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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127513, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745838

RESUMO

Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar is a famous traditional fermented cooking ingredient in China, with multiple nutritional and medicinal applications. Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract (100-400 µg/mL) is rich in polyphenols increased the glucose uptake and glucose consumption in high glucose-induced insulin resistant HepG2 (IR-HepG2) cells. Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract enhanced glycogen synthesis and attenuated gluconeogenesis by regulating key enzymes in IR-HepG2 cells. In addition, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract ameliorated high glucose-induced IR by inhibiting phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) expression and activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway in IR-HepG2 cells. Moreover, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar extract reduced reactive oxygen species generation and phosphorylated c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) expression in IR-HepG2 cells. The attenuation of the high glucose is owned to the PI3K/Akt pathway activation, glycogen synthesis induction and gluconeogenesis suppression in IR-HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Polifenóis/análise , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Acético/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127754, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738714

RESUMO

In this study, different organic acids-such as citric, acetic, lactic, propionic, and butyric acid-were evaluated to ascertain the optimum leaching solvent for dechlorinating fly ash. Results suggest that the acid type, concentration, and interactions between both parameters contributed significantly to the variations in the efficiency of fly ash dechlorination. Simple main-effect analysis suggested that a higher acid concentration yields better dechlorination efficiency. However, improvements in dechlorination efficiency did not necessarily yield a low chlorine content leaching residue because in a specific acid concentration region, the increased acid concentration may also accelerate the mass reduction rate of the leaching residue. Experimental results also demonstrate that citric and acetic acid yield the highest dechlorination efficiency, followed by propionic and butyric acid. The least dechlorination efficiency of lactic acid could be attributed to the formation of precipitate (i.e. calcium lactate) which might cover the chlorides and reduce the contact area of intimal chlorides with the leaching solvent. Therefore, a specific concentration of organic matter fermentation broth rich in citric and acetic radicals may present itself as an ideal water substitute for fly ash dechlorination.


Assuntos
Ácidos Acíclicos/química , Cloretos/análise , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Solventes/química , Ácido Acético/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Material Particulado/análise
3.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 123-129, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550611

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. are important intestinal pathogens of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Anticoccidial feed additives, chemicals, and ionophores have traditionally been used to control Eimeria infections in broiler production. Thus, the trend toward antibiotic-free and organic production requires new approaches to coccidiosis prevention. Two not mutually exclusive methods are the use of plant extracts with antiparasitic activity and manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by pre- and probiotics. In the present study, birds were inoculated with a combination of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. We profiled the jejunal microbiome at multiple time points postinfection to investigate the changes in jejunum microbiota and to identify the time point of the maximum difference between infected and noninfected birds. Additionally, we assessed the anticoccidial effects of two anecdotal treatment methods, green tea and apple cider vinegar, as well as amprolium. Green tea and apple cider vinegar had no effect on oocyst shedding, but green tea reduced the mild unspecific lesions in coccidia-infected birds; there was no influence on unspecific lesions in uninfected controls. Jejunal contents were collected on the day of the infection and 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14 days postinfection (dpi) for investigation of the intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal (r)RNA gene sequencing. Comparison of the untreated-uninfected and the untreated-infected groups showed a maximum community dissimilarity of 10 dpi. From 4 days after infection, Clostridiales were significantly enriched at the expense of Lactobacillales in infected compared with uninfected birds. Interestingly, treatment with green tea prevented proliferation of Clostridiales induced by the coccidia and increased the relative abundance of Melainabacteria.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Ácido Acético/química , Amprólio/farmacologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiostáticos/química , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Jejuno/microbiologia , Malus/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Chá/química
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1624: 461201, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540063

RESUMO

Nowadays, sensitive chiral methods are required for the determination of chiral impurities and for assays in biological samples. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), one of the main techniques to separate chiral molecules, can be coupled to MS to provide such sensitive methods. Moreover, chiral separation strategies are very useful to reduce the development time and cost of such methods. This study investigates the transfer of an existing non-MS compatible screening step (as part of a separation strategy) into an MS-compatible one. The initial step had a cumulative success rate of 100 % for 57 tested compounds using methanol or 2-propanol as mobile phase modifier on one of four chiral stationary phases. The additives applied in the original mobile phases, i.e. isopropylamine and trifluoroacetic acid, negatively affect the ionization in SFC-MS and thus need to be replaced. Formic acid, acetic acid, water, ammonia, ammonium acetate and ammonium formate were investigated as MS-compatible additives in different combinations and concentrations. Only methanol-based mobile phases were considered in this study because high system pressures were obtained with isopropanol. The other experimental parameters remained the same as in the initial screening step. The effects of the alternative additives on the obtained resolutions as well as on the global success rate were investigated. The best alternative MS-compatible mobile phase contained 0.5 % CH3COOH and 40 mM NH3 as additives. This mobile phase provided the highest number of separations and rather high resolutions. An MS-compatible screening step was defined with this alternative mobile phase. Compared to the original additives, a similar success rate was obtained.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Acetatos/química , Ácido Acético/química , Amônia/química , Formiatos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Estereoisomerismo
5.
Food Chem ; 321: 126694, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244140

RESUMO

Red cabbage contains glucosinolates, precursors to health-promoting isothiocyanates. However, raw cabbage often releases mainly epithionitriles and nitriles from glucosinolates. To increase isothiocyanate formation, the effect of acid usage in the preparation of red cabbage was evaluated. Moreover, the effects of the chosen boiling method (acidic boiled red cabbage versus neutral boiled blue cabbage) on glucosinolate degradation were investigated using UHPLC-DAD-ToF-MS and GC-MS. The addition of vinegar significantly increased isothiocyanate formation of cabbage salad from 0.09 to 0.21 µmol/g fresh weight, while lemon juice only slightly increased isothiocyanate formation. Acidic boiled red cabbage degraded glucosinolates and increased nitrile formation, while in neutral boiled blue cabbage, glucosinolates were stable. However, shortly boiled blue cabbage (5 min) had the highest isothiocyanate levels (0.08 µmol/g fresh weight). Thus, for a diet rich in isothiocyanates it is recommended to acidify raw cabbage salads and prepare shortly boiled blue cabbage instead of red cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Culinária/métodos , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Saladas , Ácido Acético/química , Brassica/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Comportamento Alimentar , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hábitos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isotiocianatos/química , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo
6.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(5): 658-667, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322932

RESUMO

The leaching behavior of five additives, including citric acid (CA), wood vinegar (WV), 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), polyaspartic acid (PASP) and FeCl3, was investigated to evaluate the possibility of enhanced phytoextraction of Pennisetum sp. from cadmium-contaminated soil. FeCl3 and CA have the highest leaching potential due to the ability that could convert large amounts of mobile fractions of Cd. The pot experiment showed that HEDP, WV, and PASP treatments could not only significantly increase the biomass of Pennisetum sp., but also maintain high uptake capacity of Cd by activating the stable fractions. HEDP has the highest Cd extraction efficiency and metal extraction ratio (MER) value. The phytoremediation efficiency could be improved mainly by increasing the biomass of the tolerant shoots, and Pennisetum sp. seems to have the maximum potential of phytoextraction to Cd with HEDP which could achieve a higher phytoextraction effect than Cd-hyperaccumulator.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Pennisetum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Ácido Acético/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cloretos/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Ácido Etidrônico/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Pennisetum/química , Peptídeos/química
7.
Food Chem ; 316: 126386, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066075

RESUMO

The present study has consisted on the monitoring of Sherry vinegar during a whole year ageing in American oak, French oak, Spanish oak and chestnut barrels in order to determine the suitability of alternative wood types other than American oak for the ageing of this type of vinegar. Thirty-two volatile compounds were quantified, CIELab parameters were determined and sensory analyses were carried out during the whole process. The multivariate analysis of the data revealed that the samples that had been aged in Spanish oak barrels were getting more similar to those aged in French oak as the ageing process was progressing. Furthermore, the samples that had been aged in chestnut presented some volatile compounds significantly different from American oak. Finally, although French oak wood transferred the best organoleptic characteristics to Sherry vinegar, Spanish oak and chestnut seemed to be satisfactory alternatives for the ageing process.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/química , Quercus , Vinho/análise , Madeira/química , Odorantes/análise , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Food Chem ; 316: 126351, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050114

RESUMO

The debittering of natural table olives is a very slow process. The effect of acetic, lactic and citric acids on the hydrolysis rate of oleuropein was studied in vitro and at pilot plant scale. The acid hydrolysis of oleuropein was faster with lactic and citric acids than acetic acid, running the experiments at the same pH of 3.8-4.0 units. The temperature exerted a high effect of the hydrolysis of oleuropein in a range of 10-30 °C and the concentration of the organic acid did not show a significant trend. Moreover, the in vitro results were confirmed with three lots of olives that presented a higher content of oleuropein after 3-7 months of preservation when they were processed with acetic acid rather than lactic acid and the opposite for hydroxytyrosol. These results open the possibility of accelerating the debittering of natural olives by preserving them with lactic acid instead of acetic acid.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/química , Iridoides/química , Ácido Láctico/química , Olea/química , Hidrólise
9.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 7, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the dry rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel, Rhizoma Anemones Raddeanae (RAR), which belongs to Ranunculaceae, is usually used to treat wind and cold symptoms, hand-foot disease and spasms, joint pain and ulcer pain in China. It is well known that the efficacy of RAR can be distinctly enhanced by processing with vinegar due to the reduced toxicity and side effects. However, the entry of vinegar into liver channels can cause a series of problems. In this paper, the differences in the acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects between RAR and vinegar-processed RAR were compared in detail. The changes in the chemical compositions between RAR and vinegar-processed RAR were investigated, and the mechanism of vinegar processing was also explored. METHODS: Acute toxicity experiments were used to examine the toxicity of vinegar-processed RAR. A series of studies, such as the writhing reaction, ear swelling experiment, complete Freund's adjuvant-induced rat foot swelling experiment and cotton granuloma, in experimental mice was conducted to observe the anti-inflammatory effect of vinegar-processed RAR. The inflammatory cytokines of model rats were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time of Flight mass spectrometer Detector (LC-Q-TOF) was used to analyse the chemical compositions of the RARs before and after vinegar processing. RESULTS: Neither obvious changes in mice nor death phenomena were observed as the amount of vinegar-processed RAR in crude drug was set at 2.1 g/kg. Vinegar-processed RAR could significantly prolong the latency, reduce the writhing reaction time to reduce the severity of ear swelling and foot swelling, and remarkably inhibit the secretion of Interleukin-1ß(IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) proinflammatory cytokines. The content of twelve saponins (e.g., Eleutheroside K) in RAR was decreased after vinegar processing, but six other types (e.g., RDA) were increased. CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed that vinegar processing could not only improve the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of RAR but also reduce its own toxicity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/química , Anemone/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Rizoma/toxicidade , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anemone/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rizoma/química , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
10.
Food Chem ; 313: 126127, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923868

RESUMO

Zein forms viscoelastic networks in water which have shown to be extremely brittle and demonstrate low yield strength. This work investigates an alternative method of preparing zein networks through antisolvent precipitation, involving dissolution in ethanol or glacial acetic acid followed by precipitation by addition of excess water. The rheological and structural properties of the zein networks were analyzed and determined that modifications in functionality were solvent-dependent. Precipitation from ethanol resulted in a network with a highly organized, porous structure of increased ductility. In contrast, precipitation from glacial acetic acid resulted in a highly plasticized, continuous network, but only demonstrated a slightly reduced brittleness compared to control networks. The functionality of each network was retained over 24 h of storage. Overall, antisolvent precipitation was able to improve the functionality of zein networks for the purpose of food structuring, and also presented the additional advantages of being simple, inexpensive, and food grade.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/química , Etanol/química , Solventes/química , Zeína/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Reologia , Temperatura , Água/química
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 230: 115605, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887900

RESUMO

Chitin is the second most abundant renewable polymer on earth, and its deacetylated derivative, chitosan, is a highly useful biopolymer. This work studied for the first time the application of ionic liquid (IL) tetrabutylammonium hydroxide ([TBA][OH]) and chitin deacetylase from Rhodococcus equi CGMCC14861 (ReCDA) for the efficient conversion of chitin into chitosan at room temperature. Results confirmed that chitin had good solubility in 18 wt% aqueous [TBA][OH] solution at 80 ℃. In addition, efficient chitin deactylation was observed with high concentrations of [TBA][OH] exceeding 12 wt% and showing potential application in chitin conversion. ReCDA activity on chitin was activated by [TBA][OH] pretreatment. Sequential and simultaneous strategies were also compared, and the results showed that the simultaneous one-pot deacetylation provided the highest acetic acid yield of 3.78 mg/g chitin powder after 24 h. This study serves as a guide for the dissolution and deacetylation of chitin to produce high value-added chitosan products.


Assuntos
Quitina/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Ácido Acético/química , Acetilação , Biocatálise , Hidrólise
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 252: 112557, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931159

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) the root of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho (EK), is used for treating edema and ascites but is also of toxicological concerns. And the clinical applications of EK have been seriously restricted for its severe toxicity. To reduce its toxicity, a commonly used clinical practice is processing it with vinegar. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aimed to summarize and discuss updated information on biological activities and phytochemistry of EK before and after vinegar-processing, and provide feasible insights for further research on the chemical composition, toxicity and pharmacological effects of EK before and after vinegar-processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant information on chemical compositions and biological activities of EK before and after vinegar-processing was collected from scientific databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, CNKI, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library and SciFinder). Additionally, published and unpublished Ph.D. and MSc. dissertations were also obtained from online databases. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: Diuretic and purgative effect of EK are well documented pharmacologically as are acute, irritant and organic toxic effects. Some of about terpenoids reported have antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and potential antiviral effect. After processing with vinegar, the contents of terpenoids mostly were reduced (ingenane and jatrophane type) with some new compounds being generated (unclear). Also, the toxicity of EK was decreased (using mice, rats and zebrafish embryos model), while the diuretic and purgative effects were retained (using cancerous ascites model rats and mice). CONCLUSIONS: While some evidence exists for the reduction of toxicity without compromising the pharmacological effects of EK after vinegar processing, the specific mechanism of action remains unknown. Consequently, further research is necessary to investigate the mechanisms and the relationship between vinegar processing and changes in the chemical composition as well as pharmacological effects/toxicity. This is essential before a safe clinical use can be endorsed.


Assuntos
Euphorbia , Ácido Acético/química , Animais , Euphorbia/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
13.
Talanta ; 210: 120679, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987205

RESUMO

A non-destructive and comprehensive 13C isotopic evaluation approach based on 1H NMR spectroscopy was developed. The carbon isotope distribution (CID) of most of the components (S/N ≥ 1000) in food matrices were evaluated using frequency distribution of peak area ratios (PAR) of decoupling to non-13C-decoupling spectra at natural abundance. The approach was applied successfully to vinegar and it was found that the PAR of fermented vinegars is obviously narrower than that of the blended one and the one produced via chemically defined culture medium. Besides, the extra additives can also be evaluated by their characteristic PAR values. It was found that the sugars are the most commonly added components into the blended vinegars. The results obtained from the developed approach show good validity (baseline effect, RSD < 0.1%) and internal reproducibility (RSD < 0.1%). Practicability of the method is confirmed by gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) detection method. The results imply that the proposed approach could be used not only for the discrimination but also for the primary authentication of the blended components in the fermented food matrices.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Fermentação , Açúcares/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/química , Isótopos de Carbono , Análise de Alimentos , Açúcares/análise
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941161

RESUMO

Basophils are rare granulocytes and dysregulated functions of these cells are associated with several atopic and non-atopic allergic diseases of skin, respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract. Both cytokines and immunoglobulin E (IgE) are implicated in mediating the basophil activation and pathogenesis of these disorders. Several reports have shown that healthy individuals, and patients with allergic disorders display IgG autoantibodies to IgE and hence functional characterization of these anti-IgE IgG autoantibodies is critical. In general, anti-IgE IgG autoantibodies modulate basophil activation irrespective of allergen specificity by interacting with constant domains of IgE. Therefore, an ideal solution to prove the functions of such anti-IgE IgG autoantibodies would be to completely eliminate type I high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcɛRI)-bound IgE from the surface of basophils and to demonstrate in an unequivocal manner the role of anti-IgE IgG autoantibodies. In line with previous reports, our data show that FcɛRI on peripheral blood basophils are almost saturated with IgE. Further, acetic acid buffer (pH 4) efficiently removes these FcɛRI-bound IgE. Although immediately following acetic acid-elution of IgE had no repercussion on the viability of basophils, following 24 hours culture with interleukin-3 (IL-3), the viability and yield of basophils were drastically reduced in acid-treated cells and had repercussion on the induction of activation markers. Lactic acid treatment on the other hand though had no adverse effects on the viability of basophils and IL-3-induced activation, it removed only a small fraction of the cell surface bound IgE. Thus, our results show that acid buffers could be used for the elution of FcɛRI-bound IgE on the basophil surface for the biochemical characterization of IgE antibodies or for the immediate use of basophils to determine their sensitivity to undergo degranulation by specific allergens. However, these methods are not utile for the functional assays of basophils that require longer duration of culture and entire removal of surface IgE to validate the role of anti-IgE IgG autoantibodies that interact with FcɛRI-bound IgE irrespective of allergen specificity.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Basófilos , Bioensaio , Imunoglobulina E , Receptores de IgE/imunologia , Ácido Acético/química , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Basófilos/química , Basófilos/imunologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/química , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia
15.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 190(1): 129-137, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304561

RESUMO

Apple pomace, an abundant accessible source of carbohydrate platform chemicals, is refractory to cellulase degradation because of the main barrier problem of pectin constitute. A rapid and portable method for the coproduction of pectin and fermentable sugars was developed using the pretreatment of acetic acid, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Compared with pectinase, acetic acid pretreatment provided the highest pectin yield of 19.1% and the highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield from apple pomace. The acidic pretreated apple pomace cellulose was easily and completely hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. More than 98.2% conversion of cellulose was achieved in a batch hydrolysis using a cellulase loading of 25 FPU/g cellulose and 10% total solids without any special strategies. A mass balance analysis showed that 95.5 g pectin and 110.2 g fermentable sugars were produced from 500-g oven-dried apple pomace. The integrated process is suggestive of environment-friendly and recyclable methods for the industrial utilization of apple pomace.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Malus/metabolismo , Pectinas/biossíntese , Açúcares/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/química , Indústria Alimentícia , Ácidos Hexurônicos/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Resíduos Industriais , Pectinas/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 310: 125934, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830713

RESUMO

Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are booming in food, pharmacy and feed industries that they have attracted great interest in the high-value utilization of lignocellulose. Selective acidolysis dominates the commercial production of XOS except for intractable color contaminations derivate from ligoncellulosic degradation. Based on a detailed kinetics and thermodynamics investigation, Amberlite XAD-16N was designated as preferred decolorant because of its high adsorption-selectivity for XOS and the colored contaminants. The adsorption of the main compositions in lignocellulosic acidolysis solution was well described by Langmuir models, the kinetics were clearly fitted by Pseudo-second-order model, showing that the adsorption was controlled by electron sharing/transfer between the resin cross-linking groups and colorant. The adsorption mechanism was also verified by the adsorption-simulation of three detected typical colorants. The thermodynamics clearly indicated a spontaneous endothermic reaction. This study provides an important approach for industrial technology development to not only xylooligosaccharides production and lignocellulosic acidolysis, but also Amberlite XAD-16N adsorbent.


Assuntos
Glucuronatos/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Ácido Acético/química , Adsorção , Cor , Cinética , Lignina/química , Modelos Químicos , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Termodinâmica , Zea mays/química
17.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125435, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812063

RESUMO

Water utilities must disinfect their water despite the formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) such as haloacetic acids (HAAs) upon chlorination. Although employment of a biologically active carbon (BAC) filtration process is able to reduce the HAA level preventively by removing the HAA precursors and correctively by removing the already-formed HAAs, this research reported an HAA leap in a bench-scale BAC filter effluent upon a disinfectant switch from chlorine to chloramine, posing a pressure of meeting the stringent HAA regulations. The HAA6 (sum of six HAAs) tripled from a 5 µg/L base level to a maximum of 17 µg/L during progressive switches with 3 chloramine doses at 5, 25, and 50 mg/L. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) accounted for the majority of the leap, which also influenced the bromine substitution factor during the HAA formation. Filtration of distilled water using heat-deactivated media evidenced slight HAA desorption and suggested potential roles of soluble microbial products from biofilms as new HAA precursors for a real BAC filter experiencing a disinfectant switch.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Ácido Acético/química , Bromo , Carvão Vegetal , Cloraminas , Cloretos , Cloro , Desinfecção , Filtração , Halogenação , Trialometanos/análise
18.
Food Chem ; 310: 125591, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837531

RESUMO

In this research, effect of soaking time, acidity and temperature on the removal of lead and cadmium from rice was investigated. Different rice treatments were involved i.e. three soaking times (0, 15, and 30 min), three temperatures (20, 25, and 30 °C) and four concentrations of glacial acetic acid (0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3%). Results showed that few samples have shown lead concentrations above the maximum limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of 0.2 mg/kg, whereas, all cadmium concentrations were below the limit of 0.4 mg/kg. A decrease in lead and cadmium concentrations were observed with increasing time of soaking. Lead had the lowest concentration at 20 °C, while cadmium had the lowest concentration at 30 °C. Cadmium concentration decreased with increasing water acidity, while the lead concentration reached the lowest concentration with 1% acidity.


Assuntos
Cádmio/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Chumbo/isolamento & purificação , Oryza/química , Ácido Acético/química , Cádmio/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Catar , Temperatura
19.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113407, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672374

RESUMO

A composite material comprising of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) supported on vinegar residue (nZVI@VR) was prepared and applied for remediation of soils contaminated by hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). Sedimentation test results revealed that the nZVI@VR displayed enhanced stability in comparison to the bare-nZVI. Remediation experiments exhibited the immobilization efficiency of Cr(VI) and Crtotal was 98.68% and 92.09%, respectively, when using 10 g nZVI@VR (nZVI 5%) per 200 g Cr-contaminated soil (198.20 mg kg-1 Cr(VI), 387.24 mg kg-1 Crtotal) after two weeks of incubation. Further analyses demonstrated that almost all the exchangeable Cr was transformed into Fe-Mn oxide bound and organic matter bound. Moreover, the application of nZVI@VR enhanced soil organic carbon content and reduced redox potential. After granulation, the immobilization efficiency of Cr(VI) and Crtotal achieved 100% and 91.83% at a dosage of 10% granular nZVI@VR. Granular nZVI@VR also accelerated the transform of more available Cr (exchangeable and bound to carbonates) into less available fractions (Fe-Mn oxide bound and organic matter bound), thus resulting in a remarkable reduction in the Cr bioavailability. These results prove that nZVI@VR can be an effective remediation reagent for soils contaminated by Cr(VI).


Assuntos
Cromo/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/química , Ácido Acético/química , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cromo/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Ferro/química , Óxidos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125699, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884234

RESUMO

Biochar and its by-product, wood vinegar, have attracted extensive attention owing to their great potentials in improving degraded soil, which is a global concern because of the threats to soil productivity and food security. However, the effect of biochar or wood vinegar on blueberry production is unknown. Therefore, a field trial was conducted to investigate the effects of individual and co-application of biochar (BC450) and wood vinegar (WV450) derived from blended wood waste on the blueberry tree (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) growth, fruit yield, appearance, and nutritional quality as well as the soil properties and nutrient availability. Regardless of individual or co-application, all the amendments had little effect on tree growth. Although BC450 and WV450 increased the fruit yield, the differences between the amended treatments were non-significant. Both the amendments had little effect on the apparent fruit quality, but improved the nutritional quality has been improved (e.g., increased vitamin C and decreased titratable acidity). Additionally, the individual or co-application of BC450 and WV450 had little effect on soil properties (except for soil organic matter), but increased the soil nutrient availability (e.g., NH4+-N, NO3⁻-N, and Mg). The enhancement in the nutritional quality of the blueberry fruit can be mainly attributed to the increased nutrient availability. This is the first preliminary study that demonstrates that the individual or co-application of biochar and wood vinegar can be a potential strategy for reclaiming degraded soil and enhancing blueberry production.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carvão Vegetal/química , Fertilizantes , Metanol/química , Frutas , Valor Nutritivo , Solo
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