primer GL Decamer A-03 amplified the lowest number of bands i.e one. Results showed that almost all investigated isolates were genetically different that confirms high genetic diversity within the leaf rust population. Rust spores can follow the migration pattern in short and long distances to neighbor areas. Results indicated that the greatest variability was revealed by 74.9% of genetic differentiation within leaf rust populations. These results suggested that each population was not completely identical and high gene flow has occurred among the leaf rust population of different areas. The highest differentiation and genetic distance among the Pakistani leaf rust populations were detected between the leaf rust population in NARC isolate (NARC-4) and AARI-11and the highest similarity was observed between NARC isolates (NARC-4) and (NARC-5). The present study showed the leaf rust population in Pakistan is highly dynamic and variable.

A ferrugem da folha, causada por Puccinia triticina, é a ferrugem mais comum do trigo. O fungo é um parasita obrigatório, capaz de produzir urediniósporos infecciosos. Para estudar a estrutura genética da população de ferrugem da folha, 20 primers RAPD foram avaliados em 15 amostras de isolados coletadas no Paquistão. Um total de 105 fragmentos RAPD foram amplificados com uma média de 7 fragmentos por primer. O número de fragmentos amplificados variou de 1 a 12. GL Decamer L-07 e GL Decamer L-01 amplificaram o maior número de bandas (doze), e o primer GL Decamer A-03 amplificou o menor número de bandas, ou seja, um. Os resultados mostraram que quase todos os isolados investigados eram geneticamente diferentes, o que confirma a alta diversidade genética na população de ferrugem da folha. Os esporos de ferrugem podem seguir o padrão de migração em distâncias curtas e longas para áreas vizinhas. Os resultados indicaram que a maior variabilidade foi revelada por 74,9% da diferenciação genética nas populações de ferrugem. Esses resultados sugeriram que cada população não era completamente idêntica e um alto fluxo gênico ocorreu entre a população de ferrugem da folha de diferentes áreas. A maior diferenciação e distância genética entre as populações de ferrugem da folha do Paquistão foram detectadas entre a população de ferrugem da folha no isolado NARC (NARC-4) e AARI-11 e a maior similaridade foi observada entre os isolados NARC (NARC-4) e (NARC-5). O presente estudo mostrou que a população de ferrugem da folha no Paquistão é altamente dinâmica e variável.

Triticum/parasitologia , Biomarcadores , Pragas da Agricultura , Fungos/genética , Puccinia/genética
Ann Lab Med ; 44(1): 64-73, 2024 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37665287


Background: Whether anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody levels post-third coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination correlate with worse outcomes due to breakthrough infection is unclear. We evaluated the association between anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels and symptomatic breakthrough infection or hospitalization during the Omicron surge in kidney transplant recipients. Methods: In total, 287 kidney transplant recipients expected to receive a third vaccination were enrolled between November 2021 and February 2022. The Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant test (Abbott, Chicago, IL, USA) was performed within three weeks before and four weeks after the third vaccination. The incidence of symptomatic breakthrough infection and hospitalization from two weeks to four months post-third vaccination was recorded. Results: After the third vaccination, the seropositive rate and median antibody titer of the 287 patients increased from 57.1% to 82.2% and from 71.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 7.2-402.8) to 1,612.1 (IQR 153.9-5,489.1) AU/mL, respectively. Sixty-four (22.3%) patients had symptomatic breakthrough infections, of whom 12 required hospitalization. Lower anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG levels (<400 AU/mL) post-third vaccination were a risk factor for symptomatic breakthrough infection (hazard ratio [HR]=3.46, P<0.001). Anti-RBD IgG levels <200 AU/mL were a critical risk factor for hospitalization (HR=36.4, P=0.007). Conclusions: Low anti-spike IgG levels after third vaccination in kidney transplant recipients were associated with symptomatic breakthrough infection and, particularly, with hospitalization during the Omicron surge. These data can be used to identify patients requiring additional protective measures, such as passive immunization using monoclonal antibodies.

COVID-19 , Transplante de Rim , Humanos , Infecções Irruptivas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalização , Vacinação , Anticorpos Antivirais , Imunoglobulina G