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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 349, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: AFP is a negative regulator of ABA signaling that promotes ABI5 protein degradation and weakens regulation of ABA signaling by targeting upstream genes of ABI5, and TaABI5 gene was seed-specific, and accumulated during wheat grain maturation and dormancy acquisition, which played an important role in seed dormancy; TaAFP has a conserved domain with AFP, so TaAFP may also play an important role in seed dormancy in wheat. RESULTS: Two allelic variants of TaAFP were identified on chromosome 2BS in common wheat, and designated as TaAFP-B1a and TaAFP-B1b. Sequence analysis showed a 4-bp deletion in the 5'UTR region of TaAFP-B1b compared with TaAFP-B1a. Based on the 4-bp deletion, a co-dominant functional marker of TaAFP-B was developed and designated as AFPB. The genotype generating a 203-bp fragment (TaAFP-B1b) was more resistant to pre-harvest sprouting than the genotype producing a 207-bp fragment (TaAFP-B1a) in a test of 91 white-grained Chinese wheat cultivars and advanced lines. The average germination index(GI) values of TaAFP-B1a and that of TaAFP-B1b were 45.18 and 30.72%, respectively, indicating a significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, the 4-bp deletion located in the 5'UTR not only affected the transcription level of TaAFP-B but also affected the mRNA decay, reduced the translation level of GUS and tdTomatoER and GUS activity in wheat leaves of transient expression. The transcript expression and the mRNA half-life value of TaAFP-B1a in developing seeds and mature seeds were much higher than those of TaAFP-B1b. CONCLUSION: We identified a 4-bp InDel in the 5'UTR of TaAFP-B, which affected the mRNA transcription level, mRNA decay, translation levels of GUS and tdTomatoER, GUS activity, and was significantly associated with seed dormancy in common wheat. A functional marker was developed and validated based on this InDel.


Assuntos
Dormência de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 203-220, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297725

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Here, a functional characterization of a wheat MSR has been presented: this protein makes a contribution to the plant's tolerance of abiotic stress, acting through its catalytic capacity and its modulation of ROS and ABA pathways. The molecular mechanism and function of certain members of the methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) gene family have been defined, however, these analyses have not included the wheat equivalents. The wheat MSR gene TaMSRA4.1 is inducible by salinity and drought stress and in this study, we demonstrate that its activity is restricted to the Met-S-SO enantiomer, and its subcellular localization is in the chloroplast. Furthermore, constitutive expression of TaMSRA4.1 enhanced the salinity and drought tolerance of wheat and Arabidopsis thaliana. In these plants constitutively expressing TaMSRA4.1, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to be influenced through the modulation of genes encoding proteins involved in ROS signaling, generation and scavenging, while the level of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), and the sensitivity of stomatal guard cells to exogenous ABA, was increased. A yeast two-hybrid screen, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) interacted with TaMSRA4.1, and that this interaction depended on a TaHO1 C-terminal domain. In plants subjected to salinity or drought stress, TaMSRA4.1 reversed the oxidation of TaHO1, activating ROS and ABA signaling pathways, but not in the absence of HO1. The aforementioned properties advocate TaMSRA4.1 as a candidate for plant genetic enhancement.


Assuntos
Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Metionina Sulfóxido Redutases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/enzimologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Metionina Sulfóxido Redutases/genética , Oxirredução , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/fisiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(6): 1854-1860, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257756

RESUMO

To clarify the effects and underlying mechanism of ABA on sugar accumulation in apple fruits, 13C trace technique was used to examined the effects of different ABA levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg·L-1) and fluoridone (ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) on translocation of photosynthate to fruit during late stage of fruit rapid-swelling in five-year-old 'Yanfu3'/M26/Malus hupehensis Rehd. The results showed that the activities of related enzyme in sugar metabolism, the relative expression of sucrose transporter gene MdSUT1, MdSUT2.2 and sorbitol transporter gene MdSOT3 tended to increase first and then decrease with increasing ABA concentration, with a peak in 100 mg·L-1ABA treatment. Fluridone treatment significantly inhibited the enzymes activities of sugar metabolism and the relative expression of sugar transporters. The treatment of 100 mg·L-1ABA significantly reduced leaf 13C content, increased fruit 13C content and increased the transport rate of photosynthate from leaves to fruits compared with other treatments. Our results indicated that exogenous ABA enhanced sink strength of fruit and promoted the transportation of more photosynthate to fruits, which increased the soluble sugar content in fruits.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Frutas/fisiologia , Malus , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos , Frutas/química , Folhas de Planta
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 317, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins, which are colored pigments, have long been used as food and pharmaceutical ingredients due to their potential health benefits, but the intermediate signals through which environmental or developmental cues regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis remains poorly understood. Fleshy fruits have become a good system for studying the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and exploring the mechanism underlying pigment metabolism is valuable for controlling fruit ripening. RESULTS: The present study revealed that ABA accumulated during Lycium fruit ripening, and this accumulation was positively correlated with the anthocyanin contents and the LbNCED1 transcript levels. The application of exogenous ABA and of the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridon increased and decreased the content of anthocyanins in Lycium fruit, respectively. This is the first report to show that ABA promotes the accumulation of anthocyanins in Lycium fruits. The variations in the anthocyanin content were consistent with the variations in the expression of the genes encoding the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription factor complex or anthocyanin biosynthesis-related enzymes. Virus-induced LbNCED1 gene silencing significantly slowed fruit coloration and decreased both anthocyanin and ABA accumulation during Lycium fruit ripening. An qRT-PCR analysis showed that LbNCED1 gene silencing clearly reduced the transcript levels of both structural and regulatory genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, a model of ABA-mediated development-dependent anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration during Lycium fruit maturation was proposed. In this model, the developmental cues transcriptionally activates LbNCED1 and thus enhances accumulation of the phytohormone ABA, and the accumulated ABA stimulates transcription of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription factor complex to upregulate the expression of structural genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and thereby promoting anthocyanin production and fruit coloration. Our results provide a valuable strategy that could be used in practice to regulate the ripening and quality of fresh fruit in medicinal and edible plants by modifying the phytohormone ABA.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycium/metabolismo , Pigmentação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Lycium/genética , Lycium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(9): 1165-1180, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161264

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Arabidopsis photorespiratory gene AtAGT1 is important for the growth and development of root, the non-photosynthetic organ, and it is involved in a complex metabolic network and salt resistance. AtAGT1 in Arabidopsis encodes an aminotransferase that has a wide range of donor:acceptor combinations, including Asn:glyoxylate. Although it is one of the photorespiratory genes, its encoding protein has been suggested to function also in roots to metabolize Asn. However, experimental data are still lacking. In this study, we investigated experimentally the function of AtAGT1 in roots and our results uncovered its importance in root development during seedling establishment after seed germination. Overexpression of AtAGT1 in roots promoted both the growth of primary root and outgrowth of lateral roots. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying, amino acid content and gene expression in roots were analyzed, and results revealed that AtAGT1 is involved in a complex metabolic network and salt resistance of roots.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Expressão Gênica , Germinação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Tolerância ao Sal , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/fisiologia , Transaminases/genética , Transaminases/metabolismo
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 206-214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176880

RESUMO

SUMOylation is an important protein modification that regulates the properties of substrate proteins in a variety of cellular processes. SUMOylation is catalyzed via a cascade of enzymes and is usually stimulated by SUMO E3 ligases. However, the molecular functions and regulatory mechanisms of SUMOylation in forage crops are unknown. Here, we isolated and functionally characterized DiMMS21, a homolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana SUMO ligase AtMMS21, from the forage legume Desmodium intortum. DiMMS21 is expressed ubiquitously in various D. intortum organs and its encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that DiMMS21 contains a conserved SP-RING domain that is required for its activity. Biochemical evidence supports the notion that this protein is a functional SUMO ligase. When expressed in an Arabidopsis mms21 mutant, DiMMS21 completely rescued the defects in root, leaf, and silique development. The results from cotyledon greening and marker gene expression suggested that DiMMS21 can only partially complements the role of AtMMS21 in abscisic acid (ABA) responses. In summary, we characterized the molecular features of DiMMS21 and uncovered potential roles of this SUMO ligase in development and ABA responses, increasing our understanding on the function of SUMOylation in forage crops.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Citoplasma/metabolismo , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/metabolismo
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 300-305, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202194

RESUMO

MYB-type transcription factors are known to participate in the response of plants to a number of stress agents. MsMYB2L is an alfalfa member of this large gene family. Its transcription in alfalfa seedlings was found to be rapidly and strongly induced by salinity, moisture deficiency and exogenously supplied abscisic acid. An analysis based on a yeast one hybrid assay indicated that its product is able to activate transcription, consistent with its function as a transcription factor. When the gene was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, both germination and seedling growth were more sensitive to ABA treatment than wild type, and growth was less strongly compromised by salinity and moisture deficiency stress, presumably as a result of the induction of certain stress-related genes active in ABA-dependent pathways. The transgenic seedlings' enhanced the synthesis of many osmotic regulatory substances such as proline and soluble sugar, and decreased the lipid peroxidation. In all, MsMYB2L represents a potential candidate gene for manipulating the salinity and drought tolerance of alfalfa.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Secas , Medicago sativa/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Salinidade , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas Genéticas , Germinação , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Plântula/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Açúcares/química , Transcrição Genética , Ativação Transcricional
8.
J Plant Physiol ; 239: 52-60, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185317

RESUMO

The contents of eight phytohormones and the expression levels of genes encoding enzymes related to abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and deactivation/degradation and transcription factors (TFs) related to fruit ripening were studied in the non-climacteric strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa Duch., cv. 'Seolhyang') at six developmental stages. The hormones tested were ABA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid 4 (GA4), jasmonic acid (JA), methyljasmonate (MJ), jasmonoyl isoleucine (JA-Ile), salicylic acid (SA), and ethylene (ET). The developmental and ripening stages studied were small green (S1, 11 days post-anthesis, DPA), green (S2, 20 DPA), breaker (S3, 24 DPA), pink (S4, 27 DPA), red (S5, 31 DPA), and fully red (S6, 40 DPA). IAA and GA4 contents were highest at S1 and gradually decreased after this stage. ABA content was low at S1-S3 and then increased rapidly until peaking at S6. By contrast, MJ content showed no significant changes over time, while SA content gradually increased. JA, JA-Ile, and ET contents were either insufficient for quantification or undetectable. Expression of the ABA biosynthesis genes FaNCED1 and FaABA2 increased during fruit ripening, whereas expression of the ABA deactivation/degradation genes FaUGT75C1 and FaCYP707A1 was high early in development, when ABA content was low, and then decreased. Among four ripening-related TF genes, FaMYB1, FaMYB5, FaMYB10, and FaASR, only the expression of FaMYB10 seemed to be closely related to strawberry fruit ripening. Our study supports the idea that ABA and FaMYB10 appear to be the key hormone and TF regulating strawberry ripening.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/genética , Fragaria/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(7): 1124-1136, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216607

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that cause reduction of plant growth and crop productivity. It has been reported that plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) could confer abiotic stress tolerance to plants. In a previous study, we screened bacterial strains capable of enhancing plant health under abiotic stresses and identified these strains based on 16s rRNA sequencing analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of two selected strains, Bacillus aryabhattai H19-1 and B. mesonae H20-5, on responses of tomato plants against salinity stress. As a result, they alleviated decrease in plant growth and chlorophyll content; only strain H19-1 increased carotenoid content compared to that in untreated plants under salinity stress. Strains H19-1 and H20-5 significantly decreased electrolyte leakage, whereas they increased Ca2+ content compared to that in the untreated control. Our results also indicated that H20-5-treated plants accumulated significantly higher levels of proline, abscisic acid (ABA), and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to untreated and H19-1-treated plants during salinity stress. Moreover, strain H20-5 upregulated 9-cisepoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and abscisic acid-response element-binding proteins 1 (AREB1) genes, otherwise strain H19-1 downregulated AREB1 in tomato plants after the salinity challenge. These findings demonstrated that strains H19-1 and H20-5 induced ABA-independent and -dependent salinity tolerance, respectively, in tomato plants, therefore these strains can be used as effective bio-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Bacillus/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prolina/metabolismo , Estresse Salino
10.
Plant Sci ; 285: 34-43, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203892

RESUMO

Seed germination is a critical stage during the initiation of the plant lifecycle and is strongly affected by endogenous phytohormones and environmental stress. High temperature (HT) upregulates endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) to suppress seed germination, and ABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) is the key positive regulator in the ABA signal-mediated modulation of seed germination. In plants, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a small gas messenger that participates in multiple physiological processes, but its role in seed germination thermotolerance has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, we found that H2S enhanced the seed germination rate under HT. Moreover, HT accelerates the efflux of the E3 ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, which results in increased nuclear accumulation of ELONG HYPCOTYL 5 (HY5) to activate the expression of ABI5 and thereby suppress seed germination. However, the H2S signal reversed the HT effect, as characterized by increased COP1 in the nucleus, which resulted in increased degradation of HY5 and reduced expression of ABI5 and thereby enhanced the seed germination thermotolerance. Thus, our findings reveal a novel role for the H2S signal in the modulation of seed germination thermotolerance through the nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of COP1 and the downstream HY5 and ABI5 pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Germinação/fisiologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/enzimologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Termotolerância , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/fisiologia
11.
Plant Sci ; 285: 79-90, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203896

RESUMO

Inactivation of abscisic acid (ABA) in vitro may be catalyzed either by ABA 8'-hydroxylase (ABA8'OH) or by ABA uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase (ABAUGT), which conjugates ABA with glucose. However, the involvement of these enzymes in the control of ABA content in vivo, especially ABAUGT, has not been fully elucidated. In pea seeds, both PsABAUGT1 and PsABA8'OH1 contribute to the reduction of ABA content during seed maturation and imbibition; however, during the first hours of imbibition, a high expression of only PsABAUGT1 was observed. Imbibition of seeds with H2O2 increased the ABA content despite the oxygen availability and altered the expression of metabolic genes. The expression of the biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotene dioxygenase (PsNCED2) was increased, while that of PsABAUGT1 was decreased in each H2O2 experiment despite O2 availability. Under hypoxia, only seeds imbibed with H2O2 germinated, while under nonlimiting oxygen conditions, the germination rate was not altered by H2O2. Under hypoxia, the germination rate of H2O2-imbibed seeds seemed to not depend on the absolute ABA content and rather on the balance between ABA and gibberellins (GA), as H2O2 increased the expression of GA synthesis genes. Overexpression of PsABAUGT1 in Arabidopsis decreases seed ABA content, accelerates germination and reduces seed sensitivity to exogenously applied ABA, confirming the ability of PsABAUGT1 to inactivate ABA. Thus, PsABAUGT1 is a new player in the regulation of ABA content in maturating and imbibed pea seeds, both under standard conditions and in response to H2O2.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Germinação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis , Homeostase , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ervilhas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072025

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA)-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) proteins are reported to be involved in drought stress responses. However, the function of maize ASR genes in enhancing drought tolerance is not known. Here, nine maize ASR members were cloned, and the molecular features of these genes were analyzed. Phenotype results of overexpression of maize ZmASR3 gene in Arabidopsis showed lower malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and higher relative water content (RWC) and proline content than the wild type under drought conditions, demonstrating that ZmASR3 can improve drought tolerance. Further experiments showed that ZmASR3-overexpressing transgenic lines displayed increased stomatal closure and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation by increasing the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) under drought conditions. Moreover, overexpression of ZmASR3 in Arabidopsis increased ABA content and reduced sensitivity to exogenous ABA in both the germination and post-germination stages. In addition, the ROS-related, stress-responsive, and ABA-dependent pathway genes were activated in transgenic lines under drought stress. Taken together, these results suggest that ZmASR3 acts as a positive regulator of drought tolerance in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Secas , Fatores Genéricos de Transcrição/genética , Zea mays/genética , Ácido Abscísico/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
13.
Planta ; 250(2): 445-462, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055624

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Abscisic acid is involved in the drought response of Ilex paraguariensis. Acclimation includes root growth stimulation, stomatal closure, osmotic adjustment, photoprotection, and regulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and amino acid metabolisms. Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) is cultivated in the subtropical region of South America, where the occurrence of drought episodes limit yield. To explore the mechanisms that allow I. paraguariensis to overcome dehydration, we investigated (1) how gene expression varied between water-stressed and non-stressed plants and (2) in what way the modulation of gene expression was linked to physiological status and metabolite composition. A total of 4920 differentially expressed transcripts were obtained through RNA-Seq after water deprivation. Drought induced the expression of several transcripts involved in the ABA-signalling pathway. Stomatal closure and leaf osmotic adjustments were promoted to minimize water loss, and these responses were accompanied by a high transcriptional remodeling of stress perception, signalling and transcriptional regulation, the photoprotective and antioxidant systems, and other stress-responsive genes. Simultaneously, significant changes in metabolite contents were detected. Glutamine, phenylalanine, isomaltose, fucose, and malate levels were shown to be positively correlated with dehydration. Principal component analysis showed differences in the metabolic profiles of control and stressed leaves. These results provide a comprehensive overview of how I. paraguariensis responds to dehydration at transcriptional and metabolomic levels and provide further characterization of the molecular mechanisms associated with drought response in perennial subtropical species.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ilex paraguariensis/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Aclimatação , Desidratação , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ilex paraguariensis/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
Planta ; 250(2): 643-655, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144110

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Trehalose increased drought tolerance of tomato plants, accompanied by reduced water loss and closed stomata, which was associated with the upregulated ABA signaling-related genes expression, but not in ABA accumulation. Drought is one of the principal abiotic stresses that negatively influence the growth of plant and yield. Trehalose has great agronomic potential to improve the stress tolerance of plants. However, little information is available on the role of ABA and its signaling components in trehalose-induced drought tolerance. The aim of this study is to elucidate the potential mechanism by which trehalose regulates ABA in response to drought stress. In this study, 6-week-old tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig) plants were treated with 0 or 15.0 mM trehalose solution. Results showed that trehalose treatment significantly enhanced drought tolerance of tomato plants, accompanied by encouraged stomatal closure and protected chloroplast ultrastructure. Compared with controls, trehalose-treated plants showed lower hydrogen peroxide content and higher antioxidant enzymes activities, which contributed to alleviate oxidative damage caused by drought. Moreover, trehalose treatment decreased ABA content, which was followed by the downregulation of ABA biosynthesis genes expression and the upregulation of ABA catabolism genes expression. In contrast, exogenous trehalose upregulated transcript levels of ABA signaling-related genes, including SlPYL1/3/4/5/6/7/9, SlSnRK2.3/4, SlAREB1/2, and SlDREB1. These results suggested that trehalose treatment enhanced drought tolerance of tomato plants, and it's ABA signaling rather than ABA metabolism that was involved in trehalose-induced drought tolerance in tomato plants. These findings provide evidence for the physiological role of trehalose and bring about a new understanding of the possible relationship between trehalose and ABA.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Trealose/farmacologia , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Secas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/ultraestrutura , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(8): 965-980, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055623

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: In citrus, abscisic acid-deficiency was associated with a dwarfing phenotype, slow growth, small leaves, decreased fresh weight, and faster water loss. ABA supplementation reversed the dwarfing phenotype and enhanced growth. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitously distributed phytohormone, which is almost produced by all living kingdoms. In plants, ABA plays pleiotropic physiological roles in growth, development, and stress responses. We explored the hidden relationship between ABA deficiency, and citrus dwarfing. We used targeted-HPLC, targeted-GC-MS, molecular genetics, immunoassays, and gene expression techniques to investigate the effects of the silencing of phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene on the ABA-biosynthetic pathway, endogenous ABA content, and other phytohormones. Silencing of PDS directly suppressed the carotenoids compounds involved in ABA biosynthesis, altered phytohormonal profile, and caused phytoene accumulation and ABA deficiency. The reduction of ABA presumably due to the limited availability of its precursor, zeaxanthin. The ABA-deficient citrus cuttings displayed photobleaching, a dwarf phenotype with impaired growth characteristics that included slow growth, small leaves, decreased fresh weight, and faster water loss. ABA supplementation enhanced the growth and reversed the dwarfing phenotype of the ABA-deficient cuttings. Our data demonstrate that ABA-deficiency may lead to dwarfing phenotype and impaired growth in citrus cuttings. The negative influence of ABA-deficiency on growth rate is the result of altered water relations. Addition of ABA to the CTV-tPDS roots restored shoot growth and reversed the dwarfing phenotype.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Citrus/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Oxirredutases/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Zeaxantinas/metabolismo
16.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(8): 1013-1016, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139893

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The hormonal ratios along the barley spike regulate the development, atrophy and abortion of the spikelets and could be the mechanism by which the barley spike adapts its yield potential. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest cereal crops known to be cultivated since about 10,000 years. The inflorescence of cultivated barley is an indeterminate spike that produces three single-flowered spikelets at each rachis node which make it unique among the grasses. The yield production in barley is predominantly controlled by very important parameters such as number of tillers and number of spikelets per spike. These two parameters are negatively correlated. Therefore, studying the biological and genetics of the spikelet development during the spike developmental stages is essential for breeding programs. Here we summarize our current understanding of the crosstalk between hormones such as auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin and abscisic acid along the spike and what is their role in regulating spike and spikelet development in barley. We conclude that the hormonal ratios at the apical, central, and basal sections of the spike not only regulate the spike developmental stages, but also the development, atrophy, and abortion of the spikelets. This hormonal dependent modification of the grain number along the spike could be the mechanism by which the barley spike adapts its yield potential.


Assuntos
Hordeum/metabolismo , Hordeum/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
17.
Plant Sci ; 283: 116-126, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128681

RESUMO

Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are known to regulate fruit ripening. However, the ERF regulatory networks are not clear. In this study, we have shown that peach (Prunus persica) PpeERF2 regulates fruit ripening through suppressing the expression of two ABA biosynthesis genes (PpeNCED2, PpeNCED3) and a cell wall degradation gene (PpePG1). The transcript levels of PpeERF2 in fruit were opposite to that of PpeNCED2, PpeNCED3 and PpePG1 during ripening and in response to various ripening treatments. PpeERF2 was found to bind to the PpeNCED2, PpeNCED3 and PpePG1 promotors as demonstrated by yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) and EMSA assays; and further found to repress the promoter activities of the three genes in tobacco leaf tissues after Agrobacterium infiltration. Taken together, these results provide new information for a better understanding of the crosstalk network between ethylene signaling, cell wall degradation and ABA biosynthesis during fruit ripening.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/biossíntese , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prunus persica/fisiologia , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
18.
Plant Sci ; 283: 266-277, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128697

RESUMO

Hormones play an important role in fruit ripening and in response to biotic stress. Nevertheless, analyses of hormonal profiling during plant development and defense are scarce. In this work, changes in hormonal metabolism in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) were compared between a susceptible (Trincadeira) and a tolerant (Syrah) variety during grape ripening and upon infection with Botrytis cinerea. Infection of grapes with the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea leads to significant economic losses worldwide. Peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field and mock-treated and infected berries were collected at green, veraison and harvest stages for hormone analysis and targeted qPCR analysis of genes involved in hormonal metabolism and signaling. Results indicate a substantial reprogramming of hormonal metabolism during grape ripening and in response to fungal attack. Syrah and Trincadeira presented differences in the metabolism of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonates during grape ripening that may be connected to fruit quality. On the other hand, high basal levels of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonates and IAA at an early stage of ripening, together with activated SA, jasmonates and IAA signaling, likely enable a fast defense response leading to grape resistance/ tolerance towards B. cinerea. The balance among the different phytohormones seems to depend on the ripening stage and on the intra-specific genetic background and may be fundamental in providing resistance or susceptibility. In addition, this study indicated the involvement of SA and IAA in defense against necrotrophic pathogens and gains insights into possible strategies for conventional breeding and/or gene editing aiming at improving grape quality and grape resistance against Botrytis cinerea.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Botrytis/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/fisiologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Especificidade da Espécie , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/microbiologia
19.
Plant Sci ; 283: 355-365, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128706

RESUMO

Despite recent evidence that HDACs are involved in the environmental stress responses of plants, their roles in the abiotic stress responses of monocot plants remain largely unexplored. We investigated a HDAC gene, Bradi3g08060 (BdHD1), in Brachypodium distachyon. The Brachypodium BdHD1-overexpression plants displayed a hypersensitive phenotype to ABA and exhibited better survival under drought conditions. On the other hand, the RNA-interference plants were insensitive to ABA and showed low survival under drought stress. At the genome-wide level, overexpression of BdHD1 led to lower H3K9 acetylation at the transcriptional start sites of 230 genes than in the wild type plants under the drought treatment. We validated our ChIP-Seq data on 10 selected transcription factor genes from the 230 drought-specific genes. These genes exhibited much lower expression in the BdHD1-overexpression plants compared to the wild type plants under drought stress. We further identified an ABA-inducible transcription factor gene BdWRKY24 that was repressed in BdHD1-OE plants, but highly expressed in RNA-interference plants under drought stress. These results indicate that BdHD1 plays a positive role in ABA sensitivity and drought stress tolerance and they provide a link between the role of BdHD1 and the drought stress response at a genome-wide level in Brachypodium.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/fisiologia , Brachypodium/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Brachypodium/enzimologia , Brachypodium/genética , Brachypodium/fisiologia , Desidratação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Dedos de Zinco/fisiologia
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 140: 18-26, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078052

RESUMO

Arabidopsis thaliana cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel gene 4 (AtCNGC4) loss-of-function mutant dnd2 exhibits elevated accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), dwarfed morphology, reduced hypersensitive response (HR), altered disease resistance and spontaneous lesions on plant leaves. An orthologous barley mutant, nec1, has been reported to over-accumulate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and to exhibit changes in stomatal regulation in response to exogenous auxin. Here we show that the Arabidopsis dnd2 over-accumulates both IAA and abscisic acid (ABA) and displays related phenotypic and physiological changes, such as, reduced stomatal size, higher stomatal density and stomatal index. dnd2 showed increased salt tolerance in root growth assay and significantly reduced stomatal conductance, while maintaining near wt reaction in stomatal conductance upon external application of ABA, and probably consequently increased drought stress tolerance. Introduction of both sid2-1 and fmo1 into dnd2 background resulting in removal of SA did not alter stomatal conductance. Hence, the closed stomata of dnd2 is probably a result of increased ABA levels and not increased SA levels. The triple dnd2sid2abi1-1 mutant exhibited intermediate stomatal conductance compared to dnd2 and abi1-1 (ABA insensitive, open stomata), while the response to external ABA was as in abi1-1 suggesting that reduced stomatal conductance in dnd2 is not due to impaired ABA signaling. In conclusion, Arabidopsis dnd2 mutant exhibited ABA overaccumulation and stomatal phenotypes, which may contribute to the observed improvement in drought stress resistance. Thus, Arabidopsis dnd2 mutant may serve as a model for studying crosstalk between biotic and abiotic stress and hormonal response in plants.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/genética
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