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1.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124821, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546185

RESUMO

Anthropogenic CO2 emissions lead to seawater acidification that reportedly exerts deleterious impacts on marine organisms, especially on calcifying organisms such as mussels. A 21-day experiment focusing on the impacts of seawater acidification on the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was performed in this study, within which two acidifying treatments, CO2 enrichment and HCl addition, were applied. Two acidifying pH values (7.7 and 7.1) and the alteration of the key physiological processes of ingestion and digestion were estimated. To thoroughly investigate the impact of acidification on mussels, a histopathological study approach was adopted. The results showed that: (1) Seawater acidification induced either by CO2 enrichment or HCl addition impaired the gill structure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results suggested that the most obvious impacts were inflammatory lesions and edema, while more distinct alterations, including endoplasmic reticulum edema, nuclear condensation and chromatin plate-like condensation, were placed in the CO2-treated groups compared to HCl-treated specimens. The ciliary activity of the CO2 group was significantly inhibited simultaneously, leading to an obstacle in food intake. (2) Seawater acidification prominently damaged the structure of digestive glands, and the enzymatic activities of amylase, protease and lipase significantly decreased, which might indicate that the digestion was suppressed. The negative impacts induced by the CO2 group were more severe than that by the HCl group. The present results suggest that acidification interferes with the processes of ingestion and digestion, which potentially inhibits the energy intake of mussels.


Assuntos
Ácidos/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Mytilus edulis/efeitos dos fármacos , Água do Mar/química , Ácidos/química , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia
2.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0216737, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194753

RESUMO

Gastric ulcer is sores that form in the stomach mucosal layer because of erosion caused by high acid secretion and excessive use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Prodigiosins (PdGs) are red-pigmented secondary metabolites produced by bacteria, including actinomycetes. Butylcycloheptylprodigiosin (1) and undecylprodigiosin (2) were identified and isolated from a crude extract of the actinomycete RA2 isolated from the Red Sea Sponge Spheciospongia mastoidea. Chemical structure of 1 and 2 was determined by NMR and mass spectroscopy. Although their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are known, their effect on gastric lesion is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate gastroprotective effects of PdGs against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats. Oral pretreatment with PdGs (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) attenuated severity of HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury, as evidenced by decreases in gastric lesion index scores, ulceration area, histopathologic abnormality, and neutrophil infiltration. These effects were comparable to those of omeprazole, a standard anti-gastric ulcer agent. HCl/ethanol-induced gastric erosions was associated with tremendous increases in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators (myeloperoxidase, interleukin-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2), and with significant decreases in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities. However, PdGs ameliorated gastric inflammation and oxidative stress by downregulating nuclear factor kappa B and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and upregulating heme oxygenase-1 expression. PdGs prevented gastric mucosal apoptosis by downregulating Bax and caspase-3 expression and upregulating Bcl-2 expression, thereby increasing prostaglandin E2 production. Our results suggested that PdGs exerted gastroprotective effects by decreasing the levels of inflammatory mediators, apoptotic markers, and antioxidants.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Poríferos/química , Prodigiosina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(2): 370-375, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acute esophageal acid infusion promotes distension-induced secondary peristalsis. The gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type B (GABA-B) receptors activation inhibits secondary peristalsis. This study aimed to test the hypothesis whether acid excitation of secondary peristalsis can be influenced by baclofen. METHODS: Secondary peristalsis was performed with intra-esophageal slow and rapid air injections in 13 healthy subjects. Direct esophageal infusion of 0.1 N HCl following pretreatment with placebo or baclofen was randomly performed at least 1 week apart. Symptom intensity, distension thresholds, and peristaltic parameters were determined and compared between each study protocol. RESULTS: The intensity of heartburn symptom in response to esophageal acid infusion was significantly greater with baclofen than the placebo (P = 0.002). The threshold volume of secondary peristalsis during slow air injections in response to acid infusion was significantly greater with baclofen than the placebo (P = 0.001). Baclofen significantly increased the threshold volume of secondary peristalsis during rapid air injections in response to acid infusion (P = 0.001). The frequency of secondary peristalsis in response to acid infusion was significantly decreased by baclofen as compared with the placebo (P = 0.001). Baclofen significantly decreased peristaltic amplitudes in response to acid infusion during rapid air injections (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type B agonist baclofen inhibits acid excitation of secondary peristalsis in human esophagus, which is probably mediated by both muscular and mucosal mechanoreceptors. This work supports the evidence of potential involvement of GABA-B receptors in negative modulation of acid excitation of esophageal perception as well as secondary peristalsis.


Assuntos
Baclofeno/administração & dosagem , Transtornos da Motilidade Esofágica/prevenção & controle , Esôfago/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas dos Receptores de GABA-B/administração & dosagem , Azia/prevenção & controle , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Peristaltismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Transtornos da Motilidade Esofágica/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Motilidade Esofágica/fisiopatologia , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Azia/induzido quimicamente , Azia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwan , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Acta Cytol ; 63(1): 35-43, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To validate the ecological modification of the Papanicolaou stain (Eco-Pap) for the diagnosis of cervical cancer. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study was performed at the Mother and Child "San Bartolomé" Hospital, Lima, Peru. Reagent handling strategies were divided into three phases: we used (1) Harris progressive hematoxylin (for nuclear staining), (2) a polychromatic solution (a mix of EA-36/Orange G-6 to suppress the use of several alcohol baths), and (3) direct mounting (with Entellan® solution). The cellular details were analyzed by the staining quality index, an external quality control, and the Bethesda System 2014. RESULTS: We evaluated 72,901 cervical smears stained with the Eco-Pap. The validation of the Eco-Pap against the conventional Pap stain was optimal (κ = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.87-0.92), showing a sensibility and specificity of 88.3% (95% CI: 85.1-90.0) and 98.7% (95% CI: 98-99.2), respectively. The Eco-Pap dramatically reduced the environmental pollution caused by 72 L of xylene, hydrochloric acid, and ammonia (6 L each) and mercury oxide. CONCLUSION: The Eco-Pap is an innovative and efficient staining method reducing the use of toxic reagents with carcinogenic potential during cervical cancer screening by exfoliative cytology.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Teste de Papanicolaou/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Esfregaço Vaginal , Amônia/efeitos adversos , Compostos Azo/química , Corantes/química , Estudos Transversais , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hematoxilina/química , Humanos , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Mercúrio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos/efeitos adversos , Teste de Papanicolaou/efeitos adversos , Peru , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Xilenos/efeitos adversos
5.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(5): 2365-2370, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Devising effective measures for the prevention of hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced erosion is of great significance. This is even more important in dentine, in which products have limited diffusion. Therefore, agents that can bind to proteins forming an acid-resistant gel-like coat, such as sucralfate, may stand out as a promising alternative. This study investigated the protective effect of sucralfate suspensions against HCl-induced dental erosion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the first experiment, hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals were pre-treated with a commercial sucralfate suspension (CoSS, pH 5.9), a stannous-containing sodium fluoride solution (NaF/SnCl2 pH 4.5), two prepared sucralfate suspensions (PrSS, pH 5.9 and 4.5), or deionized water (DI, control). HAp dissolution was measured using a pH-stat system. In a subsequent experiment, embedded/polished enamel and root dentine slabs were allocated into five groups to be treated with one of the tested substances prior to and during erosion-remineralization cycles (HCl-2 min + artificial saliva 60 min, two times per day, 5 days). Surface loss was assessed profilometrically. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's tests. RESULTS: HAp dissolution was as follows: NaF/SnCl2 < CoSS < PrSS/pH 4.5, while PrSS/pH 5.9 = DI and both did not differ from CoSS and PrSS/pH 4.5. In enamel, surface loss did not differ between CoSS and PrSS/pH 4.5, with both having lower surface loss than PrSS/pH 5.9 and DI and NaF/SnCl2 differing only from DI. In root dentine, surface loss was as follows: CoSS < PrSS/pH 5.9 < (NaF/SnCl2 = DI), while PrSS/pH 4.5 = CoSS = PrSS/pH 5.9. CONCLUSION: Sucralfate suspension provided anti-erosive protection to HCl-induced erosion. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Sucralfate may protect teeth against erosion caused by gastric acid.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Sucralfato/farmacologia , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Durapatita , Fluoretos , Fluoreto de Sódio , Erosão Dentária/induzido quimicamente
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(6): 2974-2986, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silkworm pupae are a traditional Chinese food, rich in various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids have a certain protective effect against oxidative damage. The present study used an animal model to determine the protective effect of silkworm pupa oil on hydrochloric acid / ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. RESULTS: Silkworm pupa oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid 63.4 g kg-1 , oleic acid 249.1 g kg-1 , linoleic acid 47.0 g kg-1 , and linolenic acid 337.8 g kg-1 , whereas its unsaturated fatty acid content is 700 g kg-1 . Compared to a gastric ulcer control group, high and low doses of pupa oil reduced gastric ulcer area and gastric secretion, whereas gastric pH increased. It also increased serum antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels, somatostatin (SST), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels, and reduced serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), motilin (MTL), and gastrin (GT) levels. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses indicated that silkworm pupa oil significantly increased CAT, GSH-Px, epidermal growth factor (EGF), Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and NF-kappa-B inhibitor-α (IκB-α) expression and lowered nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. CONCLUSION: Silkworm pupa oil treatment reduced oxidative damage and inflammation in mice, and high-dose silkworm pupa oil was superior to low-dose silkworm pupa oil, following ranitidine. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bombyx/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Óleos/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Pupa/química , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óleos/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 23(11)2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388863

RESUMO

Liubao tea is a type of traditional Chinese tea, belonging to the dark teas. This study is a basic research of the contained polyphenols (active substances) and detected preventive effects of polyphenols of raw Liubao tea (PRLT) on mouse gastric injuries induced by HCl/ethanol. High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to analyze the components of PRLT. Furthermore, a mouse gastric injury model was established to observe the preventive effects. PRLT was shown to contain gallic acid, EGC (epigallocatechin), catechin, caffeine, EC (epicatechin), EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate), GCG (gallocatechin gallate), and ECG (epicatechin gallate). The results of the in vivo study indicate that PRLT can inhibit the observed increase of gastric juice volume and decrease of gastric juice pH caused by gastric injury. PRLT can decrease the serum levels of IL-6 (interleukin-6), IL-12 (interleukin-12), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and IFN-γ (interferon-γ) in mice with gastric injuries. Moreover, it can also increase the serum levels of SS (somatostatin) and VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) and reduce the serum levels of both SP (substance P) and ET-1 (endothelin-1). PRLT was also shown to increase SOD (superoxide dismutase) and GSH (glutathione) levels and decrease MDA (malondialdehyde) level. The detection of mRNA and protein in gastric tissues indicates that PRLT could also up-regulate the expression of Cu/Zn-SOD (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase), Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase), nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase), and eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) and down-regulate the expression of both iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2). Thus, PRLT possess a good preventive effect on gastric injury, which is directly related to the contained active substance. PRLT show good anti-oxidative and preventive effect in gastric injury and offer promising application value.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Gastrite/etiologia , Gastrite/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá/química , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Suco Gástrico/metabolismo , Gastrite/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 23(9)2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223578

RESUMO

Forty-three metabolites including several methoxylated flavonoids, tremetones, and ent-clerodane diterpenes were accurately identified for the first time in the ethanolic extract of P. quadrangularis by means of hyphenated UHPLC-quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry, and seven isolated compounds were tested regarding gastroprotective activity using the HCl/EtOH-induced lesion model in mice. A new tremetone (compound 6) is reported based on spectroscopic evidence. The isolated clerodanes and tremetones showed gastroprotective activity in a mouse model, evidenced by compound 7 (p-coumaroyloxytremetone), which showed the highest gastroprotective activity (76%), which was higher than the control drug lansoprazole (72%). Our findings revealed that several constituents of this plant have gastroprotective activity, and particularly, p-coumaroyloxytremetone could be considered as a lead molecule to explore new gastroprotective agents. This plant is a rich source of biologically active tremetones and terpenoids which can support the ethnobotanical use of the plant.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Asteraceae/química , Benzofuranos/administração & dosagem , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/administração & dosagem , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiulcerosos/química , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/química , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/química , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/farmacologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Lansoprazol/administração & dosagem , Lansoprazol/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente
9.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198440, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspiration of gastric acid is an important cause of acute lung injury. The time course of the pulmonary response to such an insult beyond the initial 48 hours is incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively describe the pulmonary effects of focal lung acid injury over a seven day period in both directly injured and not directly injured lung tissue. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent left-endobronchial instillation with hydrochloric acid and were sacrificed at 4, 24, 48, 96 or 168 h after the insult. Healthy non-injured animals served as controls. We assessed inflammatory cell counts and cytokine levels in right and left lung lavage fluid and blood, arterial oxygen tension, alterations in lung histology, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio and differential lung perfusion. RESULTS: Lung acid instillation induced an early strong inflammatory response in the directly affected lung, peaking at 4-24 hours, with only partial resolution after 7 days. A less severe response with complete resolution after 4 days was seen in the opposite lung. Alveolar cytokine levels, with exception of IL-6, only partially reflected the localization of lung injury and the time course of the functional and histologic alterations. Alveolar leucocyte subpopulations exhibited different time courses in the acid injured lung with persistent elevation of alveolar lymphocytes and macrophages. After acid instillation there was an early transient decrease in arterial oxygen tension and lung perfusion was preferentially distributed to the non-injured lung. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a basis for further research in the field of lung acid injury and for studies exploring effects of mechanical ventilation on injured lungs. Incomplete recovery in the directly injured lung 7 days after acid instillation suggests that increased vulnerability and susceptibility to further noxious stimuli are still present at that time.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Arterial , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácido Gástrico , Humanos , Instilação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Caries Res ; 52(5): 367-377, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Changes in the protein profile of acquired enamel pellicles (AEP) formed in vivo over different time periods were evaluated after the application of hydrochloric acid (HCl). METHODS: Nine subjects were submitted to dental prophylaxis with pumice. After 3 or 120 min, the teeth were isolated with cotton rolls and 50 µL of 0.1 M HCl (pH 1.0), 0.01 M HCl (pH 2.0), or deionized water were applied on the buccal surface of the teeth for 10 s. The AEP was then collected using an electrode filter paper presoaked in 3% citric acid. After protein extraction, the samples were submitted to reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (nano LC-ESI-MS/MS). Label-free quantification was performed (Protein Lynx Global Service software). RESULTS: A total of 180 proteins were successfully identified in the AEP samples. The number of identified proteins increased with the time of pellicle formation. Only 4 proteins were present in all the groups (isoforms of IgA, serum albumin, and statherin). The greatest number of proteins identified uniquely in one of the groups was obtained for the groups treated with HCl after 2 h of pellicle formation (approx. 50 proteins). CONCLUSION: Proteins resistant to removal by HCl, such as serum albumin and statherin, were identified even in the short-term AEP. In addition, 120-min pellicles present many proteins that are resistant to removal by HCl. This suggests an increase in protection against intrinsic acids with the time of pellicle formation, which should be evaluated in future studies.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Película Dentária/química , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Proteínas do Esmalte Dentário/química , Proteínas do Esmalte Dentário/isolamento & purificação , Película Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Película Dentária/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteômica , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arch Oral Biol ; 89: 65-69, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29475189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate how casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) associated with Nd:YAG or Diode laser affects dentin exposed to hydrochloric acid (HCl) with or without tooth brushing. DESIGN: One hundred and sixty human root dentin blocks were selected after they were initially eroded with liquid HCl (pH 1.2) 3x for one day. The blocks were divided into the following groups: G1- liquid HCl (HCl-l), G2- HCl-l + brushing, G3- gaseous HCl (HCl-g), and G4- HCl-g + brushing. Each group was randomly assigned to the following treatments (n = 10): A) Control (no treatment), B) CPP-ACP, C) CPP-ACP associated with Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) (40 mJ, 10 Hz, 0.4 W, 15 s), and D) CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser (λ = 980 nm) (0.5 W, 200 µs, 15 s). The treatment with CPP-ACP (G2, G3 and G4) was applied on the dentine surface for 5 min. Erosion (6x/day/20 s) and erosion (6x/day/20 s) with abrasion (2x/10 s) were performed for five days. Dentin volume loss was determined by 3D confocal laser microscopy. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. RESULTS: G1 - CPP-ACP (10.77 ±â€¯1.66) and CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser (9.98 ±â€¯0.89) showed lower volume loss in relation Control group (12.86 ±â€¯0.63) (p < 0.05). G2 - CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser (12.41 ±â€¯1.08) elicited lower volume loss as compared to the Control (14.42 ±â€¯1.24) (p < 0.05). As for G3 and G4, all treatments showed similar volume loss. CONCLUSION: CPP-ACP and CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser could control dental tissue loss in dentin eroded by liquid HCl. Moreover, CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser could effectively decrease dental tissue loss in dentin exposed to liquid HCl and brushing.


Assuntos
Caseínas/farmacologia , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Abrasão Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Erosão Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Escovação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Dentina/diagnóstico por imagem , Dentina/patologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Confocal , Distribuição Aleatória , Propriedades de Superfície , Abrasão Dentária/etiologia , Abrasão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Erosão Dentária/etiologia , Erosão Dentária/patologia , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Raiz Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Raiz Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Raiz Dentária/patologia
12.
Oral Dis ; 24(6): 957-963, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether saliva formulations with reduced calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorous (Pi) concentration would affect dental erosion caused by hydrochloric acid (HCl). METHODS: Enamel and root dentine bovine slabs were embedded, polished, and measured for surface Knoop microhardness (SMH). After reference areas were created, specimens were exposed to HCl solution (0.01 M; pH 2; 120 s) and immersed in artificial salivas (6 hr) containing three different Ca/Pi concentrations (n = 15), which simulate serum conditions of normo-, mild, or severe hypocalcemia. The control group was immersed in Ca/Pi-free saliva. The study protocol was carried out 2×/day for 5 days. Surface loss of enamel and root dentine was assessed using an optical profilometer, and SMH was remeasured for enamel. RESULTS: One-way analysis of variance (p < .001) and Tukey's test showed that enamel loss in groups subjected to artificial salivas that simulated mild or severe hypocalcemia did not differ from that resembling normocalcemia. %SMH was lower when saliva was mildly and normally concentrated in Ca/Pi (p < .001). Root dentine loss was higher in saliva simulating severe hypocalcemia than in those referring to mild, hypo-, and normocalcemia. CONCLUSIONS: Depending on the dental substrate, salivary formulations resembling serum hypocalcemia affected surface loss due to erosion and rehardening thereof.


Assuntos
Cálcio/análise , Esmalte Dentário/química , Dentina/química , Fósforo/análise , Saliva Artificial/química , Animais , Bovinos , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Clorídrico/química , Erosão Dentária/induzido quimicamente
13.
Food Funct ; 9(3): 1713-1725, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485160

RESUMO

We conducted the present study to determine the gastric injury preventive effects of polyphenols in Kuding tea (KTPs) in Kunming (KM) mice through the inhibition of gastric-acid secretion and the protection of the gastric mucosa. Mice treated with a high concentration of Kuding tea polyphenols (HKTP) had lower serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), motilin (MOT), substance P (SP), and endothelin-1 (ET-1), and higher serum levels of somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) than did the mice in the control group. Serum and gastric tissue levels of nitrous oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and GSH were higher in the HKTP-treated mice than in the control mice, but malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were lower in the HKTP-treated mice than in the control mice. The expression of occludin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nuclear factor of κ-light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-α (IκBα), Cu/Zn-SOD (cuprozinc-superoxide dismutase), Mn-SOD (manganese-superoxide dismutase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in gastric tissue was stronger in the HKTP-treated mice than in the control mice, while the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38MAPK, or p38), nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), inducible NOS (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was weaker in the HKTP group than in the control group. And HKTP also could reduce the TNF-α, IL-1ß (interleukin-1 beta), and IL-6 mRNA expression in gastric injury mice. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay showed that Kuding tea polyphenols (KTPs) contained chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and isochlorogenic acids A, B, and C. These constituents contributed to the preventive effects of KTPs on gastric injury. According to these results, KTPs are a kind of active component that have a strong preventive effect on gastric injury.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Gastropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Estômago/lesões , Animais , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Proteínas I-kappa B/genética , Proteínas I-kappa B/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastropatias/induzido quimicamente , Gastropatias/genética , Gastropatias/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Chá/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(5): 3758-3770, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477532

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective effects of bovine milk on an acidified ethanol (HCl-ethanol) mixture that induced gastric ulcers in a mouse model. Mice received different doses of commercial fresh bovine milk (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg of body weight) by oral gavage once a day for 14 d. One hour after the last oral administration of bovine milk, the HCl-ethanol mixture was orally intubated to provoke severe gastric damage. Our results showed that pretreatment with bovine milk significantly suppressed the formation of gastric mucosa lesions. Pretreatment lowered gastric myeloperoxidase and increased gastric mucus contents and antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase. Administration of bovine milk increased nitrate/nitrite levels and decreased the malondialdehyde levels and the expression of proinflammatory genes, including transcription factor nuclear factor-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the stomach of mice. These results suggest that bovine milk can prevent the development of gastric ulcer caused by acid and alcohol in mice.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/metabolismo , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Leite/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Bovinos , Etanol/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/etiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Gen Dent ; 65(4): 63-68, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28682285

RESUMO

Tooth erosion from an acidic insult may be exacerbated by toothbrushing. The purposes of this study were to develop an in vitro methodology to measure enamel loss after brushing immediately following an acidic episode and to investigate the effect of brushing with an anti-erosive toothpaste. The null hypotheses tested were that tooth erosion after brushing with the toothpaste would not be different from brushing with water and that a 1-hour delay before brushing would not reduce tooth erosion. Forty bovine enamel slabs were embedded, polished, and subjected to baseline profilometry. Specimens were bathed in hydrochloric acid for 10 minutes to simulate stomach acid exposure before post-acid profilometry. Toothbrushing was then simulated with a cross-brushing machine and followed by postbrushing profilometry. Group 1 was brushed with water; group 2 was brushed with a 50:50 toothpaste-water slurry; and groups 3 and 4 were immersed in artificial saliva for 1 hour before brushing with water or the toothpaste slurry, respectively. The depth of enamel loss was analyzed and compared using 1-way analysis of variance and post hoc testing (α = 0.05). Greater enamel loss was measured in groups brushed with toothpaste than in groups brushed with water. One-hour immersion in artificial saliva significantly reduced enamel loss when teeth were brushed with water (group 3; P < 0.05) but not with toothpaste (group 4). This study established a protocol for measuring enamel loss resulting from erosion followed by toothbrush abrasion. The results confirmed the abrasive action of toothpaste on acid-softened enamel.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Erosão Dentária/etiologia , Cremes Dentais/efeitos adversos , Animais , Bovinos , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Técnicas In Vitro , Erosão Dentária/diagnóstico , Escovação Dentária/efeitos adversos
18.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 133(1): 1-8, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27435384

RESUMO

The therapeutic effect on HCl/ethanol induced gastric injury of Gardenia jasminoides (JXGJ-1 and JXGJ-2) were determined by a animal model. JXGJ-2 group reduced area of its gastric injury as compared to the control group, JXGJ-2 also helped in decreasing the gastric secretion volume results raised in pH value. The NO contents in serum, heart, liver, kidney and stomach of JXGJ-2 group were more than JXGJ-1 and control groups. JXGJ-2 reduce cytokine levels as compared to JXGJ-1 and control group. The serum and gastric tissue SOD, GSH-Px, GSH levels in JXGJ-2 treated mice were higher than JXGJ-1 treated and control mice, but the MDA, PC levels showed the crosscurrents, these levels were close to normal mice. Gardenia jasminoides could increase the occludin, EGF, EGFR, VEGF, IκB-α, nNOS, eNOS, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px (GSH1) mRNA and protein expressions and decrease the p38MAPK (p38), NF-κB, Bcl-2, COX-2, iNOS expressions in gastric tissues unlike to the control mice, JXGJ-2 had much better effect than JXGJ-1. JXGJ-1contained the higher genipin gentiobioside and gardenoside, they might be the key components of gastric injury inhibition. Gardenia jasminoides had a remarkable effect on gastric injury, and they were derived from two important components of genipin gentiobioside and gardenoside.


Assuntos
Etanol/efeitos adversos , Gardenia/química , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Iridoides/farmacologia , Gastropatias/prevenção & controle , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estômago/patologia , Gastropatias/induzido quimicamente , Gastropatias/patologia
19.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 11(1): 70-71, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27570119

RESUMO

ST-segment elevation after hydrochloric acid ingestion has barely been described in the literature, without identification of its causal mechanism. We hypothesize that acute caustic myocarditis, by direct contact between necrotic upper gastrointestinal tract and pericardium may induce the ECG findings.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Miocardite/induzido quimicamente , Pneumoperitônio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Ruptura Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Suicídio , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletrocardiografia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Pneumoperitônio/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ruptura Gástrica/diagnóstico
20.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 13(1): 54-60, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29372988

RESUMO

Energy metabolism may alter pattern differences in acute lung injury (ALI) as one of the causes but the detailed features at single-cellular level remain unclear. Changes in intercellular temperature and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration within the single cell may help to understand the role of energy metabolism in causing ALI. ALI in vitro models were established by treating mice lung epithelial (MLE-12) cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and cobalt chloride (CoCl2, respectively. 100 nm micro thermocouple probe (TMP) was inserted into the cytosol by micromanipulation system and thermoelectric readings were recorded to calculate the intracellular temperature based on standard curve. The total ATP contents for the MLE-12 cells were evaluated at different time intervals after treatments. A significant increase of intracellular temperature was observed after 10 or 20 µg/L LPS and HCl treatments. The HCl increased the temperature in a dose-dependent manner. On the contrary, H2O2 induced a significant decline of intracellular temperature after treatment. No significant difference in intracellular temperature was observed after CoCl2 exposure. The intracellular ATP levels decreased in a time-dependent manner after treatment with H2O2 and HCl, while the LPS and CoCl2 had no significant effect on ATP levels. The intracellular temperature responses varied in different ALI models. The concentration of ATP in the MLE-12 cells played part in the intracellular temperature changes. No direct correlation was observed between the intracellular temperature and concentration of ATP in the MLE-12 cells.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Termometria/métodos , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/fisiopatologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Temperatura
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