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1.
Food Chem ; 315: 126238, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000081

RESUMO

The effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus sojae, Aspergillus ficuum and their co-cultures on proximate composition, anti-nutritional factor, microbiological and functional properties of lupin flour (LF) were investigated. Fibre fractions, in vitro enzyme protein digestion (IVPD), total phenolic contents, protein molecular distribution and colour attributes were also evaluated. Samples differed in their proximate composition except ash and fibre contents. The microbiological counts of the fermented LFs were generally higher (p < 0.05) than that of the unfermented LF. Phytic acid content and IVPD decreased (p < 0.05) in the fermented LFs. Also, the fermented LFs showed decreased (p < 0.05) water absorption capacity but increased swelling capacity. In addition, fermented LFs demonstrated reduction in colour attributes. Thus, the study indicated that SSF using Aspergillus sojae and Aspergillus ficuum can influence the physical, chemical and functional properties of LF. LF has great potentials in developing new nutritious food products and feed formulations when subjected to SSF.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Farinha/microbiologia , Lupinus/metabolismo , Aspergillus , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação , Lupinus/química , Fenóis/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1598-1607, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytic acid (PA) is an anti-nutrient present in cereals and pulses. It is known to reduce mineral bioavailability and inhibit starch-digesting α-amylase (which requires calcium for activity) in the human gut. In principle, the greater the amount of PA, the lower is the rate of starch hydrolysis. It is reflected in the lower glycemic index (GI) value of food. People leading sedentary lifestyles and consuming rice as a staple food are likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Hence, this study was planned to understand how PA content of different rice varieties affects the GI. RESULTS: Rice Khira and Mugai which had very low PA (0.30 and 0.36 g kg-1 , respectively) had higher GI values and α-amylase activity, while Nua Dhusara and the pigmented rice Manipuri black rice (MBR) which had high PA (2.13 and 2.98 g kg-1 , respectively) showed low α-amylase activity and GI values. This relationship was statistically significant, though a weak relationship was found for the pigmented rice. Expression levels of MIPSI, IPKI and GBSSI markedly increased in the middle stage of grain development in all of the six genotypes having contrasting PA and GI. Maximum expression of MIPSI and IPKI was observed in Nua Dhusara and MBR (which had high PA) while that of GBSSI was observed in Khira and Mugai (with higher GI) at middle stage showing a negative correlation between PA and GI. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that high PA content in rice might have an adverse effect on starch digestibility resulting in slower starch digestion in the human gut and consequently low glycemic response. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Digestão , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Oryza/química , Ácido Fítico/análise , Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1570-1576, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron is one of the nutrients that is essential for the human body. Despite the abundance of iron on earth, about two billion people worldwide are affected by iron deficiency. Iron biofortification of wheat, instead of supplementation and food fortification, provides a pragmatic approach to solve the problem of iron deficiency. In this study, 144 diverse wheat genotypes were evaluated for grain iron and yield potential, to estimate the potential for the iron biofortification of high-yielding wheat varieties. RESULTS: Genotypes did not differ significantly across the species, but within species the differences were significant for grain iron content and the phytate:iron molar ratio. Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) had the highest yield potential with more diversity than other Triticum species. Genotypes with high iron contents were crossed with high-yielding genotypes in line × tester fashion to check the gene action controlling these traits. The combining ability analysis showed non-additive gene action controlling grain iron, grain phytate, and grain yield. Heterosis manifestation also indicated some transgressive segregates with high specific combining ability effects. CONCLUSION: There was considerable genetic potential for improving the grain iron content in the germplasm to provide an economical and long-lasting solution to benefit an iron-deficient population. Triticum aestivum had the highest variation and potential for iron biofortification. This study indicated the possibility of simultaneous improvement in grain iron and grain yield by producing a new variety through continuous selective breeding. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Vigor Híbrido , Ferro/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Biofortificação , Genótipo , Ferro/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/química
4.
Food Chem ; 309: 125585, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708344

RESUMO

Seed samples from 117 genetically diverse pea breeding lines were used to determine the robustness of Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) for the rapid nutritional profiling of seeds. The FT-MIR results were compared to wet chemistry methods for assessing the concentrations of total protein, starch, fiber, phytic acid, and carotenoids in pea seed samples. Of the five partial least square regression models (PLSR) developed, protein, fiber and phytic acid concentrations predicted by the models exhibited correlation coefficients greater than 0.83 when compared with data obtained using the wet chemistry methods for both the calibration and validation sets. The starch PLSR model had a correlation greater than 0.75, and carotenoids had correlation of 0.71 for the validation sets. The methods implemented in this research show the novelty and usefulness of FT-MIR as a simple, fast, and cost-effective technique to determine multiple seed constituents simultaneously.


Assuntos
Ervilhas/química , Sementes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Carboidratos/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Amido/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 305: 125452, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514050

RESUMO

Flakes are an assortment of grain products mainly consumed for breakfast. Most of them are important source of nutrients including minerals. Twenty commercial flakes from different raw materials were included in this study, both gluten (barley, rye, spelt, wheat) and gluten-free (amaranth, buckwheat, corn, quinoa, millet, oat, rice, teff). The content of minerals (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn), dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), tannins and phytates was determined. Moreover, the phytates:mineral molar ratios and the percentage of the realization of mineral requirements were calculated. For the first time the mineral bioavailability from the gluten and gluten-free flakes was evaluated and compared. It allowed indicating amaranth and teff products as flakes with the highest impact on the realization of daily requirements for minerals, especially for magnesium and iron. This aspect is particularly important for people on a gluten-free diet who often represent mineral deficiencies.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Minerais/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Taninos/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Milhetes/química , Milhetes/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 306: 125509, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627082

RESUMO

Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), represent the most consumed legume worldwide and constitute an important source of protein, being also known to contain antinutritional compounds, which compromise nutrients' bioavailability. However, the standard methodologies to assess these constituents are time-consuming and complex. Therefore, the present study evaluated the suitability of near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopies for the development of simple and reliable methods to assess protein, lipids, tannins and phytic acid contents, besides specific amino acids, in whole bean flours. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to develop analytical models, and external validation was performed. NIR displayed better performance for the evaluation of protein, lipids, tannins and phytic acid contents, and MIR, for the assessment of specific amino acids. In both techniques, the use of the 1st derivative was the best data treatment. Overall, both techniques represent reliable methods to evaluate the proximate and antinutritional composition of bean flours.


Assuntos
Phaseolus/química , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Ácido Fítico/análise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Análise Espectral , Taninos/análise
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 313: 108384, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670259

RESUMO

Aiming at meeting the recommendations of the World Health Organization regarding the total fiber daily intake, an integrate biotechnological approach, combining xylanase treatment and lactic acid bacteria fermentation of milling by-products from pigmented wheat varieties, hull-less barley and emmer was proposed. The effects on the biochemical and nutritional features were investigated. Enhanced radical scavenging activity, increased concentrations of free amino acids (up to three times) and peptides and optimal in vitro protein digestibility (up to ca. 87%) value as well as relevant phytic acid degradation were achieved during bran fermentation. The main nutritional features of each matrix were enhanced and distinguished. Fortified breads were characterized by a concentration in total dietary fibers and protein of ca. 7 and 13% of dry matter, respectively. Compared to wheat bread the addition of pre-fermented brans caused a significant increase in protein digestibility (up to 79%), and a relevant decrease of the predicted glycemic index (ca. 8%) of the fortified bread. According to the results, this study demonstrates the potential of xylanase treatment and lactic acid bacteria fermentation to be used as suitable strategy to include bran in breadmaking, meeting both nutritional and sensory requests of modern consumers.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Hordeum/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Biocatálise , Pão/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação , Farinha/análise , Farinha/microbiologia , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillaceae/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Resíduos/análise
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11805-11814, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566383

RESUMO

The impact of cross-breeding two low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutants on the content of phytic acid and the metabolite profile of the resulting double mutant was investigated. Progenies resulting from the cross of Os-lpa-XS110-1, a rice mutant carrying the myo-inositol kinase (OsMIK) mutated gene, and Os-lpa-XS110-2, with the multidrug resistance-associated protein ABC transporter gene 5 (OsMRP5) as the mutation target, were subjected to high-pressure ion chromatography. The reduction of the phytic acid content in the double mutant (-63%) was much more pronounced than in the single mutants (-26 and -47%). Gas chromatography-based metabolite profiling revealed a superimposition of the metabolite profiles inherited from the lpa progenitors in the double mutant progenies; the resulting metabolite signature was predominated by the OsMIK mutation effect. The study demonstrated that cross-breeding of two single lpa mutants can be employed to generate double lpa rice mutants showing both a significant reduction in the content of phytic acid and the imprinting of a specific mutation-induced metabolite signature.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Hibridização Genética , Oryza/química , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
9.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4802-4810, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317144

RESUMO

The present work evaluated the effect of different processes in relation to mineral content and its bioavailability, as well as the effect of phytate and oxalate contents in biofortified beans. The following treatments were evaluated: raw beans (RB), cooked and oven-dried soaked beans (BOS), cooked and freeze-dried soaked beans (BFS), cooked and oven-dried beans without soaking (BOWS) and cooked and freeze-dried beans without soaking (BFWS). The mineral contents (mg per 100 g) varied between 3.56 and 5.80 (iron), 20.26 and 89.32 (calcium) and 1.56 and 2.38 (zinc). The oxalate content varied from 3.74 to 10.54 mg per 100 g. The total phytate content ranged from 1803.23 to 2.301 mg per 100 g. Regarding mineral bioavailability in Caco-2 cells, iron retention ranged from 8.89 to 17.85% and uptake was from 12.07 to 13.74 µg. On the other hand, the zinc retention was from 92.27 to 98.6% and uptake ranged from 24.68 to 36.26 µg. The different forms of bean processing can contribute to the mineral profile of this legume, in addition to increasing the bioavailability of some minerals, such as iron and zinc.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Ferro/metabolismo , Oxalatos/análise , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Sementes/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Biofortificação , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Culinária , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Minerais/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Oxalatos/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Zinco/análise
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6287-6295, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walph) is predominantly consumed in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, and its biofortification with iron seeks to reduce the high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in these regions. It is commonly eaten cooked; however, in the germinated form, it can improve nutritional quality by reducing the antinutritional factors and consequently improving the bioavailability of elements. The present study aimed to determine the physico-chemical characteristics, bioaccessibility and bioavailability of iron in biofortified germinated cowpea. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the germinated and cooked beans with regard to centesimal composition. Germinated beans had phytates and tannins similar to cooked beans. The phytate-iron molar ratio for all groups did not present a statistical difference (cooking 3.58 and 3.41; germinated 3.94 and 3.51), nor did the parameters evaluating in vivo iron bioavailability. Total phenolics was higher in the germinated group (cooking 0.56 and 0.64; Germinated 2.05 and 2.45 mg gallic acid kg-1 ). In vitro bioaccessibility of iron of germinated beans presented higher values (P ≤ 0.05) compared to cooked beans. There was higher expression of divalent metal transporter-1 in biofortified and germinated beans. CONCLUSION: The iron bioavailability from the biofortified and germinated beans was comparable to ferrous sulfate. Germination can be considered as an alternative and efficient method for consuming cowpea, presenting good iron bioaccessibility and bioavailability. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vigna/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Culinária , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Germinação , Ferro/análise , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Vigna/química , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Analyst ; 144(16): 5010-5021, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334745

RESUMO

An ON-OFF-ON dual-function fluorescent nanoprobe is described for the trace detection of ferric ions and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) in living cells. It is based on the use of yellow-fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (YN-CDs). Highly fluorescent YN-CDs were synthesized by a hydrothermal process. They have an absolute quantum yield of 2.15% and excitation/emission peaks at 420/575 nm. Fluorescence is quenched by Fe3+via photo-induced electron transfer. The quenchometric assay has a 34 nM detection limit for Fe(iii). On addition of IP6 which has a high affinity for Fe3+ due to the formation of Fe-O-P bonds, fluorescence becomes gradually restored. The resulting ON-OFF-ON assays for Fe(iii) and IP6 are reliable and sensitive. IP6 can be detected at concentrations as low as 2 nM. The nanoprobe was then applied to the determination of Fe3+ and IP6 in living cells in a food matrix. Furthermore, YN-CDs exhibited excellent biocompatibility. Hence, the probe can be applied as a fluorescent ink for bioimaging, both in vitro (cancer cells and bacteria) and in vivo (nematodes and mice).


Assuntos
Ferro/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Pontos Quânticos/química , Animais , Apium/química , Carbono/química , Grão Comestível/química , Escherichia coli , Fluorescência , Análise de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Camundongos Nus , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Nematoides , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5969-5983, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is a nutrient for animals and humans, and is considered beneficial to higher plants. Selenium concentrations are low in most soils, which can result in a lack of Se in plants, and consequently in human diets. Phytic acid (PA) is the main storage form of phosphorus in seeds, and it is able to form insoluble complexes with essential minerals in the monogastric gut. This study aimed to establish optimal levels of Se application to cowpea, with the aim of increasing Se concentrations. The efficiency of agronomic biofortification was evaluated by the application of seven levels of Se (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 g ha-1 ) from two sources (selenate and selenite) to the soil under field conditions in 2016 and 2017. RESULTS: Application of Se as selenate led to greater plant Se concentrations than application as selenite in both leaves and grains. Assuming human cowpea consumption of 54.2 g day-1 , Se application of 20 g ha-1 in 2016 or 10 g ha-1 in 2017 as selenate would have provided a suitable daily intake of Se (between 20 and 55 µg day-1 ) for humans. Phytic acid showed no direct response to Se application. CONCLUSION: Selenate provides greater phytoavailability than selenite. The application of 10 g Se ha-1 of selenate to cowpea plants could provide sufficient seed Se to increase daily human intake by 13-14 µg d-1 . © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Ácido Fítico/análise , Ácido Selênico/análise , Ácido Selenioso/análise , Selênio/análise , Vigna/química , Fertilizantes/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Vigna/metabolismo
13.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1929-1936, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218698

RESUMO

This study dealt with the effect of sourdough fermentation on antinutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activities of flours from three Phaseoulus vulgaris L. genotypes with differing composition of lectins. Specifically, cultivar Lady Joy (LJ) devoid of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and enriched in alfa-amylase inhibitor (αAI), breeding line P500 low in PHA and devoid of αAI, and Taylor's horticultivar, containing normal levels of both proteins. Sourdough fermentation positively affects the nutritional values of all bean flours by reducing some antinutrients, for example, phytic acid while preserving αAI activity. It significantly increased total polyphenols, flavonols, and ascorbic acid content, while reducing flavonoids. No significant differences in antioxidant activity, measured by in vitro and ex vivo assays on human erythrocytes, were found. The kinetic profiles of conjugated dienes analysis showed a strong inhibitory effect on low-density lipoproteins oxidation of all tested powders, with unfermented flours displaying the best antioxidant activity. Among bean powders, unfermented and fermented LJ showed the highest polyphenols level (4.21 ± 0.18 and 4.96 ± 0.15 mg GAE/g dw, respectively), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values (24.17 ± 0.14 and 24.02 ± 0.93 µmol TE/100g dw, respectively) and cellular antioxidant activity (71.6 ± 7.05 and 62.7 ± 3.3 units, respectively). Finally, since fermentation drastically reduces phytic acid content while preserving αAI activity, fermented LJ represents an important natural slimming supplement.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Phaseolus/química , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Phaseolus/classificação , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Polifenóis/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 294: 414-422, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126482

RESUMO

A sequential fractionation procedure based on (i) water extraction, (ii) hexane extraction, (iii) saccharification, and (iv) proteolysis was developed to provide the first ever data on the molecular distribution of iron in maize. This was completed by the operational determination of the iron bioavailability using an in-vitro simulated model for gastro-intestinal digestion. The coupling of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with the parallel detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) allowed the identification of water-soluble Fe(III)-mugineate, Fe(III)-(citrate)2, and Fe(III)2-(phytate)2. The procedures were applied to study some well characterized maize varieties having shown previously differences in iron bioavailability during cell culture and animal model feeding studies. The combined analytical methods developed in this work could unambiguously discriminate low from high Fe bioavailable seeds in these closely related maize varieties.


Assuntos
Ferro/análise , Ferro/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Zea mays/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida , Compostos Férricos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ácido Fítico/análise , Ácido Fítico/química , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 5239-5248, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudocereals are nutrient-rich grains with high mineral content but also phytate content. Phytate is a mineral absorption inhibitor. The study's aim was to evaluate phytate degradation during spontaneous fermentation and during Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® fermentation of quinoa, canihua, and amaranth grains and flours. It also aimed to evaluate the accessibility of iron, zinc, and calcium and to estimate their bioavailability before and after the fermentation of flours with starter culture. Lactic acid, pH, phytate, and mineral content were analyzed during fermentation. RESULTS: Higher phytate degradation was found during the fermentation of flours (64-93%) than during that of grains (12-51%). Results suggest that phytate degradation was mainly due to endogenous phytase activity in different pseudocereals rather than the phytase produced by added microorganisms. The addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® resulted in a higher level of lactic acid (76.8-82.4 g kg-1 DM) during fermentation, and a relatively quicker reduction in pH to 4 than in spontaneous fermentation. Mineral accessibility was increased (1.7-4.6-fold) and phytate : mineral molar ratios were reduced (1.5-4.2-fold) in agreement with phytate degradation (1.8-4.2-fold) in fermented flours. The reduced molar ratios were still above the threshold value for the improved estimated mineral bioavailability of mainly iron. CONCLUSION: Fermentation proved to be effective for degrading phytate in pseudocereal flours, but less so in grains. Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® improved mineral accessibility and estimated bioavailability in flours. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/microbiologia , Chenopodium quinoa/microbiologia , Chenopodium/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Amaranthus/química , Amaranthus/metabolismo , Chenopodium/química , Chenopodium/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fermentação , Farinha/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Minerais/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/análise
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5334-5340, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are more than 30 peanut cultivars registered in Brazil. However, there are no published data about the content of nutrients and antinutrients even in the most commercially important ones. Therefore, our objective was to characterize commercial peanut cultivars harvested in Brazil by determining proximate and fatty acid composition and content of selected minerals and phytates, saponins and condensed tannins. RESULTS: Significant variations were found among the cultivars for almost all studied nutrients, except Mg. Granoleico and IAC 505 were identified as high oleic. Results were compared with data from the Brazilian Food Composition Table (TACO) and, for this, percentage differences (D%) were calculated. Appreciable D% were found for proteins, lipids, ash, dietary fiber, almost all fatty acids (except 20:0) and almost all studied minerals (except zinc). Moreover, remarkable variations in content of antinutrients were observed. IAC Red Tatu had the highest content of saponins; IAC OL3 and IAC 886 had the highest amounts of phytates; and IAC 886 had the highest amounts of condensed tannins. CONCLUSION: Results confirm the relevance of differentiating cultivars in the market and in national food composition tables and databases. Furthermore, some of these cultivars may be indicated for new use trends. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Sementes/química , Arachis/classificação , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Minerais/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(17): 5043-5052, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977368

RESUMO

The low phytic acid ( lpa) soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.) mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1-M, resulting from a 2 bp deletion in GmMIPS1, was crossed with a commercial cultivar. F3 and F5 progenies were subjected to nontargeted GC-based metabolite profiling, allowing analysis of a broad array of low molecular weight constituents. In the homozygous lpa mutant progenies the intended phytic acid reduction was accompanied by remarkable metabolic changes of nutritionally relevant constituents such as reduced contents of raffinose oligosaccharides and galactosyl cyclitols as well as increased concentrations in sucrose and various free amino acids. The mutation-induced metabolite signature was nearly unaffected by the cross-breeding and consistently expressed over generations and in different growing seasons. Therefore, not only the primary MIPS1 lpa mutant but also its progenies might be valuable genetic resources for commercial breeding programs to produce soybean seeds stably exhibiting improved phytate-related and nutritional properties.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Mio-Inositol-1-Fosfato Sintase/genética , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Hibridização Genética , Mutação , Mio-Inositol-1-Fosfato Sintase/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Sacarose/análise , Sacarose/metabolismo
18.
Food Nutr Bull ; 40(1): 26-40, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India has made important strides in reducing nutritional deficiencies over the past several decades. However, for micronutrients such as zinc, previous studies have suggested a worsening situation, contrary to most other dietary indicators. Adding to this burden, higher carbon dioxide (CO2) levels of 550 ppm, projected to potentially occur within decades, could reduce the zinc content of many staple crops. OBJECTIVE: To assess the historical prevalence of inadequate zinc intake, as well as to estimate the future prevalence attributable to rising CO2. METHODS: Seven household food consumption surveys between 1983 and 2012 were used to calculate total dietary zinc, phytate, and absorbable zinc intakes and to assess the prevalence of historic inadequacy in zinc intake. The added nutritional effect of elevated CO2 on zinc intake is then modeled. RESULTS: Prevalence of inadequate absorbable zinc intake has increased from 17.1% (15.3%-19.0%) in 1983 to 24.6% (22.3%-27.1%) in 2011-12, corresponding to an additional 82 million people consuming inadequate zinc than would have otherwise if 1983 rates had persisted. These increases in inadequacy have been driven by a relatively constant zinc intake being increasingly insufficient to meet a 5% growth in zinc requirements due to the aging of the population. Reaching 550 ppm CO2 by 2050 could potentially increase the prevalence of inadequate zinc intake by another 3.9 percentage points (2.1-5.8), corresponding to 65 million additional people having inadequate zinc intake. CONCLUSIONS: The persistently worsening trend for zinc-opposite most other measures of human nutrition-shows that it may pose an ongoing risk unless addressed.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Dieta/tendências , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Oligoelementos/deficiência , Zinco/deficiência , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/análise , Necessidades Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Prevalência , Oligoelementos/análise , Zinco/análise
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9692053, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001559

RESUMO

Deficiency of metals, primarily Fe and Zn, affects over half of the world's population. Human diets dominated by cereal products cause micronutrient malnutrition, which is common in many developing countries where populations depend heavily on staple grain crops such as wheat, maize, and rice. Biofortification is one of the most effective approaches to alleviate malnutrition. Genetically stable mutant spring wheat lines (M7 generation) produced via 100 or 200 Gy gamma treatments to broaden genetic variation for grain nutrients were analyzed for nutritionally important minerals (Ca, Fe, and Zn), their bioavailability, and grain protein content (GPC). Variation was 172.3-883.0 mg/kg for Ca, 40.9-89.0 mg/kg for Fe, and 22.2-89.6 mg/kg for Zn. In mutant lines, among the investigated minerals, the highest increases in concentrations were observed in Fe, Zn, and Ca when compared to the parental cultivar Zhenis. Some mutant lines, mostly in the 100 Gy-derived germplasm, had more than two-fold higher Fe, Zn, and Ca concentrations, lower phytic acid concentration (1.4-2.1-fold), and 6.5-7% higher grain protein content compared to the parent. Variation was detected for the molar ratios of Ca:Phy, Phy:Fe, and Phy:Zn (1.27-10.41, 1.40-5.32, and 1.78-11.78, respectively). The results of this study show how genetic variation generated through radiation can be useful to achieve nutrient biofortification of crops to overcome human malnutrition.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Ferro/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Triticum , Zinco/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/genética , Humanos , Oryza/química , Oryza/genética , Triticum/química , Triticum/genética
20.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(5): 2365-2379, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903431

RESUMO

Alkaline calcareous soils are deficient in plant nutrients; in particular, phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) are least available; their inorganic fertilizers are generally applied to meet the demand of crops. The applied nutrients react with soil constituents as well as with each other, resulting in lower plant uptake. Phosphorus availability is usually deterred due to lime content, while Zn availability is largely linked with alkalinity of the soil. The present manuscript critically discusses the factors associated with physicochemical properties of soil and other interactions in soil-plant system which contribute to the nutrients supply from soil, and affect productivity and quality attributes of cereals. Appropriate measures may possibly lessen the severity of nutritional disorder in cereal and optimize P and Zn concentrations in grain. Foliar Zn spray is found to escape most of the soil reactions; thus, Zn bioavailability is higher either through increase in grain Zn or through decrease in phytate content. The reactivity of nutrients prior to its uptake is deemed as major impediments in Zn biofortification of cereals. The article addresses physiological limitation of plants to accumulate grain Zn and the ways to achieve biofortification in cereals, while molecular mechanism explains how it affects nutritional quality of cereals. Moreover, it highlights the desirable measures for enhancing Zn bioavailability, e.g., manipulation of genetic makeup for efficient nutrient uptake/translocation, and also elucidates agronomic measures that help facilitate Zn supply in soil for plant accumulation.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Grão Comestível/química , Solo/química , Transporte Biológico , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Fertilizantes/análise , Engenharia Genética , Valor Nutritivo , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fósforo/farmacologia , Ácido Fítico/análise , Ácido Fítico/química , Zinco/análise , Zinco/metabolismo , Zinco/farmacologia
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