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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2047-2057, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382991

RESUMO

Bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia are known as causative agents of vector-borne zoonotic diseases, such as spotted fevers, epidemic typhus and endemic typhus. Different species of ticks, mites and fleas could act as reservoirs and arthropod vectors of different pathogenic Rickettsia species. The aim of this work was to establish active surveillance of Rickettsia spp. in mites, ticks and fleas collected from small mammals (rodents and shrews) in Eastern Slovakia. A total of 964 animal ear biopsies, 871 mites, 667 ticks and 743 fleas were collected from small mammals in the Kosice region, Eastern Slovakia. All specimens were identified using specialized taxonomic keys, and were conserved in ethanol until DNA extraction was performed. After DNA extraction, identification of Rickettsia species was performed by PCR-based methods. The total prevalence of rickettsiae from ear biopsies was 4.6% (95% CI, 3.2-5.9), in tested mites 9.3% (95% CI, 7.4-11.2), 17.2% (95% CI, 14.3-20.1) in I. ricinus ticks and 3.5% (95% CI, 2.2-4.8) in fleas. Sequence analysis of the partial gltA gene and Rickettsia helvetica-, Rickettsia slovaca-, Rickettsia raoultii- species specific real-time PCR tests revealed the presence of R. helvetica, R. slovaca, unidentified Rickettsia and rickettsial endosymbionts. These pathogenic and symbiotic species were confirmed in the following ectoparasite species-Laelaps jettmari, Haemogamasus nidi, Laelaps agilis and Eulaelaps stabularis mites, Ixodes ricinus ticks, Ctenophthalmus solutus, C. assimilis and Megabothris turbidus fleas infesting host-Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus small mammals. These results confirm the circulation of R. helvetica, R. slovaca, unidentified Rickettsia and rickettsial endosymbionts in mites, ticks and fleas collected on small mammals in the Kosice region, Eastern Slovakia.


Assuntos
Ácaros/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/transmissão , Roedores/parasitologia , Musaranhos/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ectoparasitoses/microbiologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 13, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonella is a genus of Gram-negative facultative intracellular Alphaproteobacteria of public health importance. Although they are known to mainly infect mammalian hosts with some blood-feeding arthropods having been confirmed as vectors, there is some evidence of Bartonella association with non-mammalian hosts including birds. METHODS: Here we used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and Sanger sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) genes to test for the presence of Bartonellaceae in the blood of three migratory cavity nesting bird species, purple martins (Progne subis), tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) and their most prevalent and abundant nest ectoparasites, Dermanyssus prognephilus (mite), Ceratophyllus idius (flea) and Protocalliphora sialia (bird blow fly larva). We constructed maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees to verify the placement of the resulting sequences in the Bartonellaceae. RESULTS: We found evidence of Bartonella in all three bird species and all three arthropod species tested. We report multiple instances of identical Bartonella sequences in both birds and parasites, leading to the likely hypothesis that these ectoparasites are potential vectors of Bartonella. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that 'avian Bartonella' may form its own sub-clade within the genus Bartonella. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, we provide the first confirmation of overlapping Bartonella strains among bird hosts and various species of nest-associated ectoparasites from the same system, suggesting a possible Bartonella host-vector relationship between these arthropods and a non-mammalian host. Our study adds to the growing appreciation of the Bartonellaceae as a phylogenetically diverse group with a wide range of hosts.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Bartonella/genética , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Animais , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/sangue , Citrato (si)-Sintase/genética , Dípteros/microbiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Genes Bacterianos , Metagenômica/métodos , Ácaros/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sifonápteros/microbiologia
3.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 80(2): 151-165, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950300

RESUMO

The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite in hens and has been considered an important threat to the egg production industry. This study evaluated an alternative to manage poultry red mite populations as a complement to conventional chemical treatments and other control strategies in poultry houses. A simple autoinoculation device prepared with corrugated cardboard (CB) or loofah sponge (LS) as inert supports to anchor Beauveria bassiana conidia was used to aggregate and infect mites from infested poultry houses. In the laboratory, mites gathered inside the traps and the average mortalities by the fungus were higher than 70% in CB and LS traps after 5 and 4 days of exposure, respectively. Conidial viability was around 80% in CB and LS traps after 14 and 60 days under unrefrigerated conditions (26 °C), respectively. Both trap types tied to hen cages efficiently captured fed mites after blood meal, and fungal infection was observed in 65-90% of the mites in field tests. Between 5 and 25% of the mites recaptured in monitoring cardboard traps installed immediately after CB and LS removal were infected by B. bassiana. According to our results, the use of B. bassiana in an autoinoculation strategy is a potential alternative method for D. gallinae control.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Infestações por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Ácaros/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Feminino , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
4.
Microbiol Immunol ; 64(1): 1-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549736

RESUMO

It is well known that the mite Leptotrombidium scutellare carries the pathogen of scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi. However, our understanding of other bacterial endosymbionts of mites is limited. This study investigated the diversity of the obligate intracellular bacteria carried by L. scutellare using 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis with next-generation sequencing. The results showed that the detected bacteria were classified into the genera Rickettsia, Wolbachia, and Rickettsiella and an unknown genus of the order Rickettsiales. For further classification of the detected bacteria, a representative read that was most closely related to the assigned taxonomic classification was subjected to homology search and phylogenic analysis. The results showed that some bacteria of the genus Rickettsia were identical or very close to the human pathogens Rickettsia akari, Rickettsia aeschlimannii, Rickettsia felis, and Rickettsia australis. The genetic distance between the genus Wolbachia bacteria in the present study and in previous reports is highly indicative that the bacteria in the present study can be classified as a new taxon of Wolbachia. This study detected obligate intracellular bacteria from unfed mites; thus, the mites did not acquire bacteria from infected animals or any other infectious sources. Finally, the present study demonstrated that various and novel bacterial endosymbionts of mites, in addition to O. tsutsugamushi, might uniquely evolve with the host mites throughout overlapping generations of the mite life cycle. The roles of the bacteria in mites and their pathogenicity should be further examined in studies based on bacterial isolation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biodiversidade , Larva/microbiologia , Ácaros/microbiologia , Filogenia , Simbiose , Trombiculidae/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Orientia tsutsugamushi , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Tifo por Ácaros/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência , Wolbachia/classificação
5.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 79(3-4): 299-307, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748909

RESUMO

We determined how conidia of arthropod-pathogenic fungi on leaves affected the behavior of two predators-Orius majusculus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)-when offered a choice between preying on two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in the presence or absence of infective conidia of Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and Neozygites floridana (Entomophthoromycota: Neozygitaceae). The results indicate no significant relation between the presence of conidia and predator behavior. The only indication of interference is between the generalists O. majusculus and M. brunneum, with a trend towards more time spent feeding and more prey encounters turning into feeding events on leaf discs without conidia than on leaf discs with conidia. Our results show that the presence of fungal conidia does not alter the preying behavior of the predators, and using predators and fungi together is not limited by any interference between organisms in the short term.


Assuntos
Fungos/patogenicidade , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Ácaros/microbiologia , Ácaros/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Esporos Fúngicos , Tetranychidae
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109585, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509930

RESUMO

The two biological control agents, predatory mite Amblydromalus limonicus Garman & McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), have the potential to independently suppress the invasive tomato potato psyllid (TPP), Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), in New Zealand. The integrated strategy of combining the release of predatory mites and EPF may further promote biocontrol of pests. To examine the compatibility of A. limonicus and B. bassiana, we tested the lethal effects of B. bassiana on A. limonicus females on B. cockerelli and calculated the sublethal concentrations of B. bassiana. The effects of sublethal concentrations (LC10 and LC30) of EPF on predatory mite females were assessed on the reproduction parameters of the parental generation (F0). We also evaluated the transgenerational effects of EPF on life table parameters and predation rates of the offspring generation (F1) that was fed on the psyllids. Our results showed that A. limonicus females were susceptible to B. bassiana and the LC50 was 2.2 × 105 conidia mL-1. Sublethal concentrations of EPF (LC30) significantly reduced the fecundity, longevity, oviposition period and predation rates of F0 predatory mite females. However, life table and predation rates of F1 predatory mites were not influenced by sublethal concentrations (LC30), except for the reduction of the preadult and total pre-oviposition period, and the predation rate of F1 males. Also, F1 population parameters including the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), gross reproduction rate (GRR), and net reproduction rate (R0) were not significantly influenced by sublethal concentrations (LC10 and LC30). This result suggests that the transgenerational effects of entomopathogenic fungi cannot be carried over to F1. In conclusion, the simultaneous application of both biological control agents does have the potential to control TPP at appropriate intervals during the crop season. Further evaluation in the field will be needed to confirm the viability of this approach to control TPP.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácaros/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Beauveria/patogenicidade , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Ácaros/microbiologia , Nova Zelândia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano
8.
Avian Pathol ; 48(sup1): S52-S59, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267762

RESUMO

The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778), is a worldwide distributed ectoparasite and considered a major pest affecting the laying hen industry in Europe. Based on available information in other ectoparasites, the mite microbiome might participate in several biological processes and the acquisition, maintenance and transmission of pathogens. However, little is known about the role of PRM as a mechanical carrier or a biological vector in the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. Herein, we used a metaproteomics approach to characterize the alphaproteobacteria in the microbiota of PRM, and variations in its profile with ectoparasite development (nymphs vs. adults) and feeding (unfed vs. fed). The results showed that the bacterial community associated with D. gallinae was mainly composed of environmental and commensal bacteria. Putative symbiotic bacteria of the genera Wolbachia, C. Tokpelaia and Sphingomonas were identified, together with potential pathogenic bacteria of the genera Inquilinus, Neorickettsia and Roseomonas. Significant differences in the composition of alphaproteobacterial microbiota were associated with mite development and feeding, suggesting that bacteria have functional implications in metabolic pathways associated with blood feeding. These results support the use of metaproteomics for the characterization of alphaproteobacteria associated with the D. gallinae microbiota that could provide relevant information for the understanding of mite-host interactions and the development of potential control interventions. Research highlights Metaproteomics is a valid approach for microbiome characterization in ectoparasites. Alphaproteobacteria putative bacterial symbionts were identified in D. gallinae. Mite development and feeding were related to variations in bacterial community. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were identified in mite microbiota.


Assuntos
Alphaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/parasitologia , Microbiota , Ácaros/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Proteômica
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(9): 1038-1044, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214820

RESUMO

We undertook the issue of the distribution of intracellular bacteria among Oribatida (Acari). Six genera of bacteria were detected by PCR and Sanger DNA sequencing: Wolbachia, Cardinium, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus, and Hamiltonella. Our research, for the first time, revealed the presence of Cardinium in Microzetorchestes emeryi in two subpopulations separated from each other by 300 m. The percentages of infected animals were the same in both subpopulations-ca. 20%. The identity of 16S rDNA sequences of Cardinium between these two subpopulations of M. emeryi was 97%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cardinium in M. emeryi was clustered into the group A. The occurrence of M. emeryi in Poland has not been reported before and our report is the first one. Cardinium maybe help the thermophilic M. emeryi to adapt to low temperatures in the Central Europe.


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Ácaros/microbiologia , Animais , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/fisiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ácaros/fisiologia , Filogenia , Polônia , Simbiose
10.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 135: 230-235, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914397

RESUMO

Heritable endosymbionts have been observed in arthropod and nematode hosts. The most-known among them is Wolbachia. Although the bacterium was previously identified in oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida), it was not assigned to any phylogenetic group. Endosymbionts have a profound influence on their hosts, playing various functions that affect invertebrate's biology such as changing the way of reproduction. Oribatida provide the very unique examples of groups in which even whole families appear to be thelytokous, so we considered that it is worth to investigate the occurrence of endosymbiotic microorganisms in oribatid mites, especially that the knowledge on the symbionts occurrence in this invertebrate group is negligible. We report for the first time Wolbachia in oribatid mite Gustavia microcephala. The sequences of 16S rDNA, gltA, and ftsZ genes of the endosymbiont from the mite showed the highest similarity to Wolbachia found in Collembola. Phylogenetic analysis based on single gene and concatenated alignments of three genes revealed that the bacteria from G. microcephala and Collembola were related and clustered together with supergroup E. Relatively close relationship of Wolbachia from oribatid and collembolan hosts might mean at the evolutionary scale that horizontal transfer of bacteria between these two groups of invertebrates may take place.


Assuntos
Ácaros/microbiologia , Filogenia , Wolbachia/classificação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Wolbachia/genética
11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 70: 175-181, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708135

RESUMO

We determined the occurrence of intracellular endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, Hamiltonella, flavobacteria, and microsporidia) in oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) with the use of PCR technique. For the first time we looked for and detected Wolbachia in parthenogenetic oribatid mite Ceratozetes thienemanni Willmann, 1943. The 16S rDNA, gatB, hcpA, and gltA sequences of Wolbachia in C. thienemanni showed the highest similarity (≥ 90%) to the genes of Wolbachia from springtails (Collembola) and oribatid mite Gustavia microcephala. We found the unique sequence 5'-GGGGTAATGGCC-3' in 16S rDNA of Wolbachia from C. thienemanni and collembolan representing group E. The phylogeny of Wolbachia based on the analysis of single genes as well as concatenated alignments of four bacterial loci showed that the bacteria from C. thienemanni belonged to Wolbachia group E, like the endosymbionts from springtail hosts and G. microcephala. Considering coexisting of representatives of Oribatida and Collembola in the same soil habitat and similar food, it is possible that the source of Wolbachia infection was the same. Residues of dead invertebrates could be in organic matter of their soil food, so the scenario of infection transferred by eating of remains of soil cohabitates is also possible. It could explain the similarity and relationship of the Wolbachia in these two arthropod groups. Oribatid mite C. thienemanni is a parthenogenetic mite which is a unique feature in the genus Ceratozetes. Moreover, this species, within the entire genus Ceratozetes, is characterized by the most northerly distribution. It is difficult to determine either it is parthenogenesis or the presence of endosymbionts that are in some way responsible for this kind of evolutionary success. Maybe we are dealing here with a kind of synergy of both factors?


Assuntos
Simbiose/genética , Wolbachia/classificação , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Ácaros/microbiologia , Filogenia , Wolbachia/genética
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(2): 82, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656500

RESUMO

Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus, is an obligate intracytosolic bacterium transmitted among humans and small mammals by some species of larval trombiculid mites (chiggers). It has been recognized as a pathogen of major public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region. As disease is considered as a neglected, there exists a gap in our knowledge of the disease with regard to the sporadic epidemiologic data in endemic areas. The purpose of the study was to find out the vector as well as pathogen distribution in rodents present in the scrub typhus-reported areas in central India. We studied the seasonal variations of occurrence in O. tsutsugamushi in rodents and mites by molecular detection targeting the 56-kDa and 47-kDa genes. Rodent and mite samples were collected during December 2015 to July 2017. A total of 127 samples from rodents, seven pools of mites, and four pools of fleas were collected and processed for DNA isolation. Nested PCRs targeting the 56-kDa and 47-kDa surface antigen genes were performed. In addition, quantification of bacterial load was done by qPCR targeting the 47-kDa gene. During the pre-monsoon season, O. tsutsugamushi was detected in 12% and 10% samples employing the 56-kDa and 47-kDa nested PCRs, respectively, whereas, during post-monsoon season, the respective detection rates were 13.33% and 26.66%. This study predicted a bimodal pattern during the months of pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season with a peak in post-monsoon. Thus, the impact of season on the perpetuation of O. tsutsugamushi in the host was observed.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ácaros/microbiologia , Orientia tsutsugamushi/isolamento & purificação , Roedores/microbiologia , Animais , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Pública , Tifo por Ácaros/microbiologia , Estações do Ano
13.
Mol Ecol ; 28(2): 203-218, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726053

RESUMO

Parasites and other symbionts are crucial components of ecosystems, regulating host populations and supporting food webs. However, most symbiont systems, especially those involving commensals and mutualists, are relatively poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the nature of the symbiotic relationship between birds and their most abundant and diverse ectosymbionts: the vane-dwelling feather mites. For this purpose, we studied the diet of feather mites using two complementary methods. First, we used light microscopy to examine the gut contents of 1,300 individual feather mites representing 100 mite genera (18 families) from 190 bird species belonging to 72 families and 19 orders. Second, we used high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and DNA metabarcoding to determine gut contents from 1,833 individual mites of 18 species inhabiting 18 bird species. Results showed fungi and potentially bacteria as the main food resources for feather mites (apart from potential bird uropygial gland oil). Diatoms and plant matter appeared as rare food resources for feather mites. Importantly, we did not find any evidence of feather mites feeding upon bird resources (e.g., blood, skin) other than potentially uropygial gland oil. In addition, we found a high prevalence of both keratinophilic and pathogenic fungal taxa in the feather mite species examined. Altogether, our results shed light on the long-standing question of the nature of the relationship between birds and their vane-dwelling feather mites, supporting previous evidence for a commensalistic-mutualistic role of feather mites, which are revealed as likely fungivore-microbivore-detritivore symbionts of bird feathers.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Plumas/parasitologia , Ácaros/genética , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/genética , Aves/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Plumas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microscopia , Ácaros/microbiologia , Ácaros/patogenicidade , Simbiose/genética
14.
Microb Ecol ; 77(3): 759-768, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151669

RESUMO

Hematophagous Spinturnix myoti mites and their host, the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis), were tested for the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In total, Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified in 28% of 134 mite pools and in 25% of 59 bats tested by PCR targeting a fragment of citrate synthase gltA gen. Adult mites were at least threefold more frequently infected compared to immature stages. The overall infection prevalence among mite pools from cave-dwelling bats was higher than for those collected from attic shelters. Three distinct genotypes were detected. The most prevalent genotype in mites and bats matched closely with Candidatus Bartonella hemsundetiensis identified in bats from Finland and was relatively distant from bat-borne Bartonella strains described in the UK and France. Importantly, most sequences were close to those reported in forest workers from Poland. The presence of identical genotype among S. myoti samples and M. myotis bats suggests that bartonellae can be shared between mites and their bat hosts. In this case, wing mites could serve as vectors, whereas their hosts as reservoirs. One blood sample was positive by PCR for the msp2 gene of A. phagocytophilum. Two mite pools yielded Rickettsia spp. DNA. Both sequences were distinct from any known species but can be classified as spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the role of spinturnicid mites in the ecology and epidemiology of bacterial infections associated with vespertilionid bats, especially regarding the genus Bartonella.


Assuntos
Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Ácaros/microbiologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/genética , Cavernas , Filogenia , Polônia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética
15.
Med Vet Entomol ; 33(1): 162-170, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160309

RESUMO

Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae, De Geer, 1778) is an ectoparasite of poultry, suspected to play a role as a vector of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Gallinarum. Despite an association between them being reported, the actual dynamics in field remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to confirm the interactions among mites, pathogen and chickens. The study was carried out in an industrial poultry farm infested by D. gallinae, during an outbreak of fowl typhoid. The presence of S. Gallinarum in mites was assessed and quantified by a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR, respectively, in mites collected during two subsequent productive cycles and the sanitary break. The anti-group D Salmonella antibodies were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. During the outbreak and the sanitary break, S. Gallinarum was constantly present in mites. In the second cycle, scattered positivity was observed, although hens did not exhibit signs of fowl typhoid, as a result of the vaccination with BIO-VAC SGP695 (Fatro, Ozzano Emilia Bo, Italy). The data strongly suggest that D. gallinae acts as reservoir of S. Gallinarum, thus allowing the pathogen to persist in farms. Furthermore, the present study has highlighted the interactions among D. gallinae, S. Gallinarum and hens with respect to enhancing the mite-mediated circulation of S. Gallinarum in an infested poultry farm.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Ácaros/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Feminino , Itália , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia
16.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 131: 64-71, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391314

RESUMO

The understanding of the biology of arthropods requires an understanding of their bacterial associates. We determined the distribution of bacteria Wolbachia sp., Rickettsia sp., Cardinium sp., Spiroplasma sp., Arsenophonus sp., Hamiltonella sp., and Flavobacterium in oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida). We identified Cardinium sp. in Achipteria coleoptrata. This is the first report of this bacterium in A. coleoptrata. Approximately 30% of the mite population was infected by Cardinium sp. The Cardinium 16S rDNA was examined for the presence of two sequences unique for this microorganism. One of them was noted in Cardinium sp. of A. coleoptrata. In the second sequence, we found nucleotide substitution in the 7th position: A instead of T. In our opinion, this demonstrated the unique nature of Cardinium sp. of A. coleoptrata. We also determined phylogenetic relationship between Cardinium sp., including the strain found in A. coleoptrata by studying the 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences. It revealed that Cardinium from A. coleoptrata did not cluster together with strains from groups A, B, C or D, and constituted a separate clade E. These observations make A. coleoptrata a unique Cardinium host in terms of the distinction of the strain.


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/fisiologia , Ácaros/microbiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 262: 20-25, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389007

RESUMO

The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest of laying hens with extremely limited control means. To evaluate the potential of natural and commercial entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) for use against D. gallinae, we tested four wild populations of D. gallinae from Israeli farms. The genus Aspergillus was identified as the most abundant isolates from the mites. Additionally, eight new isolates of Metarhizium belonging to the specie M. brunneum were identified. At all sites from which mites were collected in both seasons, the abundance of fungi on D. gallinae was greater during the winter season than during the summer season. Through indirect inoculations of adult D. gallinae, we examined the virulence of the native Metarhizium species, the commercial strain Ma-43 and a previously described acaropathogenic strain (Ma-7). All of the Metarhizium strains caused 56-95% mortality of adult mites by seven days after inoculation at a concentration of 5 × 105 conidia per cm2. The efficacies of Ma-43, Ma-7 and the most promising native strain were tested under optimal abiotic conditions (28°C; 85-100% RH) and abiotic conditions similar to those typically found in a poultry house (30 °C; 60% RH). Under optimal conditions, the efficacy of all three stains ranged between 85 and 92%. In contrast, under poultry-house conditions, the efficacy of control ranged between 30 and 40%. The incidence of mycoses on mite cadavers was significantly decreased under poultry-house conditions. These results demonstrate the potential of native and commercial Metarhizium strains for use as biopesticides. Future research should address suitable delivery methods and formulations for the effective control of D. gallinae under poultry-house conditions.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Metarhizium/fisiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Acaricidas , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Meio Ambiente , Metarhizium/genética , Metarhizium/isolamento & purificação , Metarhizium/patogenicidade , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Esporos Fúngicos , Virulência
19.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198629, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870549

RESUMO

The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species. This study investigates the occurrence and assesses the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. found in Streblidae flies and Spinturnicidae and Macronyssidae mites collected from bats captured in Brazil. From May 2011 to April 2012 and September 2013 to December 2014, 400 Streblidae flies, 100 Macronyssidaes, and 100 Spinturnicidae mites were collected from bats captured in two sites in northeastern Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Forty (19.8%) out of 202 Streblidae flies were positive for Bartonella spp. in qPCR assays based on the nuoG gene. Among the flies positive for the bacterium, six (18%) were Paratrichobius longicrus, seven (29%) Strebla guajiro, two (40%) Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, five (11%) Aspidoptera falcata, one (10%) Trichobius anducei, one (25%) Megistopoda aranea, and 18 (32%) Trichobius joblingi, and collected from bats of the following species: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, Sturnira lilium, and Artibeus obscurus. Six sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG [n = 2], gltA [n = 2], rpoB [n = 1], ribC = 1]). The phylogenetic analysis based on gltA (750pb) gene showed that the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats and ectoparasites previously sampled in Latin America, including Brazil. Only one sample (0.49%) of the species Trichobius joblingi collected from a specimen of Carollia perspicillata was positive for Rickettsia sp. in cPCR based on the gltA gene (401bp). This sequence was clustered with a 'Candidatus Rickettsia andaenae" genotype detected in an Amblyomma parvum tick collected from a rodent in the southern region of Brazilian Pantanal. The sampled Macronyssidae and Spinturnicidae mites were negative for Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. This study demonstrated the first occurrence of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. DNA in Streblidae flies collected from bats in Brazil.


Assuntos
Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Parasitos/microbiologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Brasil , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Dípteros/microbiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Ácaros/microbiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rickettsia/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Avian Pathol ; 47(6): 533-535, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954185

RESUMO

Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is currently the most important ectoparasite of the egg laying industry worldwide with an expanding global prevalence. As a blood-feeder, it causes anaemia and severe welfare issues to the hens and it is a major cause of economic losses. It is also a vector for Salmonella species, avian influenza and potentially for other vector-borne pathogens. Paradoxically, there is a notable lack of funding for research into poultry red mite and an urgent need for effective and safe control strategies, sustainable therapies, prophylactics and integrated pest management.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos/fisiologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Feminino , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/economia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Infestações por Ácaros/economia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/microbiologia , Controle de Pragas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Salmonella/fisiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia
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