Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.803
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127513, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745838

RESUMO

Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar is a famous traditional fermented cooking ingredient in China, with multiple nutritional and medicinal applications. Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract (100-400 µg/mL) is rich in polyphenols increased the glucose uptake and glucose consumption in high glucose-induced insulin resistant HepG2 (IR-HepG2) cells. Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract enhanced glycogen synthesis and attenuated gluconeogenesis by regulating key enzymes in IR-HepG2 cells. In addition, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract ameliorated high glucose-induced IR by inhibiting phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) expression and activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway in IR-HepG2 cells. Moreover, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract reduced reactive oxygen species generation and phosphorylated c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) expression in IR-HepG2 cells. The attenuation of the high glucose is owned to the PI3K/Akt pathway activation, glycogen synthesis induction and gluconeogenesis suppression in IR-HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Polifenóis/análise , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Acético/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
2.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 959-963, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To improve the methods to synthesize and purify of optical-magnetic bimodal molecular probe of Gd-[4, 7-Bis-carboxymethyl-10-(2-fluorescein thioureaethyl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraaza-cyclododec-1-yl]-acetic acid complexes. METHODS: Target compound (7), optical-magnetic bimodal molecular molecular probe, was synthesized by the use of 1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane (1) as starting material via substitution reaction, hydrolysis reaction, coupling reaction and complexation reaction with metal. RESULTS: The synthetic route of Gd-[4, 7-Bis-carboxymethyl-10-(2-fluoresceinthioureaethyl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraaza-cyclododec-1-yl]-acetic acid complexes was improved. The optical-magnetic bimodal molecular probes were synthesized by substitution reaction, hydrolysis reaction, coupling reaction and complex reaction with metal respectively. For the improved route, the total yield could reach 34.6% which was higher than the original route (18.0%). The structures of those compounds were identified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry. The improved route could avoid the uncontrollable disadvantage of the substitution reaction, this process could reduce the formation of impurities and made the purification process easier, and in the aspect of purification and separation, the preparative high-performance liquid chromatography with less sample loading and high cost was improved to a column chromatography with many sample loads and being easy to operate. Therefore, the use of column chromatography could be more conducive to mass production of the optical-magnetic bimodal molecular molecular probe. CONCLUSION: The improved synthetic route improves the controllability of the reaction conditions and makes it easier to purify and separate the compounds. At the same time, the improved synthetic route can increase the total yield significantly. The optical-magnetic bimodal molecular probe can combine the living magnetic resonance imaging with the in vitro optical imaging to realize the dual synchronous detection of magneto-optics, so that the detection results of the living magnetic resonance imaging and the in vitro optical imaging are mutually verified. In other words, this synthetic optical-magnetic bimodal molecular probe will make the experimental results more accurate and reliable. In subsequent biological experimental studies, the optical-magnetic bimodal molecular probe can be applied to related research of brain structure and function, and the probe can be used for the brain-related diseases researches, such as brain tumors. after intravenous administration, and thus the optical-magnetic bimodal molecular probe can play an important role in medical treatment of brain tumors and cerebrovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Sondas Moleculares
3.
Chem Biol Interact ; 331: 109276, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002459

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease driven primarily by uncontrolled pervasive inflammatory responses affecting the colon and rectum. Currently available medications carry multiple detrimental adverse effects, which have emphasized the mandatory need for safer and more efficient novel therapeutic alternatives. Melittin is the main constituent of bee venom and exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties. The antiulcerogenic effect of oral melittin (40 µg/kg) was explored in the current study using the acetic acid-induced colitis model. Increase in body weight and decrease in colon mass index were observed in the melittin group. Microscopically, melittin ameliorated acetic acid-induced histological damage. Melittin administration has efficiently amended the elevated levels of the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) seen in the colitis group. This was accompanied by inhibition of the upstream signaling molecules, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R)-associated factor (TRAF6), mitogen-activated protein kinase 38 (p38 MAPK), and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in the melittin group. Moreover, treatment with melittin resulted in marked decrease in colonic level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) together with the enzymes involved in its synthesis, secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Additionally, melittin has attenuated acetic acid-induced oxidative stress as manifested by the significant diminishment in malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as the increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Therefore, melittin mitigated UC pathogenesis and could be considered as a potent and promising therapeutic alternative for UC treatment.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Meliteno/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Meliteno/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239428, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997697

RESUMO

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced endogenously in the gut by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber have been studied as nutrients that act as signaling molecules to activate G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as GPR41 and GPR43. GPR43 functioning involves the suppression of lipid accumulation and maintaining body energy homeostasis, and is activated by acetic acid or propionic acid. Previously, we reported that the orally administered acetic acid improves lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscles and suppresses obesity, thus improving glucose tolerance. Acetic acid stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through its metabolic pathway in skeletal muscle cells. We hypothesized that acetic acid would stimulate GPR43 in skeletal muscle cells and has function in modulating gene expression related to muscle characteristics through its signal pathway. The objective of the current study was to clarify this effect of acetic acid. The GPR43 expression, observed in the differentiated myotube cells, was increased upon acetic acid treatment. Acetic acid induced the intracellular calcium influx in the cells and this induction was significantly inhibited by the GPR43-specific siRNA treatment. The calcineurin molecule is activated by calcium/calmodulin and is associated with proliferation of slow-twitch fibers. Calcineurin was activated by acetic acid treatment and inhibited by the concomitant treatment with GPR43-siRNA. Acetic acid induced nuclear localization of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and nuclear factor of activated t cells c1 (NFATc1). However, these localizations were abolished by the treatment with GPR43-siRNA. It was concluded that acetic acid plays a role in the activation of GPR43 and involves the proliferation of slow-twitch fibers in L6 skeletal muscles through the calcium-signaling pathway caused by induction of intracellular calcium influx.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Espaço Intracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/citologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/deficiência , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3863-3870, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893582

RESUMO

This study aimed to establish a rapid and accurate method for identification of raw and vinegar-processed rhizomes of Curcuma kwangsiensis, in order to predict the content of curcumin compounds for scientific evaluation. A complete set of bionics recognition mode was adopted. The digital odor signal of raw and vinegar-processed rhizomes of Curcuma kwangsiensis were obtained by e-nose, and analyzed by back propagation(BP) neural network algorithm, with the accuracy, the sensitivity and specificity in discriminant model, correlation coefficient as well as the mean square error in regression model as the evaluation indexes. The experimental results showed that the three indexes of the e-nose signal discrimination model established by the neural network algorithm were 100% in training set, correction set and prediction set, which were obviously better than the traditional decision tree, naive bayes, support vector machine, K nearest neighbor and boost classification, and could accurately differentiate the raw and vinegar products. Correlation coefficient and mean square error of the regression model in prediction set were 0.974 8 and 0.117 5 respectively, and could well predict curcumin compounds content in Curcuma kwangsiensis, and demonstrate the superiority of the simulation biometrics model in the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine. By BP neural network algorithm, e-nose odor fingerprint could quickly, conveniently and accurately realize the discrimination and regression, which suggested that more bionics information acquisition and identification patterns could be combined in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, so as to provide ideas and methods for the rapid evaluation and stan-dardization of the quality of traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Nariz Eletrônico , Ácido Acético , Teorema de Bayes , Curcuma , Redes Neurais de Computação , Rizoma
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108796, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771820

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the role of yeasts in the wet fermentation of coffee beans and their contribution to coffee quality using a novel approach. Natamycin (300 ppm) was added to the fermentation mass to suppress yeast growth and their metabolic activities, and the resultant microbial ecology, bean chemistry and sensory quality were analyzed and compared to non-treated spontaneous fermentation we reported previously. The yeast community was dominated by Hanseniaspora uvarum and Pichia kudriavzevii and grew to a maximum population of about 5.5 log CFU/g in the absence of Natamycin, while when Natamycin was added yeasts were suppressed. The major bacterial species in both the spontaneous and yeast-suppressed fermentations included the lactic acid bacteria Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactococcus lactis, the acetic acid bacteria Gluconobacter cerinus and Acetobacter persici and the Enterobacteriaceae Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Erwinia. For both fermentations, the mucilage layers were completely degraded by the end of the process and the absence of yeast activities had no significant impact on mucilage degradation. During fermentation, reducing sugars were consumed while lactic acid was accumulated inside the beans, and its concentration was significantly higher in the spontaneous fermentation (3 times) than that where yeasts were suppressed by Natamycin. Glycerol was detected with a concentration of 0.08% in the absence of Natamycin and was not identified when Natamycin was added. Green beans fermented with yeast growth contained a higher amount of isoamyl alcohol (21 times), ethanol (3.7 times), acetaldehyde (8 times), and ethyl acetate (25 times) compared to beans fermented in the absence of yeast activities, which remained higher in the former after roasting. Beans fermented without yeast activities had a mild fruity aroma, and lower sensory scores of fragrances (7.0), flavor (6.5), acidity (6.3), body (7.0) and overall score (6.5) compared to the former. These findings demonstrated the crucial roles of yeasts in wet fermentation of coffee beans and for producing high quality coffee.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Café/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Hanseniaspora/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Acetaldeído/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Café/microbiologia , Etanol/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Natamicina/farmacologia , Odorantes/análise , Pentanóis/metabolismo , Paladar
7.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127580, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736241

RESUMO

With the increasing demand of high water-quality, membrane filtration technologies are playing further important roles in water treatment owing to their small footprints, reduced use of chemicals and stable performances. However, the inherent permeability-selectivity trade-off is still a significant obstacle restricting the broad applications of membrane separation. Hydrophilic modification via doping nanoparticles into membranes is considered an effective solution to improve the permeability while maintaining selectivity. However, agglomeration of nanoparticles often results in inhomogeneity of the modified membranes. In this study, hybrid membranes with separated covalent organic framework (COF) particles that were uniformly embedded in the membrane surface pores were firstly fabricated via acetic-acid-catalyzed in situ synthesis. Owing to the ample hydrophilic chemical groups and tunable molecular transport channels in COFs, the modified membranes yielded almost twice higher water flux (about 200 L m-2·h-1·bar) than the pristine membranes with simultaneously enhanced rejection of water pollutants (i.e., dyes). In addition, the pure organic structure of COF improves the polymer-filler interaction of the mixed film, thereby reducing the risk of leakage. Therefore, the hybrid membranes also exhibited relatively high stability in long-term operations and different pH conditions, which makes them promising candidates in future membrane applications.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Ácido Acético , Catálise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Membranas Artificiais , Nanopartículas/química , Permeabilidade , Polimerização , Polímeros/química
8.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 265, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetic acid has been used to clean and disinfect surfaces in the household for many decades. The antimicrobial efficacy of cleaning procedures can be considered particularly important for young, old, pregnant, immunocompromised people, but may also concern other groups, particularly with regards to the COVID-19 pandemics. This study aimed to show that acetic acid exhibit an antibacterial and antifungal activity when used for cleaning purposes and is able to destroy certain viruses. Furthermore, a disinfecting effect of laundry in a simulated washing cycle has been investigated. RESULTS: At a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid, acetic acid showed a reduction of > 5-log steps according to the specifications of DIN EN 1040 and DIN EN 1275 for the following microorganisms: P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, K. pneumoniae, E. hirae and A. brasiliensis. For MRSA a logarithmic reduction of 3.19 was obtained. Tests on surfaces according to DIN EN 13697 showed a complete reduction (> 5-log steps) for P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, E. hirae, A. brasiliensis and C. albicans at an acetic acid concentration of already 5%. Virucidal efficacy tests according to DIN EN 14476 and DIN EN 16777 showed a reduction of ≥4-log-steps against the Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) for acetic acid concentrations of 5% or higher. The results suggest that acetic acid does not have a disinfecting effect on microorganisms in a dosage that is commonly used for cleaning. However, this can be achieved by increasing the concentration of acetic acid used, especially when combined with citric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a disinfecting effect of acetic acid in a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid against a variety of microorganisms. A virucidal effect against enveloped viruses could also be proven. Furthermore, the results showed a considerable antimicrobial effect of acetic acid when used in domestic laundry procedures.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção/métodos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Chin J Physiol ; 63(4): 156-162, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859882

RESUMO

Dietary factors do not only contribute to remission of diseases but also play important roles in the progression of medical conditions. We investigated the effect of different formulations of maize diets on the healing of experimental acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in male rats. Thirty-five (35) male Wistar rats (150-170 g) were randomly divided into control (CTR), UC, UC + high maize diet (HMD), UC + low maize diet (LMD), and UC + maize-free diet (MFD) groups. CTR, UC, UC + HMD, UC + LMD, and UC + MFD groups were administered different formulations of dietary maize ranging from 0% to 70%. Body weight change (BWC), colon weight, macroscopic ulcer score, catalase, glutathione (GSH), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase, diarrhea score, superoxide dismutase (SOD), Ki-67 expression, and histological studies were done. Results were analyzed using SPSS 23. UC + LMD and UC + MFD groups showed a duration-dependent reduction in negative BWC, respectively. When compared with UC group, UC + LMD and UC + MFD significantly increased (P < 0.05) GSH and SOD respectively but had no effect on TNF-α and diarrhea score. UC + HMD increased diarrhea and macroscopic ulcer scores with Ki-67 expression highest in UC + MFD. The study indicated that consumption of either LMD or maize-free diet by colitic rats relatively enhanced healing of UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Zea mays , Ácido Acético , Ração Animal , Animais , Masculino , Peroxidase , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 141010, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738689

RESUMO

The rate of urea hydrolysis in nonwater urinals is influenced by the volume of urination events and the frequency of urinal use. Inhibition of urea hydrolysis with acetic acid addition has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale but it was not able to fully represent the conditions of a real restroom with real urine collection. The goal of this study was to understand the effects of acid addition for control of urea hydrolysis on nutrient concentrations and bacterial communities in human urine during collection and storage. Three control logics were used to determine the schedule of acid addition: (i) acid addition after every urination event, (ii) acid addition during periods of high building occupancy, and (iii) acid addition during periods of low building occupancy. Wifi logins were used to approximate building occupancy and to create the control logics used in the study. All three control logics were able to inhibit urea hydrolysis. The bacterial communities were identified to determine the impact of acid addition on the community structure. The collection of urine by nonwater urinals alone did not reduce the presence of enteric bacteria commonly found when collecting urine with urine-diverting toilets. Acid addition reduced the community diversity and created conditions for higher relative abundances of the order Enterobacteriales. Finally, results from stored acidified urine showed that urea hydrolysis inhibition is reversible and is influenced by the amount of acid added at the urinal. The amount of acid added can influence the rate of hydrolysis in the storage tanks and can be used to select for urea- or ammonia-nitrogen for nutrient recovery. This study is the first of its kind to inhibit urea hydrolysis in nonwater urinals in a real restroom with real urine, and is the first to identify the bacterial communities in urine collected solely with nonwater urinals.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Nitrogênio , Humanos , Hidrólise , Ureia , Urina , Coleta de Urina
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 316: 123920, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763803

RESUMO

The combination of different pretreatment methods can effectively overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to ensure its highly efficient conversion into bio-based products. In this study, the combined pretreatments of chemical methods (hydrothermal treatment and Fenton treatment) with mechanical refining were used to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of poplar branches. The results indicated that hydrothermal pretreatment and Fenton pretreatment can effectively improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar substrates, e.g., the maximum glucose conversion yield and glucose concentration reached 92.4% and 20.8 g/L, respectively. The pre-hydrolysates contained some valuable components such as monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural. The main characteristics (specific surface area, water retention value, fines content, and surface lignin concentration) of poplar substrates were obviously changed by the combined pretreatment, which benefit the enzymatic hydrolysis.


Assuntos
Populus , Ácido Acético , Biomassa , Hidrólise , Lignina
12.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127754, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738714

RESUMO

In this study, different organic acids-such as citric, acetic, lactic, propionic, and butyric acid-were evaluated to ascertain the optimum leaching solvent for dechlorinating fly ash. Results suggest that the acid type, concentration, and interactions between both parameters contributed significantly to the variations in the efficiency of fly ash dechlorination. Simple main-effect analysis suggested that a higher acid concentration yields better dechlorination efficiency. However, improvements in dechlorination efficiency did not necessarily yield a low chlorine content leaching residue because in a specific acid concentration region, the increased acid concentration may also accelerate the mass reduction rate of the leaching residue. Experimental results also demonstrate that citric and acetic acid yield the highest dechlorination efficiency, followed by propionic and butyric acid. The least dechlorination efficiency of lactic acid could be attributed to the formation of precipitate (i.e. calcium lactate) which might cover the chlorides and reduce the contact area of intimal chlorides with the leaching solvent. Therefore, a specific concentration of organic matter fermentation broth rich in citric and acetic radicals may present itself as an ideal water substitute for fly ash dechlorination.


Assuntos
Ácidos Acíclicos/química , Cloretos/análise , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Solventes/química , Ácido Acético/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Material Particulado/análise
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108797, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738750

RESUMO

Acetic acid bacteria form a complex microbiota that plays a fundamental role in the industrial production of vinegar through the incomplete oxidation reaction from ethanol to acetic acid. The organoleptic properties and the quality of vinegar are influenced by many factors, especially by the raw material used as acetification substrate, the microbial diversity and the technical methods employed in its production. The metaproteomics has been considered, among the new methods employed for the investigation of microbial communities, since it may provide information about the microbial biodiversity and behaviour by means of a protein content analysis. In this work, alcohol wine vinegar was produced through a submerged culture of acetic acid bacteria using a pilot acetator, operated in a semi-continuous mode, where the main system variables were monitored and the cycle profile throughout the acetification was obtained. Through a first approach, at qualitative level, of a metaproteomic analysis performed at relevant moments of the acetification cycle (end of fast and discontinuous loading phases and just prior to unloading phase), it is aimed to investigate the microbiota existent in alcohol wine vinegar as well as its changes during the cycle; to our knowledge, this is the first metaproteomics report carried out in this way on this system. A total of 1723 proteins from 30 different genera were identified; 1615 out of 1723 proteins (93.73%) belonged to the four most frequent (%) genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter and Komagataeibacter. Around 80% of identified proteins belonged to the species Komagataeibacter europaeus. In addition, GO Term enrichment analysis highlighted the important role of catalytic activity, organic cyclic compound binding, metabolic and biosynthesis processes throughout acetic acid fermentation. These findings provide the first step to obtain an AAB profile at omics level related to the environmental changes produced during the typical semi-continuous cycles used in this process and it would contribute to the optimization of operating conditions and improving the industrial production of vinegar.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Gluconacetobacter/metabolismo , Gluconobacter/metabolismo , Acetobacter/genética , Biodiversidade , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Gluconacetobacter/genética , Gluconobacter/genética , Microbiota/genética , Vinho/microbiologia
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 332: 108769, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622249

RESUMO

Controlling spoilage of the popular ethnic marinated beef "Shawarma" is crucial to achieve high quality, extend shelf-life, reduce food waste and meet the need of the globalized supply chain. Active essential oil (EO) components (thymol and carvacrol) were added at 0.4% and 0.8% (w/w) to preserve marinated beef, stored under aerobic or vacuum packaging. Microbiological and sensory (odor) parameters were assessed during 21 days at 4 °C. The treatments with higher EO concentration achieved higher antimicrobial activity than the lower ones and significantly reduced the mesophilic total viable count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., total coliforms, Escherichia coli, yeasts and molds. The higher EO concentration extended the microbiological shelf-life by 6 days, as judged by TVC and compared to the controls (aerobic and vacuum packaging) but was unacceptable sensorially. The lower EO concentration increased the microbiological shelf-life by 3 days and the sensorial shelf-life by 9 and > 12 days, under aerobic and vacuum conditions, respectively.


Assuntos
Cimenos/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Timol/farmacologia , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
15.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(7): 571-576, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An objective evaluation of coronavirus disease 2019 in the first days of infection is almost impossible, as affected individuals are generally in home quarantine, and there is limited accessibility for the operator who should perform the test. To overcome this limitation, a recently validated psychophysical self-administered test was used, which can be performed remotely in the assessment of early-stage coronavirus disease 2019 patients. METHODS: Olfactory and gustatory functions were objectively assessed in 300 patients in the first 7 days from coronavirus disease 2019 symptom onset. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of the patients presented olfactory and/or gustatory disorders. The dysfunctions detected were mainly complete anosmia (47 per cent) or ageusia (38 per cent). A significant correlation was found between taste dysfunction and female gender (odds ratio = 1.936, p = 0.014) and fever (odds ratio = 2.132, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The psychophysical evaluation protocol proposed is an effective tool for the fast and objective evaluation of patients in the early stages of coronavirus disease 2019. Chemosensitive disorders have been confirmed to be frequent and early symptoms of the coronavirus infection, and, in a significant number of cases, they are the first or only manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Telemedicina , Ácido Acético , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Chocolate , Café , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Produtos Domésticos , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Extratos Vegetais , Autorrelato , Limiar Sensorial , Fatores Sexuais , Sabões , Especiarias , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Limiar Gustativo , Terpenos , Cremes Dentais , Vinho
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234999, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702039

RESUMO

Acid adaptation enhances survival of foodborne pathogens under lethal acid conditions that prevail in several food-related ecosystems. In the present study, the role of undissociated acetic acid in inducing acid resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 4 both in laboratory media and in an acid food matrix was investigated. Several combinations of acetic acid (0, 15, 25, 35 and 45 mM) and pH values (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0) were screened for their ability to activate acid resistance mechanisms of pathogen exposed to pH 2.5 (screening assay). Increased survival was observed when increasing undissociated acetic acid within a range of sublethal concentrations (1.9-5.4 mM), but only at pH 5.5 and 6.0. No effect was observed at lower pH values, regardless of the undissociated acetic acid levels. Three combinations (15mM/pH5.0, 35mM/pH5.5, 45mM/pH6.0) were selected and further used for adaptation prior to inoculation in commercial tarama (fish roe) salad, i.e., an acid spread (pH 4.35 ± 0.02), stored at 5°C. Surprisingly and contrary to the results of the screening assay, none of the acid adaptation treatments enhanced survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in the food matrix, as compared to non-adapted cells (control). Further examination of the food pH value, acidulant and storage (challenge) temperature on the responses of the pathogen adapted to 15mM/pH5.0, 35mM/pH5.5 and 45mM/pH6.0 was performed in culture media. Cells adapted to 35mM/pH5.5 were unable to induce acid resistance when exposed to pH 4.35 (tarama salad pH value) at 37°C and 5°C, whereas incubation under refrigeration (5°C) at pH 4.35 sensitized 45mM/pH6.0 adapted cells against the subsequent acid and cold stress. In conclusion, pre-exposure to undissociated acetic acid affected the adaptive responses of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 4 in a concentration- and pH-dependent manner, with regard to conditions prevailing during acid challenge.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteriófagos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella enteritidis/virologia , Ácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Refrigeração
17.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(7): 767-770, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522942

RESUMO

The volatile components produced by Leptolejeunea elliptica (Lejeuneaceae), which is a liverwort grown on the leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis), were collected and analyzed using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). 1-Ethyl-4-methoxybenzene (1), 1-ethyl-4-hydroxybenzene (2), and 1-acetoxy-4-ethylbenzene (3) were identified as the major components together with several other phenolic compounds, including 1,2-dimethoxy-4-ethylbenzene, and 4-ethylguaiacol in addition to sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, such as α-selinene, ß-selinene, ß-elemene, and ß-caryophyllene. GC/Olfactometry showed the presence of linalool, acetic acid, isovaleric acid, trans-methyl cinnamate, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(2E)-decenal, as the volatile components produced by L. elliptica.


Assuntos
Hepatófitas/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Acético/análise , Ácido Acético/isolamento & purificação , Anisóis/análise , Anisóis/isolamento & purificação , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/isolamento & purificação , Camellia sinensis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Japão , Olfatometria , Fenol/análise , Fenol/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/análise , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos
18.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 123-129, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550611

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. are important intestinal pathogens of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Anticoccidial feed additives, chemicals, and ionophores have traditionally been used to control Eimeria infections in broiler production. Thus, the trend toward antibiotic-free and organic production requires new approaches to coccidiosis prevention. Two not mutually exclusive methods are the use of plant extracts with antiparasitic activity and manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by pre- and probiotics. In the present study, birds were inoculated with a combination of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. We profiled the jejunal microbiome at multiple time points postinfection to investigate the changes in jejunum microbiota and to identify the time point of the maximum difference between infected and noninfected birds. Additionally, we assessed the anticoccidial effects of two anecdotal treatment methods, green tea and apple cider vinegar, as well as amprolium. Green tea and apple cider vinegar had no effect on oocyst shedding, but green tea reduced the mild unspecific lesions in coccidia-infected birds; there was no influence on unspecific lesions in uninfected controls. Jejunal contents were collected on the day of the infection and 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14 days postinfection (dpi) for investigation of the intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal (r)RNA gene sequencing. Comparison of the untreated-uninfected and the untreated-infected groups showed a maximum community dissimilarity of 10 dpi. From 4 days after infection, Clostridiales were significantly enriched at the expense of Lactobacillales in infected compared with uninfected birds. Interestingly, treatment with green tea prevented proliferation of Clostridiales induced by the coccidia and increased the relative abundance of Melainabacteria.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Ácido Acético/química , Amprólio/farmacologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiostáticos/química , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Jejuno/microbiologia , Malus/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Chá/química
19.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 26(4): 503-508, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an important health problem. The most important hypotheses for the pathogenesis of this disease are the deterioration of immune responses and loss of tolerance against bacteria in the enteric flora. Although IBD has been widely investigated, its treatment remains difficult. This study aims to investigate the effects of garlic oil (GO) on an experimental colitis model. METHODS: Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four equal groups as follows: group 1 (sham), group 2 (control), group 3 (topical treatment) and group 4 (topical and systemic treatment). An acetic acid-induced colitis model was produced in groups 2, 3 and 4 and was administered normal saline, topical GO and topical and systemic GO, respectively. RESULTS: Hydroxyproline levels were lower in the treatment groups than in the control group. TNF-α levels were significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Macroscopic scores were significantly lower in group 4 than in group 2. Significant differences were observed between the treatment and control groups according to their epithelial loss. CONCLUSION: GO can reduce colonic damage and inflammation in the acetic acid-induced colitis model, with effects on both local and systemic treatments, but with a more pronounced effect in local treatment.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/efeitos adversos , Compostos Alílicos/uso terapêutico , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfetos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Alho , Ratos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139943, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534316

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of wood vinegar wastewater (WVWW) has considerable potential in energy recovery and sustainable development. WVWW contains abundant acetic acid and some refractory organics. Therefore, the batch and continuous AD of WVWW were investigated. The threshold value of the inhibitory concentration was obtained at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 4 g/L in batch AD. Three-dimensional electrolysis was adopted to improve the biodegradability of WVWW, and a reduction in the inhibitory rate from 38.2% to 4.9% and an increase in methane production by 53.8% were observed. The up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor achieved an efficient conversion of methane at an organic loading rate (OLR) of <8.58 g COD/L·d. However, the OLR of 10.01 g COD/L·d decreased the methane production from 350.6 to 42.5 mL CH4/g CODfed. Aminicenantales, Acetobacterium, Anaerolineae, and SBR1031 were the dominant bacterial genera in continuous AD. Fewer genera with similar classifications were detected in the batch AD. In the archaea community, acetotrophic methanogens (Methanosaeta) dominated and increased continuously with increasing OLR. Microbial analysis revealed that toxic substances affected bacterial diversity and promoted the enrichment of Intestinimonas, Syntropobacter, and Propionicimonas at high OLRs. The continuous AD was most suitable for the energy recovery from WVWW.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Microbiota , Ácido Acético , Anaerobiose , Metano , Metanol , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA