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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21112, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629745

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) is an inflammatory granulomatous skin disease without a clear etiology that frequently involves the middle area of the face and the upper eyelids. Pathological features of the disease include caseation necrosis and epithelioid granuloma. Consensus treatment for LMDF is currently unavailable. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old Chinese female patient who presented with facial pruritic, erythematous papules 8 months before this study. She was diagnosed with skin tuberculosis at another hospital and given antituberculosis medication. However, the treatment was not efficacious. DIAGNOSES: In this study, the diagnosis of Demodex-induced LMDF was made by a dermatologist according to physical examination, skin biopsy pathology, and microscopic examination. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was given ornidazole tablets (500 mg twice a day) and recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor gel (0.2 g/cm twice a day) for an 8-week period. OUTCOMES: Eight weeks after the treatment, the facial erythematous papules were improved, and no new skin lesions were observed. The patient showed no signs of recurrence during the 6-month follow-up. LESSONS SUBSECTIONS: This case showed that ornidazole combined with recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor gel might be useful in treatment of Demodex-induced LMDF. In addition, the results suggested that pathological caseation necrosis was caused by a series of inflammatory and immune responses to Demodex infection.


Assuntos
Dermatoses Faciais/etiologia , Rosácea/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Amebicidas/administração & dosagem , Amebicidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Erros de Diagnóstico , Dermatoses Faciais/patologia , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/uso terapêutico , Granuloma/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácaros/parasitologia , Necrose/patologia , Ornidazol/administração & dosagem , Ornidazol/uso terapêutico , Rosácea/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/patologia , Pele/ultraestrutura , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 248, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mice are susceptible to infections with the rodent filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis and develop immune responses that resemble those of human filarial infections. Thus, the L. sigmodontis model is used to study filarial immunomodulation, protective immune responses against filariae and to screen drug candidates for human filarial diseases. While previous studies showed that type 2 immune responses are protective against L. sigmodontis, the present study directly compared the impact of eosinophils, IL-5, and the IL-4R on the outcome of L. sigmodontis infection. METHODS: Susceptible wildtype (WT) BALB/c mice, BALB/c mice lacking eosinophils (dblGATA mice), IL-5-/- mice, IL-4R-/- mice and IL-4R-/-/IL-5-/- mice were infected with L. sigmodontis. Analyses were performed during the peak of microfilaremia in WT animals (71 dpi) as well as after IL-4R-/-/IL-5-/- mice showed a decline in microfilaremia (119 dpi) and included adult worm counts, peripheral blood microfilariae levels, cytokine production from thoracic cavity lavage, the site of adult worm residence, and quantification of major immune cell types within the thoracic cavity and spleen. RESULTS: Our study reveals that thoracic cavity eosinophil numbers correlated negatively with the adult worm burden, whereas correlations of alternatively activated macrophage (AAM) numbers with the adult worm burden (positive correlation) were likely attributed to the accompanied changes in eosinophil numbers. IL-4R-/-/IL-5-/- mice exhibited an enhanced embryogenesis achieving the highest microfilaremia with all animals becoming microfilariae positive and had an increased adult worm burden combined with a prolonged adult worm survival. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that mice deficient for IL-4R-/-/IL-5-/- have the highest susceptibility for L. sigmodontis infection, which resulted in an earlier onset of microfilaremia, development of microfilaremia in all animals with highest microfilariae loads, and an extended adult worm survival.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Filariose/imunologia , Interleucina-5/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Filariose/sangue , Filarioidea/fisiologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Microfilárias/imunologia , Ácaros/parasitologia , Transdução de Sinais , Baço/imunologia
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 273-277, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989453

RESUMO

Abstract The biological control used for the control of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) is the predator mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot). It is important to the know the effects of acaricides on the biological behavior the Abamectin on the functional response of P. persimilis. The functional response of the predator was of type II exposed to concentration of Abamectin, the functional response parameters: successful attack rate (a'), handling time (Th), search efficiency and the maximum predation theory (T/Th) were affected by the acaricide. The predator spends more time in persecute, dominate, consume and prepair it self to the next searching comparing with the proof subject an the predation ability was affected.


Resumo O controle biológico utilizado para o controle de Tetranychus urticae (Koch) é o acaro predador Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot). É importante conhecer os efeitos dos acaricidas sobre o comportamento biológico do predador. Foi avaliado o efeito tóxico de a Abamectina na resposta funcional de P. persimilis. A resposta funcional do predador foi tipo II exposta a concentrações subletais de Abacmetina, os parâmetros da resposta funcional: taxa de ataque (a'), tempo de manipulação (Th), a eficiência na procura e predação teórica máxima (T/Th) foram afetados pelo acaricida. O predador passa mais tempo na procura, dominar, consumir e se preparar para a próxima procura em comparação com a testemunha e sua capacidade de predação foi afetada.


Assuntos
Animais , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácaros/fisiologia , Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/patogenicidade , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Tetranychidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetranychidae/parasitologia
4.
Acta Trop ; 192: 123-128, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768976

RESUMO

Gymnodactylus darwinii is an endemic lizard from Atlantic Rainforest. Ecological aspects of your parasitic fauna are still unknown. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to know the composition of parasitic fauna of G. darwinii in an Atlantic Rainforest fragment, as well to test the influence of the size, sex and seasonality on parasitological indices. The study was carried out in two conservation units: Mata do Camucim and Mata do Tapacurá, both located in the municipality of São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco state, northeast region of Brazil. Sixty-five specimens were collected, of which 39 (569%) were parasitized by cystacanths of Acanthocephala (prevalence 43%; mean intensity 4 ± 9.9; mean abundance 3.82 ± 7.87), Geckobia sp. (Acari, Pterygosomatidae) (prevalence 30.7%; mean intensity 4 ± 15.0; mean abundance 3.74 ± 9.54), Physaloptera sp. larvae (Nematoda, Physalopteridae) (prevalence 4.6%; mean intensity 1 ± 0.47; mean abundance 0.06 ± 0.47) and Paradistomum rabusculum (Trematoda, Dicrocoeliidae) (prevalence 1.2%; mean intensity 1; mean abundance 0.02). Acanthocephalans presented a significant relation with the animal length (r² = 0.31, p = 0.006, n = 28). Infestation by Geckobia sp. was more frequent during the dry season (BLM: p = 0.001), while the infection by Acanthocephalans was frequent in dry and rainy seasons, with no significant variation (BLM: p = 0.78). In addition, the most prevalent parasites showed no significant difference in relation to sex: males and females showed similar infestation intensity by Geckobia sp. (BLM: p = 0.31) and infection by Acanthocephala (BLM: p = 0.34). This is the first study about the parasitic ecology of G. darwinii, representing a significant contribution to the conservation of this species and the ecosystem in which they inhabit.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Lagartos/parasitologia , Ácaros/parasitologia , Nematoides/parasitologia , Floresta Úmida , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano
5.
Braz J Biol ; 79(2): 273-277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088526

RESUMO

The biological control used for the control of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) is the predator mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot). It is important to the know the effects of acaricides on the biological behavior the Abamectin on the functional response of P. persimilis. The functional response of the predator was of type II exposed to concentration of Abamectin, the functional response parameters: successful attack rate (a'), handling time (Th), search efficiency and the maximum predation theory (T/Th) were affected by the acaricide. The predator spends more time in persecute, dominate, consume and prepair it self to the next searching comparing with the proof subject an the predation ability was affected.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacologia , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ácaros , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Tetranychidae , Animais , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/patogenicidade , Ácaros/fisiologia , Tetranychidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetranychidae/parasitologia
6.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 75(3): 369-381, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030663

RESUMO

The relationship between the pine bark beetle Ips sexdentatus and its phoretic mites in a Pinus pinaster forest in northwest Spain was studied during 2014. Four species of mites were collected, three of them from the body of the beetle-Histiostoma ovalis, Dendrolaelaps quadrisetus and Trichouropoda polytricha-the fourth, Cercoleipus coelonotus, was collected from the sediments. The main aims of this study were to explore (1) mite diversity and related parameters, (2) the location on the body of the (male and female) beetle, as well as mite assemblages, and (3) the seasonal dynamic association between mite species and the beetle. Results indicated that the diversity oscillated around 0.71 through the study period and the most dominant, frequent and abundant mite was H. ovalis. Histiostoma ovalis was found attached to almost all parts of the body (mainly on the elytral declivity and ventral thorax), whereas D. quadrisetus was exclusively found under the elytra, and T. polytricha displayed affinity towards the elytral declivity as well as the ventral thorax. None of the mite species displayed any preference for the sex of the beetle and the most frequent mite assemblage was H. ovalis, T. polytricha and D. quadrisetus all together. Maximum abundance of each phoretic mite species was related with each of the flight peaks of the beetle that would indicate that these mite species use phoresy as a primary method of transport for colonizing new food sources.


Assuntos
Besouros/parasitologia , Ácaros/parasitologia , Pinus/parasitologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Florestas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Espanha
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1799: 11-26, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956140

RESUMO

Helminth parasites infect over 2 billion people worldwide resulting in huge global health and economic burden. Helminths typically stimulate Type 2 immune responses and excel at manipulating or suppressing host-immune responses resulting in chronic infections that can last for years to decades. Alongside the importance for the development of helminth treatments and vaccines, studying helminth immunity has unraveled many fundamental aspects of Type 2 immunity and immune regulation with implications for the treatment of autoimmunity and Type 2-mediated diseases, such as allergies. Here we describe the maintenance and use of Litomosoides sigmodontis, a murine model for studying host-parasite interactions, Type 2 immunity, and vaccines to tissue-dwelling filarial nematodes, which in humans cause lymphatic filariasis (e.g., Brugia malayi) and onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus).


Assuntos
Filariose/imunologia , Filariose/parasitologia , Filarioidea , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Imunidade , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Ácaros/parasitologia
8.
J Parasitol ; 104(3): 187-195, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534637

RESUMO

This study investigated associations between Trypanosoma lewisi and Xenopsylla cheopis, a common cyclical vector of T. lewisi; Polyplax spinulosa, a reported mechanical vector; and Laelaps echidnina and Laelaps lamborni, 2 rodent mites of Rattus norvegicus in Durban, South Africa. In total, 379 R. norvegicus individuals were live-trapped at 48 sites in 4 locality types around Durban during a 1-yr period. Rats were euthanized, cardiac blood was taken to check for hemoparasites, and ectoparasites were removed for identification. Parasite species richness was higher in pups (2.11) and juveniles (1.02) than adults (0.87). Most rats in the study harbored 1 or 2 of the 5 parasites surveyed. Rats with trypanosomes and fleas were more prevalent in the city center and harbor, where juveniles were most affected. Rats with lice were more prevalent in informal settlements and urban/peri-urban areas, where pups had the highest infestations. There was a significant positive association between rats with fleas and trypanosomes and a negative association between rats with lice and trypanosomes. Location and rat age were significant predictors of T. lewisi, X. cheopis, and P. spinulosa. Mites showed no strong association with trypanosomes. Ectoparasite associations are possibly habitat and life-cycle related. We conclude that Durban's city center, which offers rats harborage, an unsanitary environment, and availability of food, is a high-transmission area for fleas and trypanosomes, and consequently a potential public health risk.


Assuntos
Ácaros/parasitologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Trypanosoma lewisi , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Animais , Distribuição Binomial , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma lewisi/classificação , Trypanosoma lewisi/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia
9.
Parasitology ; 145(12): 1564-1569, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29530103

RESUMO

Parasites are known to have direct negative effects on host fitness; however, the indirect effects of parasitism on host fitness sans infection are less well understood. Hosts undergo behavioural and physiological changes when in proximity to parasites. Yet, there is little experimental evidence showing that these changes lead to long-term decreases in host fitness. We aimed to determine if parasite exposure affects host fitness independent of contact, because current approaches to parasite ecology may underestimate the effect of parasites on host populations. We assayed the longevity and reproductive output of Drosophila nigrospiracula exposed or not exposed to ectoparasitic Macrocheles subbadius. In order to preclude contact and infection, mites and flies were permanently separated with a mesh screen. Exposed flies had shorter lives and lower fecundity relative to unexposed flies. Recent work in parasite ecology has argued that parasite-host systems show similar processes as predator-prey systems. Our findings mirror the non-consumptive effects observed in predator-prey systems, in which prey species suffer reduced fitness even if they never come into direct contact with predators. Our results support the perspective that there are analogous effects in parasite-host systems, and suggest new directions for research in both parasite ecology and the ecology of fear.


Assuntos
Drosophila/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/parasitologia , Animais , Drosophila/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade , Aptidão Genética , Longevidade , Masculino , Ácaros/fisiologia , Reprodução
10.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 153: 51-56, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453965

RESUMO

Determination of intraguild interactions between entomopathogens and predators is important when attempting to use a combination of these two natural enemy groups for biological control of their shared arthropod pest species. This study assessed the effects of Beauveria bassiana on the predation and associated behavior of the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, against Tetranychus urticae. The functional response tests showed that P. persimilis exhibited a Holling type II response on the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, when treated with either a B. bassiana or Tween-80 suspension. There were no significant differences between the treatments in the number of T. urticae consumed. The laboratory choice test indicated that P. persimilis displayed a significant avoidance response to B. bassiana on bean leaves immediately following spray application. They also spent significantly longer time in self-grooming behavior on leaf disks sprayed with fungal conidia than on discs treated with Tween-80. There were no significant differences in the predation rates on T. urticae eggs between the different treatments. The potted plant investigations indicated that P. persimilis showed significant aversion behavior to the initial fungal spray, but gradually dispersed over the entire bean plants. Observations using scanning electron microscopy revealed that fungal conidia were attached to the body of P. persimilis after mounting the leaf disk treated with B. bassiana, which would account for its varied behavioral responses. Our study suggests that fungal spray did not affect the predation capability of P. persimilis and poses a negligible risk to their behavior.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Ácaros/fisiologia , Ácaros/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Tetranychidae/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento Predatório
11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3336, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463915

RESUMO

We consider two types of optimal foragers: a random searcher and a search image user. A search image user can find its desired prey with higher and undesired prey with lower probability than a random searcher. Our model considers the density-dependent travelling time and the time duration of reproduction (oviposition). In the framework of optimal foraging theory for one predator-two prey systems, we find that there are ranges of prey densities in which the search image user has a higher net energy intake, and there are other ranges of prey densities in which the random searcher has higher net energy intake. The damsel bug Nabis pseudoferus Remane (Hemiptera: Nabidae) is a generalist predator rather than an omnivore. This species has a wide range of arthropod prey (predominantly insects and mites). Several aspects of the biology of this species have been studied, especially its cannibalistic behaviour, which is a quite important feature because N. pseudoferus is often used as a biological control agent against lepidopteran pests in greenhouse crops. Experimentally, we found that Nabis is a search image user in the above sense.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/fisiologia , Ácaros/parasitologia , Modelos Teóricos , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Comportamento Animal
12.
Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol ; 107: 275-282, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28215226

RESUMO

Ticks and mites are well-known ectoparasites as potential vectors for numerous bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Many being blood feeders add to physiological deterioration, morbidity, and mortality of their vertebrate hosts. To control them, transcription factors have been identified and studied in their role to sustain such arthropod pests. This paper summarizes some of the work done on those factors involved during blood feeding, reproduction, or when interacting with their pathogens and symbiont populations. Any transcription factor supporting the equilibrium developed by the ticks/mites could become a potential target for new control methods to prevent some of their key physiological functions.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Carrapatos , Fatores de Transcrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ácaros/microbiologia , Ácaros/parasitologia , Simbiose , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia
13.
Environ Pollut ; 219: 37-46, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27661726

RESUMO

Effects of cadmium (Cd) on predator-prey relationships and soil ecological function are poorly understood and there are few methods available to measure soil functional change. Thus, we structured a soil-dwelling food chain containing the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and its collembolan prey Folsomia candida to study the effects of Cd exposure for eight weeks in a spiked soil aged for five years. The 15N labeled litter was added as food to analyze the change in nitrogen (N) transfer content. H. aculeifer reproduction and growth and the survival and reproduction of F. candida were all negatively affected by Cd exposure, and H. aculeifer reproduction was the most sensitive parameter. The sensitivity responses of F. candida and H. aculeifer were different from those using the previous single species test. The results suggest that predator-prey interactions might influence the toxicity of Cd by predation and food restriction. Cadmium lethal body concentrations of adults and juveniles of F. candida and H. aculeifer juveniles were 500-600, 180-270 and 8-10 µg g-1, respectively. The content of N transfer from litter to animals in the food chain decreased significantly with increasing soil Cd concentration between 100 and 400 mg kg-1. The results suggest that the 15N labeled litter addition method is potentially useful for quantitative assessment of soil functional change for further risk assessment purposes.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácaros/parasitologia , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Dose Letal Mediana , Ácaros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medição de Risco , Solo/parasitologia , Testes de Toxicidade
14.
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 32(1): 27-32, 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-911634

RESUMO

La demodicosis es una patología cutánea crónica caracterizada por lesiones eritemato-maculares pruriginosas, cuyo agente causal son ácaros foliculares del género Demodex. Presenta un abanico amplio y polimorfo de manifestaciones clínicas, donde la sospecha clínica se presentará frente a una erupción facial crónica persistente o recurrente, resistente a terapia convencional y de distribución asimétrica. El diagnóstico definitivo es difícil, y requiere un cuadro clínico compatible y la presencia de alta densidad de Demodex. El siguiente documento hace una revisión de conceptos con respecto a la patogenia, clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta entidad.


Demodicosis is a chronic skin condition characterized by itchy erythematous macular lesions whose causal agents are gender follicular Demodex mites. This entity presents a wide and polymorphous range of clinical manifestations, in which clinical suspicion appears in case of persistent or recurrent chronic facial rash, resistant to conventional therapy and with an asymmetric distribution. The definitive diagnosis is hard to reach, and requires a compatible clinical picture and a high density of Demodex. The following document is a review of concepts regarding pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of this disease.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/patologia , Eritema/patologia , Infestações por Ácaros/patologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/terapia , Doença Crônica , Eritema/terapia , Foliculite/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Infestações por Ácaros/terapia , Ácaros/parasitologia
15.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 32(1): 37-42, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25860042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blepharitis is a very common disease in the ophthalmologic practice generally taking a chronic course with intermittent exacerbations. Several studies have linked the presence of Demodex folliculorum with chronic blepharitis, since the mite has the capacity to perpetuate the follicular inflammatory process. The prevalence of infection by Demodex spp. is variable depending on the population. In Paraguay, information on the frequency of the infestation in patients with chronic blepharitis is not available. AIM: To determine the frequency of Demodex spp, and the ocular microbiota in patients with chronic blepharitis attending the Department of Ophthalmology at the Teaching Hospital of the National University of Asuncion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutively, 28 patients with chronic blepharitis, who agreed to participate in the study, were included. Eyes lashes from the upper and lower eyelids were extracted for immediate mite search by direct observation under a light microscope. Samples from eyelids were taken with Kimura spatula and then cultured on blood agar and in enrichment media and incubated in 5% CO2 at 35° C for 72 hours. RESULTS: Among participants, females were more frequent (64%), the age ranged from 17 to 87 years (mean: 38.0; SD: ± 13.5 years). The prevalence of Demodex sp was 54%. Bacteria were isolated 92.9% of cases, most frequently coagulase-negative staphylococci (75%). No association was found between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and the presence of Demodex sp. CONCLUSION: The observed high prevalence of infestation by Demodex spp in patients with chronic blepharitis is consistent with other studies.


Assuntos
Blefarite/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(1): 48-52, feb. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-742535

RESUMO

Background: Blepharitis is a very common disease in the ophthalmologic practice generally taking a chronic course with intermittent exacerbations. Several studies have linked the presence of Demodex folliculorum with chronic blepharitis, since the mite has the capacity to perpetuate the follicular inflammatory process. The prevalence of infection by Demodex spp. is variable depending on the population. In Paraguay, information on the frequency of the infestation in patients with chronic blepharitis is not available. Aim : To determine the frequency of Demodex spp, and the ocular microbiota in patients with chronic blepharitis attending the Department of Ophthalmology at the Teaching Hospital of the National University of Asuncion. Patients and Methods: Consecutively, 28 patients with chronic blepharitis, who agreed to participate in the study, were included. Eyes lashes from the upper and lower eyelids were extracted for immediate mite search by direct observation under a light microscope. Samples from eyelids were taken with Kimura spatula and then cultured on blood agar and in enrichment media and incubated in 5% CO2 at 35° C for 72 hours. Results: Among participants, females were more frequent (64%), the age ranged from 17 to 87 years (mean: 38.0; SD: ±13.5 years). The prevalence of Demodex sp was 54%. Bacteria were isolated 92.9% of cases, most frequently coagulase-negative staphylococci (75%). No association was found between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and the presence of Demodex sp. Conclusion: The observed high prevalence of infestation by Demodex spp in patients with chronic blepharitis is consistent with other studies.


Introducción: La blefaritis es una enfermedad muy común en la práctica oftalmológica, generalmente de curso crónico con exacerbaciones intermitentes. Varios estudios han relacionado la presencia del Demodex folliculorum con la blefaritis crónica, por su capacidad potencial de perpetuar el proceso inflamatorio a nivel folicular. La frecuencia de D. folliculorum varía de acuerdo a la población. Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de Demodex spp y, caracterizar la microbiota ocular en pacientes con blefaritis crónica y dar a conocer estos resultados. Pacientes y Métodos: Las muestras fueron obtenidas de pacientes que consultaron en la Cátedra de Oftalmología del Hospital de Clínicas de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción (UNA). Fueron incluidos en forma consecutiva 28 pacientes con blefaritis crónica que accedieron a participar en forma voluntaria en el estudio. Se extrajeron las pestañas del párpado superior e inferior de los pacientes para la búsqueda inmediata del ácaro por observación directa bajo el microscopio óptico. Para el cultivo de microorganismos se tomaron muestras del párpado con espátula de Kimura, las que fueron cultivadas en agar sangre y en medios de enriquecimiento e incubadas en CO2 al 5% a 35°C durante 72 h. Resultados: El sexo femenino fue más frecuente (64%), el rango de edad estuvo entre 17 y 87 años con una media de 37,9 ± 13,5. Se observó la presencia de Demodex sp en 54% y aislamiento de bacterias en 92,9%; Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa fue el más frecuente (75%). No se encontraron asociaciones entre las características socio-demográficas o clínicas y la presencia de Demodex sp. Conclusión: La alta infestación por Demodex spp observada en los pacientes con blefaritis crónica coincide con otros estudios.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Blefarite/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/parasitologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/microbiologia , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2013: 584105, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24089685

RESUMO

Filariae are a leading cause of infections which are responsible for serious dermatological, ocular, and vascular lesions. Infective third stage larvae (L3) are transmitted through the bite of a haematophagous vector. Litomosoides sigmodontis is a well-established model of filariasis in the mouse, with the vector being the mite Ornithonyssus bacoti. The aim of the study was to analyse the filarial infection in mites to determine the consequences of filarial infection in the blood-feeding and the reproduction of mites as well as in the regulation of vector-induced inflammation in the mouse skin. Firstly, L3 are unevenly distributed throughout the host population and the majority of the population harbours a moderate infection (1 to 6 L3). Filarial infection does not significantly affect the probing delay for blood feeding. The number of released protonymphs is lower in infected mites but is not correlated with the L3 burden. Finally, induced excreted proteins from infected mites but not from uninfected mites stimulate TNF- α and the neutrophil-chemoattractant KC production by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Altogether, these results describe the modification of the mite behavior under filarial infection and suggest that the immunomodulatory capacity of the mite may be modified by the presence of the parasite, hindering its defensive ability towards the vertebrate host.


Assuntos
Filariose/parasitologia , Filariose/transmissão , Filarioidea/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Animais , Filariose/patologia , Filarioidea/patogenicidade , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Larva/patogenicidade , Camundongos , Ácaros/parasitologia
18.
J Vet Med Sci ; 75(12): 1585-9, 2013 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23912911

RESUMO

Infection with Moniezia benedeni is sometimes found in confined cattle in Japan. Between October 2011 and January 2013, we monitored the fecal egg prevalence at a confined cattle farm in Miyazaki prefecture where continuous M. benedeni infection has been recognized for years to evaluate the possible infection routes. Fecal egg prevalence changed seasonally with the highest in October 2011 (27.3%: 9/33). This was followed by a gradual decrease until July 2012 (9.4%: 3/32) and then an increase between August to December 2012 when new egg-excreting cases were observed. The pattern of seasonal changes was similar to that reported previously for cattle kept in a barn with an outside playing yard. Although M. benedeni-infected mites were not found, we constantly detected an oribatid mite, Oribatula sakamorii Aoki, 1970, in the litter of cattle bedding from May to October 2012. This species belongs to a genus which has been reported to be a suitable intermediate host for M. benedeni, suggesting that M. benedeni infection may have been autonomously maintained at the farm via oribatid mites living in the cowshed. When infected cattle were treated with praziquantel, it was found that a single oral inoculation with a dose of 5 mg/kg was effective for deworming.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Bovinos , Infecções por Cestoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Ácaros/parasitologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
19.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 112(1): 20-3, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23147105

RESUMO

'Candidatus Cardinium' is an intracellular endosymbiont or parasite frequently occurring in invertebrates including mites and ticks. In this work we report Cardinium bacteria in Astigmata mites and explore their incidence in synanthropic species. Amplification of a 776 bp bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragment, using specific primers, enabled identification of closely related Cardinium sequences in 13 laboratory-reared populations of mites. In addition, Cardinium sequences were identified in three wild mite populations. Large scale screening of these populations showed 100% prevalence of Cardinium, representing the highest incidence compared to other major Chelicerate groups.


Assuntos
Ascaris/parasitologia , Bacteroidetes/genética , Ácaros/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi ; 117(1): 189-93, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24505913

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Demodex mites are considered commensals of human pilosebaceous units. Their role in skin disease is controversial. The aim of our study was to investigate the Demodex infection in patients with characteristic skin lesions and to correlate the level of infestation with epidemiological and clinical features. MATERIAL AND METHODS: we have studied 120 symptomatic patients, diagnosed between January 2012 and December 2012; the detection of mites was realized by microscopic examination of potassium hydroxide preparations from biological samples taken by scraping and squeezing method. RESULTS: The total prevalence rate of infection in our study group was 40.83%. We did not find statistical significant correlation with gender or age or with the type of lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of Demodex infestation in facial dermatitis is high and its detection must be taken into consideration in routine diagnostic of facial suggestive lesions.


Assuntos
Dermatoses Faciais/diagnóstico , Dermatoses Faciais/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/parasitologia , Sebo/parasitologia , Simbiose , Adulto , Animais , Dermatoses Faciais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Ácaros/patogenicidade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Romênia/epidemiologia
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