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1.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 320(2): G166-G174, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325808

RESUMO

Human carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) has triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) activities and plays an important role in lipolysis. In this study, we aim to determine the role of human CES2 in the progression or reversal of steatohepatitis in diet-induced or genetically obese mice. High-fat/high-cholesterol/high-fructose (HFCF) diet-fed C57BL/6 mice or db/db mice were intravenously injected with an adeno-associated virus expressing human CES2 under the control of an albumin promoter. Human CES2 protected against HFCF diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in C57BL/6J mice and reversed steatohepatitis in db/db mice. Human CES2 also improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Mechanistically, human CES2 reduced hepatic triglyceride (T) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels by inducing lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation and inhibiting lipogenesis via suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1. Furthermore, human CES2 overexpression improved mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic function, and inhibited gluconeogenesis, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and inflammation. Our data suggest that hepatocyte-specific expression of human CES2 prevents and reverses steatohepatitis. Targeting hepatic CES2 may be an attractive strategy for treatment of NAFLD.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Human CES2 attenuates high-fat/cholesterol/fructose diet-induced steatohepatitis and reverses steatohepatitis in db/db mice. Mechanistically, human CES2 induces lipolysis, fatty acid and glucose oxidation, and inhibits hepatic glucose production, inflammation, lipid oxidation, and apoptosis. Our data suggest that human CES2 may be targeted for treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).


Assuntos
Carboxilesterase/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Glicemia , Carboxilesterase/genética , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hidroxiprolina/sangue , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13473, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078508

RESUMO

Dairy cows often suffer metabolic disorders due to the challenges of the transition period. The aim of study was to determine the effects of feeding pomegranate by-product silage (PBS) on feed intake and some blood parameters, such as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA), interleukin-1 (IL-1), serum amyloid-A (SAA), prostaglandin F2α metabolites (PGFM), and progesterone (P4) in fresh Holstein cows. The experimental groups were as follows: CON (0 g PBS of DM) and PBS (120 g PBS of DM). Results showed that replacing corn silage with PBS had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI) throughout the study. The CON group had highest (p < .05) NEFA at 14 d postpartum and serum BHBA was decreased by feeding PBS, especially on days 21 (p < .05) and 28 (p < .05) and the entire study (p < .01). Cows fed PBS had lower (p < .05) serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) than CON cows at different times. Feeding PBS decreased (p < .01) serum IL-1 compared to CON group (216.7 versus. 515.5 Pg/ml) at 28 d postpartum, and also cows fed 120 g PBS had higher (p < .01) serum P4. It was concluded that feeding PBS had no adverse effect on feed intake, milk production, and some reproductive parameters. Moreover, PBS positively affected serum metabolites in fresh dairy cows.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Romã (Fruta) , Silagem , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Inflamação , Interleucina-1/sangue , Lactação , Malondialdeído/sangue , Reprodução
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13442, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851739

RESUMO

Predicting periparturient disease risk is of immense value to the dairy industry. Periparturient diseases are interrelated with each other; however, predicting the onset risk of these diseases has predominantly been based on a single blood parameter for a single disease. This study examined a new diagnostic method to predict the risk of periparturient diseases. We conducted cluster analysis of multiple blood constituents from 20 Holstein cattle at 1 week post-partum, and the cattle were divided into two groups, A or B. We then compared the periparturient and early-lactation blood constituents of these groups. Group B had significantly higher 3-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations and were suspected to have subclinical ketosis. Group B also had significantly lower calcium concentrations, with a tendency for subclinical hypocalcemia. We also performed discriminant analysis using blood parameters at 1 week post-partum, which grouped the population into the same two groups as the cluster analysis based on three variables: inorganic phosphorus, calcium, and either phospholipids or total cholesterol. We further showed that these discriminant functions could be used to predict the risk of periparturient disease even before parturition. Our results indicate that cluster analysis with multiple blood constituents is useful for predicting periparturient disease risks.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Análise por Conglomerados , Hipocalcemia/diagnóstico , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Cetose/diagnóstico , Cetose/veterinária , Parto , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bovinos , Feminino , Lactação , Período Pós-Parto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7377-7391, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505402

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intrauterine administration of chitosan microparticles (CM) in curing metritis in dairy cows. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of metritis treatments on milk yield, survival, and reproductive performance. Cows with a fetid, watery, red-brownish vaginal discharge were diagnosed with metritis. Holstein cows (n = 826) with metritis from 3 dairies located in northern Florida were blocked by parity (primiparous or multiparous) and, within each block, randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: CM (n = 276) = intrauterine infusion of 24 g of CM dissolved in 40 mL of sterile distilled water at the time of metritis diagnosis (d 0), 2 (d 2), and 4 (d 4) d later; ceftiofur (CEF; n = 275) = subcutaneous injection of 6.6 mg/kg ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in the base of the ear at d 0 and d 3; Control (CON; n = 275) = no treatment applied at metritis diagnosis. All groups could receive escape therapy if condition worsened. Cure was considered when vaginal discharge became mucoid and not fetid. A group of nonmetritic (NMET; n = 2,436) cows was used for comparison. Data were analyzed by generalized linear mixed and Cox's proportional hazard models. Cows in CM and CON had lesser risk of metritis cure on d 12 than cows in CEF (58.6 ± 5.0 vs. 61.9 ± 4.9% vs. 77.9 ± 3.9, respectively). The proportion of cows culled within 60 days in milk (DIM) was greater for cows in CM than for cows in CEF and CON (21.5 ± 2.7 vs. 9.7 ± 1.9 vs. 11.3 ± 2.0%, respectively). Treatment did not affect rectal temperature or plasma nonesterified fatty acids, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and haptoglobin concentrations. Milk yield in the first 60 DIM differed for all treatments, and it was lowest for CM (35.8 ± 0.3 kg/d), followed by CON (36.8 ± 0.3 kg/d) and CEF (37.9 ± 0.3 kg/d). The hazard of pregnancy up to 300 DIM was lesser for CM than CEF (hazard ratio = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.50-0.76), for CM than CON (hazard ratio = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62-0.95) and for CON than CEF (hazard ratio = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.99). Culling was greater, and milk yield and fertility were lesser for CEF than NMET. In summary, CM did not improve the cure of metritis, and was detrimental to milk yield, survival, and fertility compared with CON. In contrast, CEF increased the cure of metritis, milk yield, and fertility compared with CM and CON. Finally, the negative effects of metritis on milk yield culling and fertility could not be completely reversed by CEF.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Endometrite/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Quitosana/química , Endometrite/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Florida , Lactação , Leite , Paridade , Tamanho da Partícula , Gravidez , Reprodução
5.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(6): e006573, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown beneficial effects of acute infusion of the primary ketone body, ß-hydroxybutyrate, in heart failure (HF). However, whether chronic elevations in circulating ketones are beneficial remains unknown. METHODS: To chronically elevate circulating ketones in mice, we deleted the expression of the ketolytic, rate-limiting-enzyme, SCOT (succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-CoA transferase 1; encoded by Oxct1), in skeletal muscle. Tamoxifen-inducible skeletal muscle-specific Oxct1Muscle-/- knockout (n=32) mice and littermate controls (wild type; WT; n=35) were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery to induce HF. RESULTS: Deletion of SCOT in skeletal, but not cardiac muscle resulted in elevated concentrations of fasted circulating ß-hydroxybutyrate in knockout mice compared with WT mice (P=0.030). Five weeks following TAC, WT mice progressed to HF, whereas knockout mice with elevated fasting circulating ketones were largely protected from the TAC-induced effects observed in WT mice (ejection fraction, P=0.011; mitral E/A, P=0.012). Furthermore, knockout mice with TAC had attenuated expression of markers of sterile inflammation and macrophage infiltration, which were otherwise elevated in WT mice subjected to TAC. Lastly, addition of ß-hydroxybutyrate to isolated hearts was associated with reduced NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3)-inflammasome activation, which has been previously shown to play a role in contributing to HF-induced cardiac inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that chronic elevation of circulating ketones protects against the development of HF that is associated with the ability of ß-hydroxybutyrate to directly reduce inflammation. These beneficial effects of ketones were associated with reduced cardiac NLRP3 inflammasome activation, suggesting that ketones may modulate cardiac inflammation via this mechanism.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Coenzima A-Transferases/deficiência , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Miocardite/prevenção & controle , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Animais , Coenzima A-Transferases/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/enzimologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Preparação de Coração Isolado , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Miocardite/sangue , Miocardite/enzimologia , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7288-7301, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475669

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine how feeding behavior of dairy cows is altered in response to diet-induced negative energy balance, and if this response varies depending on dietary particle size distribution. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 30; days in milk = 59 ± 5; parity = 2.8 ± 0.19), producing 44.6 ± 1.2 kg/d of milk, were fed (on a dry matter basis) a lactating diet [net energy of lactation (NEL) = 1.66 Mcal/kg; 68% forage, including 1.8% wheat straw] during a 2-wk baseline period. To induce negative energy balance, cows were then exposed for 3 wk to 1 of 2 diets formulated for a 20% reduction in energy available for milk (NEL = 1.58 Mcal/kg; 73% forage, including 17.2% wheat straw). These diets were identical, only varying in straw chop length: (1) long straw diet (LS): straw chopped with a 10.2-cm screen, or (2) short straw diet (SS): straw chopped with a 2.54-cm screen. Cows consumed 25.6 ± 0.26 kg/d during the baseline period. Dry matter intake decreased on the experimental diets; dry matter intake was greater for the SS diet as compared with the LS diet (23.1 vs. 22.5 kg/d; standard error = 0.47). During the baseline period, cow serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and blood ß-hydroxybutyrate averaged 0.27 ± 0.02 and 0.71 ± 0.05 mmol/L, respectively. During the experimental period, NEFA and ß-hydroxybutyrate averaged 0.34 and 1.04 mmol/L, respectively, with a peak of NEFA (0.63 ± 0.06 mmol/L) occurring 4 d after dietary change. During baseline, cows produced 42.3 ± 0.33 kg/d of milk; milk yield was decreased for both SS cows and LS cows during the experimental period (SS = 39.0, LS = 37.8 kg/d; standard error = 0.67). On the experimental diets, cows spent more time eating (266.8 vs. 221.8 min/d), had longer meal lengths (46.9 vs. 37.5 min/meal), and consumed fewer meals (7.1 vs. 7.7 meals/d) compared with the baseline period. Within the experimental period, LS cows spent more time eating per day than SS cows (LS = 281.3, SS = 252.2 min/d). During the baseline period cows sorted against long particles (>19 mm), did not sort medium particles (8 to 19 mm), and sorted for short (4 to 8 mm) and fine (<4 mm) particles. Cows did not change sorting of long particles on the SS diet, but increased sorting against these on the LS diet. On the SS diet cows did not change their sorting of short and fine particles. On the LS diet cows increased sorting for short and fine particles. In the baseline period, no association was detected between feed sorting and serum NEFA concentration. During the experimental period, greater NEFA concentration was associated with greater sorting in favor of short particles for both the LS and SS diets. Furthermore, greater NEFA concentration was associated with greater sorting against the longest particles for both the LS and SS diets. No associations of blood and meal variables were detected during the experimental period. Overall, cows altered their feed sorting behavior in response to experiencing a diet-induced period of negative energy balance and the severity of negative energy balance was associated with the extent of that change in feed sorting.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Leite/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Lactação , Triticum
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6354-6363, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359995

RESUMO

At the beginning of lactation, high-producing cows commonly experience an unbalanced energy status that is often responsible for the onset of metabolic disorders and impaired health and performance. Blood ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) are indicators of excessive fat mobilization and circulating ketone bodies. Recently, prediction models based on mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy have been developed to assess blood BHB and NEFA from routinely collected individual milk samples. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters of blood BHB and NEFA predicted from milk MIR spectra and to assess their phenotypic and genetic correlations with milk production and composition traits in early-lactation Holstein cows. The data set comprised the first test-day record within lactation and spectra of individual milk samples (n = 22,718) of 13,106 Holstein cows collected from 5 to 35 d in milk (DIM). Blood BHB and NEFA were predicted from milk MIR spectra using previously developed prediction models. Genetic parameters of blood metabolites and milk traits were estimated for the whole observational period (5-35 DIM) and within 6 classes of DIM. Blood BHB and NEFA showed similar genetic variation across DIM, with the highest heritability in the first 10 d after calving (0.31 ± 0.06 and 0.19 ± 0.05 for BHB and NEFA, respectively). The genetic correlation between BHB and NEFA was moderate (0.51 ± 0.05). Genetic correlations of BHB with milk yield, SCS, protein percentage, lactose percentage, and urea nitrogen content were similar to, or at least in the same direction as, the correlations of NEFA with the same traits, whereas opposite correlations were observed with fat percentage and fat-to-protein ratio. Results of the current study suggest that blood BHB and NEFA predicted from milk MIR spectra have genetic variation that is potentially exploitable for breeding purposes. Therefore, they could be used as indicator traits of hyperketonemia in a selection index aimed to reduce the susceptibility of dairy cows to metabolic disorders in early lactation.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Bovinos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Leite/química , Seleção Artificial , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Padrões de Herança , Cetose/genética , Cetose/veterinária , Lactação , Lactose/análise , Fenótipo
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6422-6438, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389474

RESUMO

In high-yielding dairy cattle, severe postpartum negative energy balance is often associated with metabolic and infectious disorders that negatively affect production, fertility, and welfare. Mobilization of adipose tissue associated with negative energy balance is reflected through an increased level of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood plasma. Earlier, identification of negative energy balance through detection of increased blood plasma NEFA concentration required laborious and stressful blood sampling. More recently, attempts have been made to predict blood NEFA concentration from milk samples. In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a model to predict blood plasma NEFA concentration using the milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra that are routinely measured in the context of milk recording. To this end, blood plasma and milk samples were collected in wk 2, 3, and 20 postpartum for 192 lactations in 3 herds. The blood plasma samples were taken in the morning, and representative milk samples were collected during the morning and evening milk sessions on the same day. To predict plasma NEFA concentration from the milk MIR spectra, partial least squares regression models were trained on part of the observations from the first herd. The models were then thoroughly validated on all other observations of the first herd and on the observations of the 2 independent herds to explore their robustness and wide applicability. The final model could accurately predict blood plasma NEFA concentrations <0.6 mmol/L with a root mean square error of prediction of <0.143 mmol/L. However, for blood plasma with >1.2 mmol/L NEFA, the model clearly underestimated the true level. Additionally, we found that morning blood plasma NEFA levels were predicted with significantly higher accuracy using MIR spectra of evening milk samples compared with MIR spectra of morning samples, with root mean square error of prediction values of, respectively, 0.182 and 0.197 mmol/L, and R2 values of 0.613 and 0.502. These results suggest a time delay between variations in blood plasma NEFA and related milk biomarkers. Based on the MIR spectra of evening milk samples, cows at risk for negative energy status, indicated by detrimental morning blood plasma NEFA levels (>0.6 mmol/L), could be identified with a sensitivity and specificity of, respectively, 0.831 and 0.800. As this model can be applied to millions of historical and future milk MIR spectra, it opens an opportunity for regular metabolic screening and improved resilience phenotyping.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Leite/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Bovinos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/química , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Lactação , Período Pós-Parto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6533-6556, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389476

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 gradual weaning programs and 2 locations of solid feed within individual calf pens on feed intake, growth, and behavior of calves fed milk by an automated milk feeder. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, 60 female calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 weaning treatments and 1 of 2 solid feed placement treatments. Calves were assigned to a continuous gradual weaning program (CG) or a multi-step gradual weaning program (MG). Calves assigned to the CG treatment had their milk allocation reduced in small, equal increments from 12.5 L/d on d 43 to 2 L/d on d 56. Calves assigned to the MG treatment were offered 10 L/d on d 43 to 45, 8 L/d on d 46 to 49, 6 L/d on d 50 to 52, and 3 L/d on d 53 to 56. Solid feed was placed either at the front of the pen adjacent (ADJ) to where the automated milk feeder offered milk or at the back of the pen on the opposite (OPP) side from where the milk was offered. All calves were offered 12.5 L/d of milk replacer from d 2 to 42, fresh solid feed (5% chopped wheat straw mixed with 95% calf starter pellet) from d 5 onward, and ad libitum water starting d 0. Calves were weaned from d 43 to 56 and additionally monitored from d 57 to 70. No interactions of effects of weaning and feed location treatment were detected. Both MG and CG calves had similar water and solid feed consumption, blood ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and behavior. By design, calves on the CG treatment consumed greater amounts of milk during the weaning phase than MG treatment calves (6.7 vs. 6.3 L/d), which resulted in milk drinking behavior differing between the treatments during the weaning phase. Although average daily gain and body weights were similar between treatments, MG calves had greater middle girth gain during wk 7 compared with CG calves (0.6 vs. 0.3 cm/d). Calves on the ADJ treatment consumed 16.7% more solid feed and 0.55 L/d more milk during the preweaning phase compared with OPP treatment calves. In all 3 phases, ADJ treatment calves consumed more water than OPP treatment calves. The ADJ calves spent more time consuming solid feed during the 10-wk period. The ADJ treatment calves had 10% greater average daily gain compared with OPP treatment calves during the preweaning phase. Overall, the results indicate that both gradual weaning treatments resulted in similar performance and behavior. However, placement of solid feed next to the milk source was demonstrated to increase feed, water, and milk intake during the preweaning stage, contributing to greater growth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Leite/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória , Desmame
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e002220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428186

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection on the hemato-biochemical parameters, feed digestibility, and nitrogen balance in Santa Inês lambs. Eighteen three-month-old Santa Ines castrated male lambs (16.9 ± 1.43 kg of body weight) were randomly distributed in two experimental treatments: infected with T. colubriformis (I, n = 9) and uninfected (U, n = 9). The I group received a total of 45,000 L3 larvae of T. colubriformis (5,000 infective larvae, three times per week, for three weeks). During the experimental period, blood, feed digestibility, and nitrogen balance were evaluated. The I lambs showed a reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and total proteins, as well as an increase in platelets and eosinophils compared to those in the U group (p < 0.05). With the exception of total protein content, these values were within the normal range for the species. Furthermore, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility were observed in the I lambs (p = 0.08). The present findings highlight that T. colubriformis infection has the potential to impair some hemato-biochemical parameters as well as feed digestibility in lambs, which could affect their productivity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Sistema Digestório/parasitologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/parasitologia , Trichostrongylus/parasitologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Índices de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Masculino , Nitrogênio/urina , Soroalbumina Bovina/análise , Soroglobulinas/análise , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/sangue , Tricostrongilose/urina , Tricostrongilose/veterinária
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7451-7461, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448574

RESUMO

Objectives were to evaluate the effects of rumen-protected glucose (RPG) supplementation on milk production, post-absorptive metabolism, and inflammatory biomarkers in transition dairy cows. Fifty-two multiparous cows were blocked by previous 305-d mature-equivalent milk (305ME) yield and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous treatments: (1) control diet (CON; n = 26) or (2) a diet containing RPG (pre-fresh 5.3% of dry matter and 6.0% of dry matter postpartum; n = 26). Cows received their respective dietary treatments from d -21 to 28 relative to calving, and dry matter intake was calculated daily during the same period. Weekly body weight, milk composition, and fecal pH were recorded until 28 d in milk (DIM), and milk yield was recorded through 105 DIM. Blood samples were collected on d -7, 3, 7, 14, and 28 relative to calving. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in the MIXED procedure (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with previous 305ME as a covariate. Fecal pH was similar between treatments and decreased (0.6 units) postpartum. Dry matter intake pre- and postpartum were unaffected by treatment, as was milk yield during the first 28 or 105 DIM. Milk fat, protein, and lactose concentration were similar for both treatments. Blood urea nitrogen and plasma glucose concentrations were unaffected by treatment; however, results showed increased concentration of circulating insulin (27%), lower nonesterified fatty acids (28%), and lower postpartum ß-hydroxybutyrate (24%) in RPG-fed cows. Overall, circulating lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and haptoglobin did not differ by treatment, but at 7 DIM, RPG-fed cows had decreased lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and haptoglobin concentrations (31 and 27%, respectively) compared with controls. Supplemental RPG improved some biomarkers of post-absorptive energetics and inflammation during the periparturient period, changes primarily characterized by increased insulin and decreased nonesterified fatty acids concentrations, with a concomitant reduction in acute phase proteins without changing milk production and composition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Glucose/farmacologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/sangue , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactose/análise , Lactose/metabolismo , Leite , Rúmen/metabolismo
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6576-6582, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448581

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate if hyperketonemia in dairy cows (defined as plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.0 mmol/L) can be predicted using on-farm cow data either in current or previous lactation week, and (2) to study if adding individual net energy intake (NEI) can improve the predictive ability of the model. Plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration, on-farm cow data (milk yield, percentage of fat, protein and lactose, fat- and protein-corrected milk yield, body weight, body weight change, dry period length, parity, and somatic cell count), and NEI of 424 individual cows were available weekly through lactation wk 1 to 5 postpartum. To predict hyperketonemia in dairy cows, models were first trained by partial least square discriminant analysis, using on-farm cow data in the same or previous lactation week. Second, NEI was included in models to evaluate the improvement of the predictability of the models. Through leave-one trial-out cross-validation, models were evaluated by accuracy (the ratio of the sum of true positive and true negative), sensitivity (68.2% to 84.9%), specificity (61.5% to 98.7%), positive predictive value (57.7% to 98.7%), and negative predictive value (66.2% to 86.1%) to predict hyperketonemia of dairy cows. Through lactation wk 1 to 5, the accuracy to predict hyperketonemia using data in the same week was 64.4% to 85.5% (on-farm cow data only), 66.1% to 87.0% (model including NEI), and using data in the previous week was 58.5% to 82.0% (on-farm cow data only), 59.7% to 85.1% (model including NEI). An improvement of the accuracy of the model due to including NEI ranged among lactation weeks from 1.0% to 4.4% when using data in the same lactation week and 0.2% to 6.6% when using data in the previous lactation week. In conclusion, trained models via partial least square discriminant analysis have potential to predict hyperketonemia in dairy cows not only using data in the current lactation week, but also using data in the previous lactation week. Net energy intake can improve the accuracy of the model, but only to a limited extent. Besides NEI, body weight, body weight change, milk fat, and protein content were important variables to predict hyperketonemia, but their rank of importance differed across lactation weeks.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Ingestão de Energia , Cetose/veterinária , Leite/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Análise Discriminante , Fazendas , Feminino , Cetose/sangue , Lactação , Lactose/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Paridade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5616-5628, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229111

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate temporal variations in circulating levels of selected hormones and metabolites in commercial dairy goats during the transition period. Blood samples from 940 goats were collected weekly, from -3 to 3 wk relative to delivery, to measure the effects of level of milk production, parity number, and litter size on concentrations of glucose, ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), fatty acids, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). A subset of 80 goats [40 low-yielding (LY, < 1.8 L/d) and 40 high-yielding goats (HY, > 3.7 L/d)] were selected from the study population to measure the effects of level of milk production on plasma concentration of insulin, prolactin, and growth hormone. Average (±SD) milk yield (from 3 to 30 d in milk), body weight, and body condition score for the study population were 2.4 ± 0.78 L/d, 70 ± 16.0 kg, and 2.5 ± 0.28 units, respectively. Milk yield was moderately correlated with parity number (r = 0.49) but had weak correlation with litter size (r = 0.14). In multiparous but not in primiparous goats, antepartum concentrations of fatty acids and BHB increased with increasing litter size. Concentrations of fatty acids, BHB, and PUN were consistently lower in primiparous goats compared with those in second or greater parity. Postpartum, HY goats had higher ratios of glucose, fatty acids, and BHB to insulin than did LY goats, which might explain the greater mobilization of body tissues and enhanced milk production observed in this group. Collectively, our results indicate that increased milk yield has the most significant influence on the magnitude of body tissue mobilization. Our results also show that goats of higher parity display higher levels of lipid mobilization, and that both pregnancy and lactation are less able to elicit lipomobilization in primiparous compared with multiparous goats.


Assuntos
Cabras/metabolismo , Lactação/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Insulina/sangue , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Leite/metabolismo , Paridade , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Gravidez
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6392-6406, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331880

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to detect the genomic region or regions associated with metabolic clusters in early-lactation Holstein cows. This study was carried out in 2 experiments. In experiment I, which was carried out on 105 multiparous Holstein cows, animals were classified through k-means clustering on log-transformed and standardized concentrations of blood glucose, insulin-like growth factor I, free fatty acids, and ß-hydroxybutyrate at 14 and 35 d in milk (DIM), into metabolic clusters, either balanced (BAL) or other (OTR). Forty percent of the animals were categorized in the BAL group, and the remainder were categorized as OTR. The cows were genotyped for a total of 777,962 SNP. A genome-wide association study was performed, using a case-control approach through the GEMMA software, accounting for population structure. We found 8 SNP (BTA11, BTA23, and BTAX) associated with the predicted metabolic clusters. In experiment II, carried out on 4,267 second-parity Holstein cows, milk samples collected starting from the first week until 50 DIM were used to determine Fourier-transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectra and subsequently to classify the animals into the same metabolic clusters (BAL vs. OTR). Twenty-eight percent of the animals were categorized in the BAL group, and the remainder were classified in the OTR category. Although daily milk yield was lower in BAL cows, we found no difference in daily fat- and protein-corrected milk yield in cows from the BAL metabolic cluster compared with those in the OTR metabolic cluster. In the next step, a single-step genomic BLUP was used to identify the genomic region(s) associated with the predicted metabolic clusters. The results revealed that prediction of metabolic clusters is a highly polygenic trait regulated by many small-sized effects. The region of 36,258 to 36,295 kb on BTA27 was the highly associated region for the predicted metabolic clusters, with the closest genes to this region (ANK1 and miR-486) being related to hematopoiesis, erythropoiesis, and mammary gland development. The heritability for metabolic clustering was 0.17 (SD 0.03), indicating that the use of FT-MIR spectra in milk to predict metabolic clusters in early-lactation across a large number of cows has satisfactory potential to be included in genetic selection programs for modern dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Lactação/fisiologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Gravidez
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6672-6678, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331887

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to use longitudinal data to examine the relationships between blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and glucose during the transition period in dairy goats. Weekly blood samples were collected from Saanen goats from a commercial herd in Australia [1-7 yr; body weight 70 ± 16.0 kg; body condition score 2.5 ± 0.3; and daily milk yield 2.4 ± 0.73 L/d; all mean ± standard deviation (SD)]. The weekly prevalence of goats above hyperketonemic levels (BHB ≥0.8 mmol/L) was approximately 6 times greater postpartum than antepartum. As well, of the 935 goats sampled antepartum, 50 (5%) had at least 1 hyperketonemic event, and 823 (88%) had at least 1 event of NEFA above the threshold (≥0.3 mmol/L). Of 847 goats tested postpartum, 258 (30%) had at least 1 hyperketonemic event, and 690 goats (81%) had at least 1 event of NEFA above the threshold (≥ 0.7 mmol/L). Substantial variation was found when analyzing the mean days of maximum NEFA and maximum BHB concentrations antepartum (-11 ± 6.6 and -14 ± 7.2 d, respectively, mean ± SD) and postpartum (14 ± 6.6 and 9 ± 6.8 d, respectively, mean ± SD). We observed moderate to strong relationships between NEFA and BHB concentrations (r = 0.66) and between NEFA and glucose concentrations (r = -0.46) throughout the transition period. Our results suggested that 3 to 16 d in milk is the best sampling window for monitoring hyperketonemia in dairy goats, and that results from simultaneous BHB and glucose tests provide an improved indication of the fat mobilization and energy status of the herd when measured close to this timeframe.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Cabras/sangue , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/sangue , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cetose/epidemiologia , Cetose/veterinária , Lactação , Estudos Longitudinais , Leite/química , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Prevalência
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6557-6568, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331890

RESUMO

Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial deacetylase, is a key regulator of energy metabolism in the liver. In nonruminants, the hepatic abundance of SIRT3 is decreased in individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases, and recovery of SIRT3 alleviates hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition. However, the level of SIRT3 expression and its effects on lipid metabolism in dairy cows have not been characterized. Here we studied the hepatic expression of SIRT3 in cows with fatty liver and the role of SIRT3 in fatty acid metabolism in bovine hepatocytes. This in vivo study involved 10 healthy cows and 10 cows with fatty liver, from which we collected samples of liver tissue and blood. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from Holstein calves and treated with 0, 0.5, or 1.0 mM nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) for 24 h or transinfected with SIRT3 overexpression adenovirus (Ad-SIRT3)/SIRT3-short interfering (si)RNA for 48 h. Cows with fatty liver displayed lower serum glucose concentrations but higher serum NEFA and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations relative to healthy cows. Cows with fatty liver also had significant lower mRNA and protein abundance of hepatic SIRT3. Incubation of primary hepatocytes with NEFA reduced SIRT3 abundance in primary hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Fatty acid (1 mM) treatment also markedly increased the abundance of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) but significantly decreased the abundance of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1A), carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2), and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO). Knockdown of SIRT3 by SIRT3-siRNA downregulated the mRNA abundance of CPT1A, CPT2, and ACO. In contrast, overexpression of SIRT3 by Ad-SIRT3 upregulated the mRNA abundance of CPT1A, CPT2, and ACO; downregulated the mRNA abundance of ACC1 and FAS; and consequently, decreased intracellular TG concentrations. Overexpression of SIRT3 ameliorated exogenous NEFA-induced TG accumulation by downregulating the abundance of ACC1 and FAS and upregulating the abundance of CPT1A, CPT2, and ACO in calf hepatocytes. Our data demonstrated that cows with fatty liver had lower hepatic SIRT3 contents, and an increase in SIRT3 abundance by overexpression mitigated TG deposition by modulating the expression of lipid metabolism genes in bovine hepatocytes. These data suggest a possible role of SIRT3 as a therapeutic target for fatty liver disease prevention in periparturient dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/administração & dosagem , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/efeitos dos fármacos , Acil-CoA Oxidase/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Sirtuína 3/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
17.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(6): F1418-F1429, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308019

RESUMO

The use of high dialysate bicarbonate for hemodialysis in end-stage renal disease is associated with increased mortality, but potential physiological mediators are poorly understood. Alkalinization due to high dialysate bicarbonate may stimulate organic acid generation, which could lead to poor outcomes. Using measurements of ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and lactate, we quantified organic anion (OA) balance in two single-arm studies comparing high and low bicarbonate prescriptions. In study 1 (n = 10), patients became alkalemic using 37 meq/L dialysate bicarbonate; in contrast, with the use of 27 meq/L dialysate, net bicarbonate loss occurred and blood bicarbonate decreased. Total OA losses were not higher with 37 meq/L dialysate bicarbonate (50.9 vs. 49.1 meq using 27 meq/L, P = 0.66); serum BHB increased in both treatments similarly (P = 0.27); and blood lactate was only slightly higher with the use of 37 meq/L dialysate (P = 0.048), differing by 0.2 meq/L at the end of hemodialysis. In study 2 (n = 7), patients achieved steady state on two bicarbonate prescriptions: they were significantly more acidemic when dialyzed against a 30 meq/L bicarbonate dialysate compared with 35 meq/L and, as in study 1, became alkalemic when dialyzed against the higher bicarbonate dialysate. OA losses were similar to those in study 1 and again did not differ between treatments (38.9 vs. 43.5 meq, P = 0.42). Finally, free fatty acid levels increased throughout hemodialysis and correlated with the change in serum BHB (r = 0.81, P < 0.001), implicating upregulation of lipolysis as the mechanism for increased ketone production. In conclusion, lowering dialysate bicarbonate does not meaningfully reduce organic acid generation during hemodialysis or modify organic anion losses into dialysate.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Alcalose/sangue , Bicarbonatos/administração & dosagem , Soluções para Hemodiálise/administração & dosagem , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Diálise Renal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alcalose/diagnóstico , Alcalose/etiologia , Alcalose/fisiopatologia , Bicarbonatos/efeitos adversos , Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Soluções para Hemodiálise/efeitos adversos , Soluções para Hemodiálise/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Lipólise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5047-5060, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278566

RESUMO

Ruminants are born with an undeveloped physical, metabolic, and microbial rumen. Rumen development is limited under artificial rearing systems when newborn animals are separated from the dam, fed on milk replacer, and weaned at an early age. This study aims to evaluate the effects of early-life inoculation of young ruminants with rumen fluid from adult animals. Eighty newborn goat kids were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 experimental treatments and inoculated daily from d 1 to wk 11 with autoclaved rumen fluid (AUT), fresh rumen fluid obtained from adult goats fed either a forage diet (RFF) or concentrate-rich diet (RFC), or absence of inoculation (CTL). Goat kids were artificially reared with ad libitum access to milk replacer, starter concentrate, and forage hay. Blood was sampled weekly and rumen microbial fermentation was monitored at 5 (preweaning), 7 (weaning), and 9 wk of age (postweaning). Results indicated that inoculation with fresh rumen fluid accelerated the rumen microbial and fermentative development before weaning. As a result, RFC and RFF animals had higher solid feed intake (+73%), rumen concentrations of ammonia-N (+26%), total volatile fatty acids (+46%), butyrate (+50%), and plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate (+48%), and lower milk intake (-6%) than CTL and AUT animals at wk 5. Inoculation with fresh inoculum also promoted early rumen colonization by a complex and abundant protozoal community, whereas CTL animals remained protozoa free. Although all kids experienced moderate growth retardation during 1 wk after weaning, inoculation with fresh rumen fluid favored the weaning process, leading to 2.2 times higher weight gain than CTL and AUT animals during wk 8. Some of these advantages were retained during the postweaning period and RFF and RFC animals showed higher forage intake (up to +44%) than CTL and AUT animals with no detrimental effects on feed digestibility or stress levels. The superior microbial load of RFC compared with RFF inoculum tended to provide further improvements in terms of forage intake, plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate, and rumen protozoa, whereas AUT inoculation provided minor (if any) advantages with respect to CTL animals. Although no differences were noted on animal growth, this study suggests that early life inoculation of goat kids with rumen microbiota can represent an effective strategy to accelerate the rumen development, facilitating a smooth transition from milk to solid feed and to the potential implementation of early weaning strategies.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Cabras , Rúmen , Desmame , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Ração Animal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Cabras/metabolismo , Microbiota , Leite/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
19.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(9): 603-609, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252101

RESUMO

The ergogenic effect of caffeine is well established, although no investigations providing a high carbohydrate feeding strategy (pre-exercise meal=2 g/kg BM) co-ingested with caffeine exist for soccer. This investigation examines the effect of caffeine in addition to a pre-exercise carbohydrate meal and drink mid-way through a soccer simulation. Eight recreational soccer players completed an 85-minute soccer simulation followed by an exercise capacity test (Yo-yo Intermittent Endurance test level 2) on two occasions. Prior to exercise participants consumed a high carbohydrate meal, with placebo or 5 mg/kg BM-1 caffeine. No significant performance effect was identified (p=0.099) despite a 12.8% (109 m) improvement in exercise capacity following caffeine. Rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation did not differ between conditions and nor were differences apparent for plasma glucose, fatty acids, glycerol, ß-hydroxybutyrate (p>0.05). However, an increase in lactate was observed for caffeine (p=0.039). A significant condition effect on rating of perceived exertion was identified (p<0.001), with the overall mean for the protocol lowered to 11.7±0.9 au for caffeine compared to 12.8±1.3 au. Caffeine supplementation with a carbohydrate feeding strategy failed to affect metabolic and metabolite responses, although reductions in perception of exercise were observed. While a 12.8% increase in exercise capacity was noted the findings were not significant, possibly due to the small sample size.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Futebol/fisiologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Glicerol/sangue , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4795-4805, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113768

RESUMO

Negative energy balance in dairy cows in early lactation is related to alteration of metabolic status. However, the relationships among energy balance, metabolic profile in plasma, and metabolic profile in milk have not been reported. In this study our aims were: (1) to reveal the metabolic profiles of plasma and milk by integrating results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with data from liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS); and (2) to investigate the relationship between energy balance and the metabolic profiles of plasma and milk. For this study 24 individual dairy cows (parity 2.5 ± 0.5; mean ± standard deviation) were studied in lactation wk 2. Body weight (mean ± standard deviation; 627.4 ± 56.4 kg) and milk yield (28.1 ± 6.7 kg/d; mean ± standard deviation) were monitored daily. Milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose) and net energy balance were calculated. Plasma and milk samples were collected and analyzed using LC-MS and NMR. From all plasma metabolites measured, 27 were correlated with energy balance. These plasma metabolites were related to body reserve mobilization from body fat, muscle, and bone; increased blood flow; and gluconeogenesis. From all milk metabolites measured, 30 were correlated with energy balance. These milk metabolites were related to cell apoptosis and cell proliferation. Nine metabolites detected in both plasma and milk were correlated with each other and with energy balance. These metabolites were mainly related to hyperketonemia; ß-oxidation of fatty acids; and one-carbon metabolism. The metabolic profiles of plasma and milk provide an in-depth insight into the physiological pathways of dairy cows in negative energy balance in early lactation. In addition to the classical indicators for energy balance (e.g., ß-hydroxybutyrate, acetone, and glucose), the current study presents some new metabolites (e.g., glycine in plasma and milk; kynurenine, panthothenate, or arginine in plasma) in lactating dairy cows that are related to energy balance and may be of interest as new indicators for energy balance.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Lactação/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Leite/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Lactose/análise , Gravidez
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