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1.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 318(4): G613-G623, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068440

RESUMO

Esophageal injury from acid exposure related to gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common problem and a risk factor for development of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Our previous work highlights the benefits of using porcine esophagus to study human esophageal disease because of the similarities between porcine and human esophagus. In particular, esophageal submucosal glands (ESMGs) are present in human esophagus and proximal porcine esophagus but not in rodent esophagus. Although CFTR is expressed in the ducts of ESMGs, very little is known about CFTR and alternate anion channels, including ClC-2, in the setting of acid-related esophageal injury. After finding evidence of CFTR and ClC-2 in the basal layers of the squamous epithelium, and in the ducts of the ESMGs, we developed an ex vivo porcine model of esophageal acid injury. In this model, esophageal tissue was placed in Ussing chambers to determine the effect of pretreatment with the ClC-2 agonist lubiprostone on tissue damage related to acid exposure. Pretreatment with lubiprostone significantly reduced the level of acid injury and significantly augmented the recovery of the injured tissue (P < 0.05). Evaluation of the interepithelial tight junctions showed well-defined membrane localization of occludin in lubiprostone-treated injured tissues. Pretreatment of tissues with the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter inhibitor bumetanide blocked lubiprostone-induced increases in short-circuit current and inhibited the reparative effect of lubiprostone. Furthermore, inhibition of ClC-2 with ZnCl2 blocked the effects of lubiprostone. We conclude that ClC-2 contributes to esophageal protection from acid exposure, potentially offering a new therapeutic target.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This research is the first to describe the presence of anion channels ClC-2 and CFTR localized to the basal epithelia of porcine esophageal mucosa and the esophageal submucosal glands. In the setting of ex vivo acid exposure, the ClC-2 agonist lubiprostone reduced acid-related injury and enhanced recovery of the epithelial barrier. This work may ultimately provide an alternate mechanism for treating gastroesophageal reflux disease.


Assuntos
Mucosa Esofágica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lubiprostona/farmacologia , 16,16-Dimetilprostaglandina E2/farmacologia , Animais , Bumetanida/farmacologia , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/farmacologia , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Cloretos/farmacologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Masculino , Ocludina/metabolismo , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia
2.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940836

RESUMO

Various pretreatment methods, such as thermal, alkaline and acid, were applied on grass lawn (GL) waste and the effect of each pretreatment method on the Biochemical Methane Potential was evaluated for two options, namely using the whole slurry resulting from pretreatment or the separate solid and liquid fractions obtained. In addition, the effect of each pretreatment on carbohydrate solubilization and lignocellulossic content fractionation (to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) was also evaluated. The experimental results showed that the methane yield was enhanced with alkaline pretreatment and, the higher the NaOH concentration (20 g/100 gTotal Solids (TS)), the higher was the methane yield observed (427.07 L CH4/kg Volatile Solids (VS), which was almost 25.7% higher than the BMP of the untreated GL). Comparing the BMP obtained under the two options, i.e., that of the whole pretreatment slurry with the sum of the BMPs of both fractions, it was found that direct anaerobic digestion without separation of the pretreated biomass was favored, in almost all cases. A preliminary energy balance and economic assessment indicated that the process could be sustainable, leading to a positive net heat energy only when using a more concentrated pretreated slurry (i.e., 20% organic loading), or when applying NaOH pretreatment at a lower chemical loading.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/análise , Poaceae/química , Resíduos , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Hidrólise , Metano/biossíntese , Hidróxido de Sódio/farmacologia , Açúcares/análise , Ácidos Sulfúricos/farmacologia
3.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 153(2): 258-265, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of decalcifying agents on programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC). METHODS: Fragments of 10 placentas (high PD-L1 expressor) and 10 lungs (lower PD-L1 expressor) were formalin-fixed and subjected to four decalcifying solutions (EDTA, formic acid/MasterCal IM Plus [FA/MC], 12% HCl, and Decal STAT/23% HCl) for 1, 2, 6, or 24 hours. H&E staining and PD-L1 using IHC 22C3 pharmDx were performed, and PD-L1 staining was assessed. RESULTS: Minimal to no change in staining intensity or proportion of stained cells was seen with EDTA or FA/MC at all decalcifying durations. Both HCl-based decalcifiers demonstrated a progressive decrease in percentage of positive cells and staining intensity with longer decalcifying duration, particularly with Decal STAT. CONCLUSIONS: EDTA and FA/MC have little effect on PD-L1 expression. 12% HCl causes a progressive decline in staining. Decal STAT dramatically reduced staining with all treatment durations, especially at 24 hours.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Quelantes de Cálcio/farmacologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Feminino , Formiatos/farmacologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pulmão/química , Placenta/química , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124821, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546185

RESUMO

Anthropogenic CO2 emissions lead to seawater acidification that reportedly exerts deleterious impacts on marine organisms, especially on calcifying organisms such as mussels. A 21-day experiment focusing on the impacts of seawater acidification on the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was performed in this study, within which two acidifying treatments, CO2 enrichment and HCl addition, were applied. Two acidifying pH values (7.7 and 7.1) and the alteration of the key physiological processes of ingestion and digestion were estimated. To thoroughly investigate the impact of acidification on mussels, a histopathological study approach was adopted. The results showed that: (1) Seawater acidification induced either by CO2 enrichment or HCl addition impaired the gill structure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results suggested that the most obvious impacts were inflammatory lesions and edema, while more distinct alterations, including endoplasmic reticulum edema, nuclear condensation and chromatin plate-like condensation, were placed in the CO2-treated groups compared to HCl-treated specimens. The ciliary activity of the CO2 group was significantly inhibited simultaneously, leading to an obstacle in food intake. (2) Seawater acidification prominently damaged the structure of digestive glands, and the enzymatic activities of amylase, protease and lipase significantly decreased, which might indicate that the digestion was suppressed. The negative impacts induced by the CO2 group were more severe than that by the HCl group. The present results suggest that acidification interferes with the processes of ingestion and digestion, which potentially inhibits the energy intake of mussels.


Assuntos
Ácidos/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Ácido Clorídrico/efeitos adversos , Mytilus edulis/efeitos dos fármacos , Água do Mar/química , Ácidos/química , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia
5.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol ; 57(4): 179-187, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840794

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stomach hyperacidity leads to damage of the mucus/bicarbonate barrier, ulcerations and the development of stomach cancer. Key regulators of the mucosal barrier/luminal acid balance are neurotransmitters secreted by intramural neurons. The aim of the current study was to determine the expression of gastric neuropeptides and nNOS in the porcine stomach following hydrochloric acid instillation. We report on increased expression of enteric neurotransmitters involved in adaptive reaction to an experimentally-induced hyperacidity state. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigation was conducted on eight 12-18 kg pigs. The influence of intragastric infusion of hydrochloric acid on the expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), substance P (SP) and galanin (GAL) in the submucous and myenteric gastric neurons of the pig has been studied with double immunofluorescence. RESULTS: A mimicked hyperacidity state significantly increased the proportion of enteric neurons immunoreactive to CART, nNOS, VIP, PACAP, SP and GAL in the submucous gastric neurons. In the myenteric plexus, a significant increase of the number of VIP-, CART- and GAL-immunoreactive (IR) neurons was found. Similarly, the percentage of myenteric nNOS-IR and PACAP-IR neurons tended to increase, while the fraction of SP-IR cells did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Stomach hyperacidity modifies the expression of the studied neurotransmitters in a specific way depending on the location of the neurons in particular plexuses of the stomach. Increased numbers of neurons expressing CART, nNOS, VIP, PACAP, SP and GAL clearly indicate their regulatory engagement in the restoration of the physiological gastric balance following hyperacidity.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Plexo Mientérico/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Estômago/inervação , Plexo Submucoso/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Ácido Clorídrico/administração & dosagem , Infusões Parenterais , Plexo Mientérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Plexo Submucoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
6.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 317(4): F890-F905, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390234

RESUMO

Renal ammonia excretion is a critical component of acid-base homeostasis, and changes in ammonia excretion are the predominant component of increased net acid excretion in response to metabolic acidosis. We recently reported substantial sex-dependent differences in basal ammonia metabolism that correlate with sex-dependent differences in renal structure and expression of key proteins involved in ammonia metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of sex on the renal ammonia response to an exogenous acid load. We studied 4-mo-old C57BL/6 mice. Ammonia excretion, which was less in male mice under basal conditions, increased in response to acid loading to a greater extent in male mice, such that maximal ammonia excretion did not differ between the sexes. Fundamental structural sex differences in the nonacid-loaded kidney persisted after acid loading, with less cortical proximal tubule volume density in the female kidney than in the male kidney, whereas collecting duct volume density was greater in the female kidney. To further investigate sex-dependent differences in the response to acid loading, we examined the expression of proteins involved in ammonia metabolism. The change in expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and Rh family B glycoprotein with acid loading was greater in male mice than in female mice, whereas Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and inner stripe of the outer medulla intercalated cell Rh family C glycoprotein expression were significantly greater in female mice than in male mice. There was no significant sex difference in glutamine synthetase, Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3, or electrogenic Na+-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 variant A protein expression in response to acid loading. We conclude that substantial sex-dependent differences in the renal ammonia response to acid loading enable a similar maximum ammonia excretion response.


Assuntos
Acidose/urina , Amônia/urina , Rim/metabolismo , Acidose/patologia , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imuno-Histoquímica , Medula Renal/metabolismo , Medula Renal/patologia , Túbulos Renais Coletores/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Coletores/patologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(7): 450-455, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288324

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the preventive effect of resin infiltration and adhesive on early erosive enamel wear. Methods: Orthodontic reduction premolars collected from Central Laboratory of Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University were used to prepare 70 specimens. Forty samples were divided into eight groups (n=5) and treated with different conditions (pH=1.6, 2.4, 3.2 or 4.0 hydrochloric acid solution, etching time was 30 or 60 s), and the conditions for obtaining early erosive enamel samples were selected. Based on this procedure, thirty early erosive enamel samples were made and divided into three groups: control group, resin infiltration group, and adhesive group. And the treatment of 30 days acid abrasion cycle was carried out. Confocal microscopy was used to measure the thickness changes of enamel or material before and after cycle. Results: Early erosive enamel samples was obtained when pH was 4.0 and etching time was 60 s. After 30 days cycle, the wear of enamel was (29.71±6.72) µm in control group, (5.60±2.24) µm in resin infiltration group and (2.89±1.03) µm in adhesive group. In infiltration group and adhesive group, lower enamel was not affected by the cycle, and the material loss ratios of the infiltration resin group and adhesive group were 0.41±0.14 and 0.29±0.13, respectively. The ratio of material loss was not significantly different (P>0.05). But infiltration group lost (12.95±2.22) µm of enamel during the application of the material. Conclusions: Resin infiltration and adhesive have the same short-term protective effect against early erosive enamel wear. Adhesive has less damage to enamel and better effect.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Resinas Compostas , Esmalte Dentário , Ácido Clorídrico , Erosão Dentária , Adesivos/farmacologia , Dente Pré-Molar , Resinas Compostas/farmacologia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Erosão Dentária/induzido quimicamente , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle
8.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(5): 73-78, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304910

RESUMO

Heweijiangni decoction (HWJND) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine prescription in clinical treatment of nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). Esophageal hypersensitivity and acid contribute to the disease. However, the exact underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we observed the effect of HWJND on esophageal morphology in a rat model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced visceral hypersensitivity followed by acid exposure. Esophageal morphology was assessed by measuring the extent of dilated intercellular spaces (DIS), desmosome disruption, and mitochondrial fragmentation. HWJND in low, moderate, and high doses relieved DIS and desmosome disruption in esophageal epithelium compared with model group (P<0.05 for all doses). In addition, HWJND in high dose protected mitochondria from fragmentation (P<0.05). Other findings suggest that DIS and mitochondrial fragmentation are independent events, and that omeprazole protects mitochondria. Overall, HWJND significantly resists esophageal morphology changes in OVA-induced and acid exposure rat model.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Esôfago/efeitos dos fármacos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/induzido quimicamente , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Ovalbumina/farmacologia , Animais , Desmossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esôfago/patologia , Espaço Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Clorídrico/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Omeprazol/farmacologia , Ovalbumina/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Science ; 364(6443): 852-859, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147513

RESUMO

Noxious substances, called algogens, cause pain and are used as defensive weapons by plants and stinging insects. We identified four previously unknown instances of algogen-insensitivity by screening eight African rodent species related to the naked mole-rat with the painful substances capsaicin, acid (hydrogen chloride, pH 3.5), and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). Using RNA sequencing, we traced the emergence of sequence variants in transduction channels, like transient receptor potential channel TRPA1 and voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, that accompany algogen insensitivity. In addition, the AITC-insensitive highveld mole-rat exhibited overexpression of the leak channel NALCN (sodium leak channel, nonselective), ablating AITC detection by nociceptors. These molecular changes likely rendered highveld mole-rats immune to the stings of the Natal droptail ant. Our study reveals how evolution can be used as a discovery tool to find molecular mechanisms that shut down pain.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Ratos-Toupeira/fisiologia , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.7/genética , Dor Nociceptiva/genética , Limiar da Dor , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/genética , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Ratos-Toupeira/genética , Ratos-Toupeira/imunologia , Dor Nociceptiva/induzido quimicamente , Nociceptores/efeitos dos fármacos , Nociceptores/fisiologia , Conformação Proteica , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/química
10.
Dan Med J ; 66(5)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066353

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bacteraemia in adult patients undergoing treatment for leukaemia is common and associated with profound morbidity and mortality. Infections related to the use of a central venous catheter (CVC) are difficult to eliminate with systemic antibiotics. Premature catheter removal is often due to retained biofilm infection. This study investigated if the additional use of hydrochloric acid (HCl) as an intraluminal lock solution may prolong the lifetime of the CVC. METHODS: The study was performed retrospectively based on a database including patients with a tunnelled Leonard 10 F dual or triple lumen CVC implanted who received HCl instillation due to bacteraemia during a five-year period. RESULTS: In a total of 71 cases of bacteraemia, HCl instil-lation was performed. Following HCI instillation, the CVC was not removed due to infection in 49 out of 71 patients (69%). Furthermore, 22 patients (31%) retained their CVC until the end of treatment. Non-infectious mortality (19/71), accidental pull (2/71) or mechanical CVC dysfunction (6/71) were other reasons for premature removal. Twenty-two catheters (31%) had to be removed due to ongoing infection. The median time from CVC placement until HCl instillation was 39 days. The median time from HCl instillation until removal of CVC was 58 days. The most common bacteriological findings were coagulase-negative staphylococci 34%, Enterococcus spp 14% and Escherichia coli 14%. CONCLUSIONS: The study's findings indicate that a prolonged use of CVC is possible following HCl instillation in adult haematologic patients with bacteraemia. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Leucemia/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(5): 607-612, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895345

RESUMO

High concentration of glucose induces Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) aggregation, but the mechanism of this is still unclear. In this study, the aggregation of S. aureus strains was induced by high concentration of glucose (>7.8 mM), and which was dose- and time-dependent. In addition, the large amount of lactate acid produced during S. aureus aggregation, induced by glucose, resulted in decreased pH value. Lactic acid, the end product of glycolysis, could quickly induce S. aureus aggregation. Except for lactic acid, acetic acid and HCl also induced S. aureus aggregation. In addition, the aggregation of S. aureus strains induced by glucose or lactic acid was completely inhibited in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5), and inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxyglucose significantly decreased S. aureus aggregation. The aggregation induced by glucose was dispersed by periodate and proteinase K. In summary, lactate acid produced by glycolysis contributed to S. aureus aggregation induced by high concentration of glucose.


Assuntos
Glucose/farmacologia , Glicólise , Ácido Láctico/biossíntese , Interações Microbianas , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Endopeptidase K/farmacologia , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Periódico/farmacologia
12.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(4): e13543, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663188

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acid reflux in the esophagus can induce painful sensations such as heartburn and non-cardiac chest pain. These nociceptive symptoms are initiated by activation of TRPV1-positive afferent C fibers in the esophagus. The present study aimed to explore a novel C fiber inhibition approach. We hypothesized that activation of TRPV1 by acid enabled QX-314, a membrane impermeable sodium channel blocker, to inhibit acid-induced activation of esophageal nociceptive C fiber neurons. METHOD: We determined the inhibitory effect of QX-314 in the presence of acid in guinea pig esophageal nociceptive vagal jugular C fiber neurons by both patch clamp recording in neuron soma and by extra-cellular recording at nerve terminals. KEY RESULTS: Our data demonstrated QX-314 alone did not inhibit sodium currents. However, when applied along with capsaicin to activate TRPV1, QX-314 was able to block sodium currents in esophageal-specific jugular C fiber neurons. We then showed that in the presence of acid, QX-314 significantly blocked acid-evoked activation of jugular C fiber neurons. This effect was attenuated by TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810, suggesting acid-mediated inhibitory effect of QX-314 was TRPV1-dependent. Finally, we provided evidence at nerve endings that acid-evoked action potential discharges in esophageal jugular C fibers were inhibited by QX-314 when applied in the presence of acid. CONCLUSION AND INFERENCES: Our data demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 by acid enabled membrane impermeable sodium channel blocker QX-314 to inhibit acid-induced activation in esophageal nociceptive C fibers. This supports a localized application of QX-314 in the esophagus to block esophageal nociception in acid reflux disorders.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Esôfago/inervação , Lidocaína/análogos & derivados , Fibras Nervosas Amielínicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Esôfago/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobaias , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Lidocaína/farmacologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 277: 37-45, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658334

RESUMO

Acid washing is an alternative and promising approach for biomass to produce high-quality bio-oil. The hydrochloric acid washing pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse was performed in this study. The effects of acid washing on the ultrastructure of sweet sorghum bagasse were investigated using scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared, and the effects on pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analyzer and a fast pyrolysis device. The results indicated acid treatment obviously changed the surface morphology of the cell walls of sweet sorghum bagasse, effectively removed most metals from sweet sorghum bagasse, and increased the volatiles and bio-oil yields. The results showed that bio-oil produced from pretreated sweet sorghum bagasse contained less components categories, lower contents of phenols, aldehydes, furans and alcohols, while much higher contents of d-allose and ketones than that from the original sample. Hydrochloric acid-washing pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse can increase the contents of some high-value chemicals in bio-oil.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Sorghum/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Pirólise , Sorghum/química , Sorghum/metabolismo
14.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(1): 25, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631035

RESUMO

Acidosis is a significant feature of the tumor microenvironment in glioma, and it is closely related to multiple biological functions of cancer stem cells. Here, we found that the self-renewal ability, the mitochondrial activity and ATP production were elevated in stem cell-like glioma cells (SLCs) under acidic microenvironment, which promoted and maintained the stemness of SLCs. Under acidosis, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3-24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) was upregulated and catalyzed the fast degradation of 1α,25(OH)2D3. We further revealed that the active form of vitamin D (1α,25(OH)2D3) could inhibit the expression of stemness markers, attenuate acidosis-induced increase of self-renewal ability and mitochondrial respiration in stem cell-like glioma cells. Our study indicates that the acidosis-CYP24A1-vitamin D pathway may be a key regulator of the cancer stem cell phenotype in malignant glioma and point out the potential value for the utilization of vitamin D to target cancer stem cells and to restrain the growth of malignant glioma in the future.


Assuntos
Acidose/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Calcitriol/metabolismo , Glioma/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Acidose/induzido quimicamente , Acidose/genética , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura Livres de Soro/química , Glioma/patologia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fenótipo , Hidróxido de Sódio/farmacologia , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 408, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-grain diets that meet the energy requirements of high-producing ruminants are associated with a high risk of rumen disorders. Mild acid treatment with lactic acid (LA) has been used to modify the degradable characteristics of grains to improve the negative effects of high-grain diets. However, the related studies mainly focused on dairy cows and explored the effects on rumen fermentation, production performance, ruminal pH and so forth. And up to date, no studies have reported the hydrochloric acid (HA) treatment of grains for ruminant animals. Therefore, based on metabolomics analysis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment of corn by steeping in 1% LA or 1% HA for 48 h on the rumen and plasma metabolic profiles in beef steers fed a high corn (48.76%) diet with a 60:40 ratio of concentrate to roughage. The inflammatory responses of beef cattle fed LA- and HA-treated corn were also investigated. RESULTS: Based on ultra-high-performance liquid tandem chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) metabolomics and multivariate analyses, this study showed that steeping corn in 1% LA or 1% HA modulated the metabolic profiles of the rumen. Feeding beef steers corn steeped in 1% LA or 1% HA was associated with lower relative abundance of carbohydrate metabolites, amino acid metabolites, xanthine, uracil and DL-lactate in the rumen; with higher ruminal pH; with lower concentrations of acetate, iso-butyrate and iso-valerate; and with a tendency for lower ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations. Moreover, the data showed lower concentrations of plasma C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-8 in beef steers fed 1% LA- or HA-treated corn. The 1% LA treatment decreased the concentrations of plasma LPS, LPS-binding protein and tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the relative abundance of L-phenylalanine, DL-3-phenyllactic acid and tyramine in plasma. The 1% HA treatment decreased the relative abundance of urea in plasma and increased the relative abundance of all amino acids in the plasma. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that LA or HA treatment of corn modulated the degradation characteristics of starch, which contributed to improving the rumen and plasma metabolic profiles and to decreasing inflammatory responses in beef steers fed a high-concentrate diet.


Assuntos
Dieta , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasma/química , Zea mays/química , Animais , Bovinos , Ácido Clorídrico/química , Ácido Láctico/química , Masculino , Plasma/metabolismo , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/metabolismo
16.
Zoolog Sci ; 35(6): 487-493, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520362

RESUMO

To clarify the molecular mechanism of prevention of entry into diapause in Bombyx mori by HCl treatment, we biochemically analyzed mitochondrial Ca2+ -dependent solute carrier protein (MCSC) in diapause eggs treated with HCl solution. Our previous studies revealed that HCl treatment causes Ca2+ to efflux from diapause eggs. Therefore, we attempted to analyze MCSC, which is known to associate with Ca2+ . The isolated cDNA of B. mori MCSC (BmMCSC) had an open reading flame (ORF) of 667 amino acid residues, and the ORF contained two EF-hand calcium-binding domains and three characteristic features of the mitochondrial solute carrier superfamily. The gene expression level of BmMCSC increased by HCl treatment. A Ca2+ binding assay indicated that recombinant BmMCSC (rBmMCSC) shows an affinity with Ca2 + . The distribution of BmMCSC was investigated with an immunohistochemical technique using antisera against BmMCSC in diapause eggs and HCl-treated diapause eggs. BmMCSC was localized in serosa cells in both eggs. These data may suggest that BmMCSC is activated by intracellular Ca2+ or efflux Ca2+ by HCl treatment, and that it plays a role in the molecular mechanisms of artificial diapause prevention or the breaking of diapause in the silkworm.


Assuntos
Bombyx/metabolismo , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Animais , Bombyx/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Distribuição Tecidual
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16065, 2018 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375456

RESUMO

Demineralized bone matrix is a widely used allograft from which not only the inorganic mineral but also embedded growth factors are removed by hydrochloric acid (HCl). The cellular response to the growth factors released during the preparation of demineralized bone matrix, however, has not been studied. Here we investigated the in vitro impact of acid bone lysate (ABL) prepared from porcine cortical bone chips on oral fibroblasts. Proteomic analysis of ABL revealed a large spectrum of bone-derived proteins including TGF-ß1. Whole genome microarrays and RT-PCR together with the pharmacologic blocking of TGF-ß receptor type I kinase with SB431542 showed that ABL activates the TGF-ß target genes interleukin 11, proteoglycan 4, and NADPH oxidase 4. Interleukin 11 expression was confirmed at the protein level by ELISA. Immunofluorescence and Western blot showed the nuclear localization of Smad2/3 and increased phosphorylation of Smad3 with ABL, respectively. This effect was independent of whether ABL was prepared from mandible, calvaria or tibia. These results demonstrate that TGF-ß is a major growth factor that is removed upon the preparation of demineralized bone matrix.


Assuntos
Osso Cortical/química , Dentina/química , Proteômica , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/genética , Animais , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Técnica de Desmineralização Óssea , Osso Cortical/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Dioxóis/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Interleucina-11/genética , Análise em Microsséries , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad3/genética , Suínos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
18.
Brain Behav Immun ; 73: 633-642, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026058

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI), a pulmonary inflammatory disorder, is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Interestingly, ALI survivors have been reported for some neurocognitive deterioration at/after discharge. However, the molecular factors behind such extra pulmonary manifestation are not clearly known. The present work was designed to investigate lung-brain cross talk in experimental mice for deciphering primary molecular factors that may be involved in ALI-mediated cognitive impairment. ALI was induced in Balb/c mice by intra-tracheal administration of either 0.1 N HCl (2 ml/kg) or LPS (1 mg/kg) as single hits or both agents were administered successively to mimic the 'two hit' model. Interestingly two hit-mediated ALI resulted in exaggerated inflammatory response as reflected by increased pulmonary neutrophils and inflammatory factors (TNF-α/IL-1ß/IL-6). Additionally, two hits resulted in delayed resolution of lung inflammation and was coupled with persistent decline in memory, as assessed by Morris water maze test. Further, two hits elevate serum levels of TNF-α/IL-1ß which was associated with compromised blood brain barrier (BBB), as evident by decreased expression of occludin/claudin-5 and consequent Evans-blue extravasation in hippocampus 1 week post injury. Finally, dexamethasone protects against the two hit mediated cognitive impairment by lowering the pro-inflammatory factors (TNF-α/IL-1ß) both in lungs and blood. Overall, we report for the first time that 'two hit' mediated ALI cause persistent cognitive impairment in mice partly via up-regulating systemic expression of TNF-α/IL-1ß that may disrupt BBB and hence the model may be a useful tool to examine the lung-brain cross-talk at the molecular level for exploring newer therapeutics.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
J Dig Dis ; 19(8): 485-497, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early life esophageal acid exposure causes long-term molecular alterations in the rostral cingulate cortex; however, whether it induces behavioral changes remains unverified. Little is known about the molecular changes resulting from this event in the developing hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This study aimed to investigate the influence of early life esophageal acid exposure on spontaneous locomotor behavior and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), expression in these brain regions of adult rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with an esophageal acid or saline infusion once per day (postnatal days 7-14). Some of these rats were given acute esophageal acid rechallenge in adulthood (postnatal day 60). The spontaneous locomotor behavior and expressions of esophageal epithelial caludin-1 and NMDAR subunits in the dorsal hippocampus (DH), ventral hippocampus (VH) and mPFC of the adult rats were recorded. RESULTS: Neonatal esophageal acid stimulation caused long-term impairment of the tight junctions in the adult esophagus. Simultaneously, hyperlocomotion and reduced expression of NMDAR1 subunits in both the DH and mPFC were observed, but not in the VH regions. Adult acute acid rechallenge reversed the decreased NMDAR1 expression in the DH and mPFC. The glycine ligand to NMDAR1 subunits was also changed. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral visceral stimulation such as esophageal acid exposure during cerebral development induces increased locomotor activity, which may be related to the alteration of central sensitivity via NMDAR1 subunit reduction in the DH and mPFC. The impairment of tight junctions in the esophageal epithelium may contribute to the formation of central neuroplasticity.


Assuntos
Claudina-1/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Comportamento Animal , Mucosa Esofágica/metabolismo , Glicina/metabolismo , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serina/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
20.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 126(6): 710-714, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29910187

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of hydrogen production by mixed cultures using Laminaria japonica hydrolysates. The hydrolysates of L. japonica were prepared by pretreatment methods, including heat (100°C or 121°C) and acid (HCl or H2SO4) pretreatments. The mixed cultures could produce hydrogen using L. japonica as a substrate, with the highest cumulative hydrogen production of 825 ± 14 mL/L from HCl-pretreated L. japonica. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the microbial community in the hydrolysate of HCl-pretreated L. japonica was the most diverse among all the samples, with a Shannon diversity index of 5.253. The mixed culture from HCl-pretreated L. japonica and those from heat-pretreated (100°C and 121°C) L. japonica occupied different regions in a principal component analysis (PCA) plot. The dominant population in the hydrolysate of HCl-pretreated L. japonica was represented by hydrogen-producing bacteria, Clostridium spp. and Bacillus spp. The results suggested that L. japonica was an optimal feedstock for hydrogen production. The acid (HCl) pretreatment method could effectively enhance the hydrogen production from L. japonica.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Laminaria/citologia , Laminaria/metabolismo , Bactérias/citologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fermentação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Ácido Clorídrico/química , Ácido Clorídrico/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/fisiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Alga Marinha/citologia , Alga Marinha/metabolismo
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