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1.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0138820, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26436422

RESUMO

Amblyseius orientalis (Ehara) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a native predatory mite species in China. It used to be considered as a specialist predator of spider mites. However, recent studies show it also preys on other small arthropod pests, such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Experiments were conducted to investigate (1) prey preference of A. orientalis between Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and B. tabaci, and (2) development, consumption and life table parameters of A. orientalis when reared on T. cinnabarinus, B. tabaci or a mix of both prey species. When preying on different stages of T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis preferred protonymphs, whereas when preying on different stages of B. tabaci, A. orientalis preferred eggs. When these two most preferred stages were provided together (T. cinnabarinus protonymphs and B. tabaci eggs), A. orientalis randomly selected its prey. Amblyseius orientalis was able to complete its life cycle on B. tabaci eggs, T. cinnabarinus protonymphs, or a mix of both prey. However, its developmental duration was 53.9% and 30.0% longer when reared on B. tabaci eggs than on T. cinnabarinus and a mix of both prey, respectively. In addition, it produced only a few eggs and its intrinsic rate of increase was negative when reared on B. tabaci eggs, which indicates that B. tabaci is not sufficient to maintain A. orientalis population. The intrinsic rates of increase were 0.16 and 0.23 when A. orientalis was fed on the prey mix and T. cinnabarinus, respectively. These results suggest that although B. tabaci is a poor food resource for A. orientalis in comparison to T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis is able to sustain its population on a mix of both prey. This predatory mite may thus be a potential biological control agent of B. tabaci when this pest co-occurs with the alternative minor pest T. cinnabarinus.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/fisiologia , Hemípteros , Comportamento Predatório , Ácaros e Carrapatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Preferências Alimentares , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hemípteros/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Longevidade , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Óvulo/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Syst Parasitol ; 91(2): 167-73, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25962464

RESUMO

A new species Demodex conicus n. sp. is described based on adult and juvenile stages from the ear canals of the house mouse Mus musculus L. in Poland. The new species is most similar to D. auricularis Izdebska, Rolbiecki & Fryderyk, 2014 from the ear canals of the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus (L.), but differs in the following features: the gnathosoma is triangular, the supracoxal spines (setae elc.p) are conical, the spines on the terminal segment of palp are four, the striation on opisthosoma is fine but dense, the vulva is located at a distance of c.17 µm from posterior level of legs IV, and the male genital opening is located at the level of legs I. The differences also relate to body size and proportions, female D. conicus n. sp. being, on average slightly larger, and male significantly larger than D. auricularis. Males of the new species also have longer and more massive opisthosoma than males of D. auricularis. Demodex conicus n. sp. was found in 17.5% of the mice studied from different locations in Poland.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/anatomia & histologia , Ácaros e Carrapatos/classificação , Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Animais , Meato Acústico Externo/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 56(4): 319-25, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22327463

RESUMO

Densities of coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) and its predatory mite, Neoseiulus baraki Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were monitored on coconut fruits in two coconut mite infested areas, Kalpitiya and Madurankuliya, in Sri Lanka, over a period of 3 years and were compared with local rainfall records. Significant differences in A. guerreronis densities were observed among years and months of the year. Rainfall (amount and frequency, i.e. the total number of days with rainfall of >5 mm) was not significantly correlated with the variation of A. guerreronis densities. But the drought length (i.e. the number of days without rainfall of >5 mm) significantly influenced A. guerreronis densities. Generally, peak densities of A. guerreronis were observed during February-March and June-September in both areas. The differences in the N. baraki densities were significantly different between the two areas and among the 3 years but not among months of the year. Although the amount of rainfall was not significantly correlated with the population densities of N. baraki, frequency of rainfall showed a negative significant correlation and drought length showed a positive significant correlation with the population densities. The results of this experiment indicated that the application of control methods for A. guerreronis may be more advantageous if they are carried out at the onset and during the dry seasons.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cocos/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Animais , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Chuva , Análise de Regressão , Estações do Ano , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
5.
Mol Ecol ; 21(3): 633-46, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21883583

RESUMO

Understanding the ecological, behavioural and genetic factors influencing animal social systems is crucial to investigating the evolution of sociality. Despite the recent advances in population genetic methods and the analysis of social interactions, long-term studies exploring the causes and consequences of social systems in wild mammals are rare. Here, we provide a synthesis of 15 years of data on the Bechstein's bat (Myotis bechsteinii), a species that raises its young in closed societies of 10-45 females living together for their entire lives and where immigration is virtually absent. We discuss the potential causes and consequences of living in closed societies, based on the available data on Bechstein's bat and other species with similar social systems. Using a combination of observational and genetic data on the bats together with genetic data on an ecto-parasite, we suggest that closed societies in Bechstein's bats are likely caused by a combination of benefits from cooperation with familiar colony members and parasite pressure. Consequences of this peculiar social system include increased sensitivity to demographic fluctuations and limits to dispersal during colony foundation, which have broad implications for conservation. We also hope to illustrate by synthesizing the results of this long-term study the diversity of tools that can be applied to hypothesize about the factors influencing a species' social system. We are convinced that with the expansion of the number of social mammals for which comparably detailed socio-genetic long-term data are available, future comparative studies will provide deeper insights into the evolution of closed societies.


Assuntos
Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , População/genética , Comportamento Social , Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Migração Animal , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Quirópteros/genética , Quirópteros/parasitologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Comportamento Sexual Animal
6.
Eur J Protistol ; 46(3): 196-203, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20226640

RESUMO

Copidognathus nautilei Bartsch, 1997, from a hydrothermal vent field of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at about 13 degrees N, 45 degrees W and 4090 m depth, was infested with the suctorian Corynophrya abyssalis n. sp., with up to 58 epizoans per mite. The new suctorian has a sacciform body with seven longitudinal ribs, a compact macronucleus and up to 40 non-retractile tentacles. The budding is exogenous. The systematic position of the new species and the genus Corynophrya is discussed, as well as infestation rates and sites of suctorians on their halacarid hosts.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Fontes Termais/parasitologia , Cinetofragminóforos/classificação , Cinetofragminóforos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Feminino , Cinetofragminóforos/citologia , Masculino , Microscopia
7.
Neotrop. entomol ; 36(4): 565-576, July-Aug. 2007. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-464620

RESUMO

Acaricidas inibidores da respiração celular são importantes para o controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) na cultura dos citros no Brasil. Foram conduzidos estudos para avaliar: (a) a variabilidade na suscetibilidade de populações de B. phoenicis coletadas em pomares de citros para cihexatim, azociclotim, propargite e enxofre; (b) relações de resistência cruzada entre propargite e os acaricidas azociclotim, cihexatim, dinocape, piridabem e enxofre; e (c) o custo adaptativo associado à resistência de B. phoenicis a propargite em condições de laboratório. O método de bioensaio adotado foi o contato residual. A suscetibilidade foi estimada com concentrações diagnósticas baseadas na CL95 de cada acaricida. A resistência cruzada foi avaliada pela caracterização da curva de concentração-mortalidade das linhagens suscetível (S) e resistente a propargite (Propargite-R). O custo adaptativo foi avaliado mediante comparação de parâmetros biológicos das linhagens S e Propargite-R em frutos de laranja a 25 ± 1°C e fotofase de 14h. Diferenças significativas na sobrevivência de B. phoenicis foram verificadas aos acaricidas cihexatim (de 16,3 por cento a 80,5 por cento), azociclotim (de 3,0 por cento a 15,0 por cento), propargite (de 1,0 por cento a 71,6 por cento) e enxofre (de 9,0 por cento a 82,6 por cento). Baixa intensidade de resistência cruzada foi verificada entre propargite e os acaricidas azociclotim (1,8 vezes), cihexatim (4,6 vezes), dinocape (3,5 vezes) e piridabem (3,5 vezes). Por outro lado, a intensidade de resistência cruzada a enxofre (> 111 vezes) foi bastante alta. Não foi verificada presença de custo adaptativo associado à resistência de B. phoenicis a propargite. Portanto, o uso desses acaricidas também deve ser feito de maneira criteriosa no manejo da resistência de B. phoenicis a acaricidas.


Acaricides that inhibit cellular respiration play an important role in the control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) in citrus groves in Brazil. Studies were conducted to evaluate: (a) the variability in the susceptibility among B. phoenicis populations collected from citrus groves to cyhexatin, azocyclotin, propargite and sulphur; (b) cross-resistance relationships between propargite and azocyclotin, cyhexatin, dinocap, pyridaben and sulphur; and (c) the fitness cost associated with propargite resistance in B. phoenicis under laboratory conditions. A residual-type contact bioassay was used to characterize the susceptibility. The susceptibility was estimated with diagnostic concentrations based LC95 of each acaricide. The cross-resistance was evaluated by characterizing the concentration-mortality responses of susceptible (S) and propargite-resistant (Propargite-R) strains. The fitness cost was evaluated by measuring the biological parameters of S and Propargite-R strains on citrus fruits at 25 ± 1°C and fotophase of 14h. Significant differences in the susceptibility of B. phoenicis were detected at diagnostic concentration of cyhexatin (survivorship from 16.3 percent to 80.5 percent), azocyclotin (from 3.0 percent to 15.0 percent), propargite (from 1.0 percent a 71.6 percent) and sulphur (from 9.0 percent to 82.6 percent). A low intensity of cross-resistance was detected between propargite and the acaricides azocyclotin (1.8-fold), cyhexatin (4.6-fold), dinocap (3.5-fold) and pyridaben (3.5-fold). On the other hand, the intensity of cross-resistance to sulphur (> 111-fold) was very high. There was no fitness cost associated with B. phoenicis resistance to propargite, based on biological parameters evaluated. Therefore, the use of these acaricides should also be done very carefully in resistance management of B. phoenicis to acaricides.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/envenenamento , Inseticidas/toxicidade
8.
Neotrop. entomol ; 36(4): 577-582, July-Aug. 2007. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-464621

RESUMO

O presente trabalho objetivou estudar a biologia de Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira nas temperaturas de 15; 20; 25; 30 e 35°C, alimentada com Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) e pólen de Thypha sp. em condições de laboratório. Tabelas de vida de fertilidade foram calculadas para determinar os parâmetros biológicos. A temperatura ideal para o desenvolvimento de A. brasiliensis foi 29°C. Os valores de T (ciclo de vida - dias), R0 e r m, na temperatura de 30°C, foram de 13,95; 16,25 e 0,20, respectivamente. A potencialidade de predação de A. brasiliensis foi estudada para as densidades populacionais de 5; 10; 20; 40 e 60 adultos de B. phoenicis a 29°C, em arenas de 3 cm de diâmetro, sobre frutos de laranja-pêra. A densidade de 20 ácaros foi suficiente para que o predador consumisse seu número máximo de presas (7,6 ácaros por dia). Densidades acima de 40 ácaros da leprose proporcionaram 4,7 ovos por dia, em comparação aos 2,5 ovos por dia obtidos na densidade de 20 ácaros da leprose.


The present work aimed to study the biology of Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira at the following temperatures, namely 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C, fed with Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) and Typha pollen, in laboratory conditions. Life tables were calculated to evaluate the biological parameters. The optimal development of A. brasiliensis took place at 29°C. The values of T (time of generation - days), R0 and r m at 30°C were, 13.95, 16.25 and 0.20, respectively. The prey consumption of A. brasiliensis was studied at the densities of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 leprosis mite females per cage (3 cm in diameter) on citrus fruits at 29°C. The maximum prey, namely 7.6 B. phoenicis females per day, were consumed at a density of 20 leprosis mites. At densities of above 40 leprosis mites per cage, A. brasiliensis oviposits 4.7 eggs per day, in comparison to 2.5 eggs per day at 20 mites per cage.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Ácaros e Carrapatos/patogenicidade
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 58(5): 959-960, out. 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-441551

RESUMO

A ocorrência de Struthiopterolichus bicaudatus é assinalada em uma criação de avestruz no estado de Minas Gerais. Os principais sinais associados com a presença dos ácaros foram penas quebradas com a falta de barbas no vexilo, principalmente nas penas das asas, e prurido. Esses sinais foram observados em todas as aves do plantel (285 animais) com idade acima de 13 meses. As aves com idade abaixo de 13 meses (60 animais) não apresentaram qualquer sinal, tampouco ácaros.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Epidemiologia , Struthioniformes/anatomia & histologia , Struthioniformes/parasitologia
10.
Neotrop. entomol ; 34(3): 517-519, May-June 2005. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-421430

RESUMO

Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon es un ácaro tarsonémido conocido como fitófago del coco. Hasta la fecha se conoce poco sobre su rango de hospedantes. Se presenta una lista de plantas que albergan este ácaro en Cuba. Se señalan a Brachiaria plantaginea (L.) Hitch, Digitaria decumbens Stewt., Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop, Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link., Echinochloa crusgalli (L.), Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Panicum fasciculatum SW., Panicum maximun Jacq., Panicum reptans L., Paspalum lividum Trin., Paspalum paniculatun L., Rottboelia cochinchinensis (L.) y Sorghum halepense (L.) como nuevos hospedantes de Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon en Cuba.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia
11.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 41(4): 240-246, jul.-ago. 2004. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-404986

RESUMO

Neste trabalho foram estudadas as cargas parasitárias de Acari e Phthiraptera em 28 cobaios provenientes de dois municípios do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os cobaios foram contidos mecanicamente para remoção dos ectoparasitos, pelo ato de pentear a pelagem com pente fino. Os espécimes de parasitas encontrados foram contados com auxílio de estereomicroscópio e identificados com ajuda de microscopia de luz. Dos sete cobaias de vida rural foram removidos 3134 ácaros, e dos 21 cobaios de vida urbana, foram recolhidos 1472 ácaros, todos da espécie Chirodiscoides caviae. Também foram encontrados 263 malófagos nos animais de ambiente urbano e 567 malófagos nos de ambiente rural, sendo estes de três espécies distintas: Gliricola porcelli, Gyropus ovalis e Trimenopon hispidum. Os valores de Abundância Parasitária e Intensidade Média de Parasitismo dos dois grupos foram muito próximos e a prevalência de ambos muito alta. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o habitat dos cobaios influencia a carga parasitária de todas as espécies de ectoparasitos encontrados.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Cobaias , Ftirápteros/parasitologia
12.
Parasitol Int ; 52(4): 403-8, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14665399

RESUMO

Cercariometry provided information on diurnal fluctuation, seasonal and spatial distribution of cercariae in the suitable natural water bodies. There was an apparent mismatch between the results of cercariometry and snail sampling. Water, which cercariometry showed to contain cercariae was potentially infective, although the resultant worm load of sentinel rodents may not bear a linear relationship with cercarial density. Cercariometry has some weakness in practices and analysis of data, however, it provides the valuable information on the active transmission sites of schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Água/parasitologia
13.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 83(3): 223-9, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12877829

RESUMO

A new entomopathogenic fungus, described here as Neozygites abacaridis n. sp. (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales), has been found on the mites Abacarus hystrix, Aculodes dubius, and A. mckenziei (Acari: Eriophyidae). It differs from other Neozygites species affecting mites by its small, globose primary conidia, short-ovoid, smoky coloured capilliconidia, and very short capillary conidiophores-which are usually not longer than the spore length. This pathogen infected mite individuals in autumn (from mid-August until mid-November) on Lolium perenne, Agrostis stolonifera, and Festuca rubra. It caused 0.5-1% host's mortality in the vicinity of Siedlce (Eastern Poland) and up to 2-8%, on an average in Puszczykowo (Wielkopolski National Park near Poznan), where its prevalence on some plants reached 13%.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Entomophthorales/ultraestrutura , Animais , Entomophthorales/classificação , Entomophthorales/patogenicidade , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/ultraestrutura , Zigomicose/mortalidade
14.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 31(1-2): 15-26, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14756397

RESUMO

Two phytoseiid species, Euseius scutalis (Athias-Henriot) and Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias-Henriot), are able to suppress whitefly populations on single plants and are candidate biological control agents for whiteflies such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). These species can feed on pollen and insect-produced honeydew and these food sources are likely to be available in crops. If the utilization of these food types results in increased reproduction or survival, populations of predators can persist when whitefly prey is scarce or absent. We studied the impact of pollen and whitefly-produced honeydew on the life history of the two phytoseiids. Cattail pollen allowed for survival, development and reproduction of both predators. Whitefly-produced honeydew greatly increased survival of E. scutalis, allowed for development into adulthood and for a sustained low rate of oviposition. The survival of adult T. swirskii was high on cucumber leaf tissue, either with or without pollen or honeydew. Oviposition by adults and juvenile survival of T. swirskii was very low in presence of honeydew. Biological control of whiteflies may benefit from both pollen and honeydew because these non-prey food sources have a positive effect on the life history of the two predator species, especially E. scutalis.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/fisiologia , Cucumis sativus/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Hemípteros/patogenicidade , Phaseolus/parasitologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Ácaros e Carrapatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Oviposição , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Pólen/parasitologia , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Ann Parasitol Hum Comp ; 64(6): 478-88, 1989.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2624377

RESUMO

L. galizai develops in the gamasid B. bacoti in 11 days at 28 degrees C. Molts I and II take place respectively 5 and 7 days after feeding. The development is studied in the adult female mites; as for the laboratory filaria L. sigmodontis, the interstitial tissue is the main parasitized organ; microfilariae penetrate in the two cell types which constitute it: adipose cells and secretory cells (these secretory cells are described here for the first time). The filariae develop also in the salivary glands, the digestive wall, the genital envelopes and exceptionally in the coxal and vaginal glands. The filariae produce the formation of syncytia. Larvae which stay in the haemocele do not develop.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Onchocerca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácaros e Carrapatos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Onchocerca/anatomia & histologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Ann Parasitol Hum Comp ; 62(2): 107-16, 1987.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3592490

RESUMO

Haemogamasinae/Laelapidae mites (Haemogamasus hirsutus, H. nidi and Eulaelaps stabularis) collected from nests of the mole (Talpa europaea) contained developmental stages (isosporan-type oocysts and independently developing macro-and microgametocytes) of a coccidian. These stages were observed in the haemocoele of living infected mites, in wet preparations of crushed mites, and in histological sections of paraffin wax embedded mites. They included both unsporulated and sporulated oocysts; sporulation of the oocysts occurred within the mite. Descriptions of the sporogonic and gametogonic stages of this coccidian are given and compared with the suborders Adeleina and Eimeriina which either have developmental stages in invertebrates, isosporan-type oocysts or have been reported to be mechanically (passively) transmitted by mites. The possibility of the haemogamasid mites being the vector of Elleipsisoma thomsoni or other coccidian parasites is also discussed.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Vetores Aracnídeos , Coccídios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetívoros/parasitologia , Toupeiras/parasitologia , Animais
19.
Rev Cubana Med Trop ; 30(3): 189-95, 1978.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-368924

RESUMO

The determination of an oribatid belonging to the Scheloribates genus as an intermediary host of the Moniezia sp. helminth is reported for the first time in Cuba. Photographs and measurements taken during the infecting larval state of Moniezia (cisticercoid) found are included, such as it is observed because of transparency in the interior of acarus and drew out from the Latter for its better identification.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos/parasitologia , Cysticercus/isolamento & purificação , Vetores de Doenças/parasitologia , Moniezíase/parasitologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Cysticercus/ultraestrutura , Métodos
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