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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 313: 108384, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670259

RESUMO

Aiming at meeting the recommendations of the World Health Organization regarding the total fiber daily intake, an integrate biotechnological approach, combining xylanase treatment and lactic acid bacteria fermentation of milling by-products from pigmented wheat varieties, hull-less barley and emmer was proposed. The effects on the biochemical and nutritional features were investigated. Enhanced radical scavenging activity, increased concentrations of free amino acids (up to three times) and peptides and optimal in vitro protein digestibility (up to ca. 87%) value as well as relevant phytic acid degradation were achieved during bran fermentation. The main nutritional features of each matrix were enhanced and distinguished. Fortified breads were characterized by a concentration in total dietary fibers and protein of ca. 7 and 13% of dry matter, respectively. Compared to wheat bread the addition of pre-fermented brans caused a significant increase in protein digestibility (up to 79%), and a relevant decrease of the predicted glycemic index (ca. 8%) of the fortified bread. According to the results, this study demonstrates the potential of xylanase treatment and lactic acid bacteria fermentation to be used as suitable strategy to include bran in breadmaking, meeting both nutritional and sensory requests of modern consumers.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Hordeum/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Biocatálise , Pão/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação , Farinha/análise , Farinha/microbiologia , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillaceae/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Resíduos/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 306: 125620, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606627

RESUMO

The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast strains with phytate degrading ability were isolated from Iranian traditional sourdough, and based on the acid and bile tolerance, three LAB and three yeast strains were selected and molecularly identified. In this study, baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was considered as a positive control strain to investigate the nutritional and technological properties of the isolated strains. All of the identified microorganisms were characterized based on additional probiotic properties and were evaluated for nutritional and technological characteristics. The functional features are associated with degradation of phytate, antioxidant capacity, exopolysaccharides, phenolic compound content and in vitro starch digestion. Among all the tested strains the highest amount of phytase production capacity (1.64 Unit/ml) and lowest phytate content (17.49 mg/5 g) belonged to Kluyveromyces marxianus. According to the results, the bread prepared by using Kluyveromyces aestuarii possessed the highest porosity percentage (70.43%), and the lowest hardness (508.71 g).


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Triticum/química , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Pão/microbiologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Triticum/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11805-11814, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566383

RESUMO

The impact of cross-breeding two low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutants on the content of phytic acid and the metabolite profile of the resulting double mutant was investigated. Progenies resulting from the cross of Os-lpa-XS110-1, a rice mutant carrying the myo-inositol kinase (OsMIK) mutated gene, and Os-lpa-XS110-2, with the multidrug resistance-associated protein ABC transporter gene 5 (OsMRP5) as the mutation target, were subjected to high-pressure ion chromatography. The reduction of the phytic acid content in the double mutant (-63%) was much more pronounced than in the single mutants (-26 and -47%). Gas chromatography-based metabolite profiling revealed a superimposition of the metabolite profiles inherited from the lpa progenitors in the double mutant progenies; the resulting metabolite signature was predominated by the OsMIK mutation effect. The study demonstrated that cross-breeding of two single lpa mutants can be employed to generate double lpa rice mutants showing both a significant reduction in the content of phytic acid and the imprinting of a specific mutation-induced metabolite signature.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Hibridização Genética , Oryza/química , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11396-11402, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537068

RESUMO

Phytase is commonly used as a feed enzyme in monogastric animals to increase the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus and other nutrients. The accumulation of myo-inositol phosphate intermediates during phytate degradation in various segments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of Buttiauxella spp. phytase in degrading the phytate in corn, soybean meal, and complete corn-soybean meal diet to myo-inositol phosphate esters (IP1-IP5) and completely dephosphorylated myo-inositol rings using an in vitro model of the poultry upper GIT. Our results show that the phytase hydrolyzes phytate efficiently to small IP esters, whereas the myo-inositol level remains constant between control and phytase treatments. Although the in vitro digestion model does not incorporate all factors that govern phytate hydrolysis, it is a valuable tool for evaluating phytase efficacy at various enzyme doses and with different feed ingredients.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/química , Ração Animal/análise , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Ésteres/química , Fosfatos de Inositol/química , Ácido Fítico/química , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Galinhas , Digestão , Ésteres/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4802-4810, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317144

RESUMO

The present work evaluated the effect of different processes in relation to mineral content and its bioavailability, as well as the effect of phytate and oxalate contents in biofortified beans. The following treatments were evaluated: raw beans (RB), cooked and oven-dried soaked beans (BOS), cooked and freeze-dried soaked beans (BFS), cooked and oven-dried beans without soaking (BOWS) and cooked and freeze-dried beans without soaking (BFWS). The mineral contents (mg per 100 g) varied between 3.56 and 5.80 (iron), 20.26 and 89.32 (calcium) and 1.56 and 2.38 (zinc). The oxalate content varied from 3.74 to 10.54 mg per 100 g. The total phytate content ranged from 1803.23 to 2.301 mg per 100 g. Regarding mineral bioavailability in Caco-2 cells, iron retention ranged from 8.89 to 17.85% and uptake was from 12.07 to 13.74 µg. On the other hand, the zinc retention was from 92.27 to 98.6% and uptake ranged from 24.68 to 36.26 µg. The different forms of bean processing can contribute to the mineral profile of this legume, in addition to increasing the bioavailability of some minerals, such as iron and zinc.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Ferro/metabolismo , Oxalatos/análise , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Sementes/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Biofortificação , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Culinária , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Minerais/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Oxalatos/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Zinco/análise
6.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3907-3919, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294448

RESUMO

The objective of this present study was to determine the effects of phytase dosing on growth performance, mineral digestibility, phytate breakdown, and the level of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in muscle plasma membranes of weanling pigs. A total of 160 barrows were used in a randomized completely block design and assigned to 4 treatments for a 7-wk study. Depending on the feeding phase, diets differed in dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels (positive control [PC]: 8 to 6.8g/kg Ca; 7.3 to 6.3 g/kg P; negative control [NC]: 5.5 to 5.2 g/kg Ca; 5.4 to 4.7 g/kg P). NC diets were supplemented with phytase at 0 (NC); 500 (NC + 500 FTU); or 2,000 FTU/kg (NC + 2,000 FTU) phytase units/kg. Blood was collected after fasting (day 48) or feeding (day 49) for measurement of plasma inositol concentrations. On day 49, 2 pigs per pen were euthanized, and duodenal and ileal digesta samples were collected to determine inositol phosphates (InsP6-2) concentrations. High phytase supplementation increased BW on days 21, 35, and 49 (P < 0.05). Over the entire feeding period, ADG, ADFI, and feed efficiency were increased by NC + 2,000 FTU compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma inositol concentration was increased in NC + 2,000 (P < 0.01), but there was only a tendency (P = 0.06) of a higher fasting plasma inositol concentration in this group. Inositol concentrations in the portal vein plasma (day 49) were not different among treatments. Duodenal digesta InsP5 and InsP6 concentrations were similar in PC and NC, but higher in these 2 treatments (P < 0.05) than those supplemented with phytase. Phytase supplementation decreased InsP6-4, resulting in increased InsP3-2 and myo-inositol concentrations. Similar effects were found in ileal contents. Compared with NC, phytase supplementation resulted in greater cumulative InsP6-2 disappearance (93.6% vs. 72.8% vs. 25.0%, for NC + 2,000 FTU, NC + 500 FTU and NC, respectively, P < 0.01) till the distal ileum. Longissimus dorsi muscle plasma membrane GLUT4 concentration was increased by NC + 2,000 FTU (P < 0.01) compared with NC. In summary, high phytase supplementation increased growth performance of nursery pigs. The higher myo-inositol release from phytate could contribute to the increased expression of GLUT4 in muscle plasma membranes. Further investigation is needed to determine whether this is associated with enhanced cellular glucose uptake and utilization.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Inositol/sangue , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Íleo/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculos/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia
7.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3898-3906, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284292

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of myo-inositol and phytase on growth performance, plasma metabolites, and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs. In experiment 1, 96 growing pigs with average initial body weight (BW) of 26.2 kg were used in a 25-d growth performance study. Pigs were assigned to four dietary treatments with three pigs per pen and eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. The four treatments were control diet (CD); CD + 2 g/kg inositol; CD + 1,000 FYT/kg phytase and CD + 3,000 FYT/kg phytase. Pigs were weighed individually every week. On day 25, blood sample was collected from one pig per pen to measure plasma metabolites concentrations. In experiment 2, 16 barrows (initial BW 34.8 ± 8.2 kg) were surgically fitted with T-cannulas. Pigs were allotted to four blocks based on BW and assigned to a quadruplicate 4 × 2 incomplete Latin square design with same four dietary treatments and two periods. Ileal digesta samples were collected from each pig on days 6 and 7 of each period to determine apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients. Phytase supplementation increased final BW and average daily gain (ADG) compared with CD (P < 0.05) with no effects on average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain to feed (G:F) was higher in 3,000 FYT/kg phytase (P < 0.05). Inositol supplementation had no effects on growth performance. Plasma myo-inositol concentration was increased by inositol supplementation, and 3,000 FYT/kg phytase increased myo-inositol in the plasma by 97.2% (P < 0.05). Plasma P concentration was increased by 1,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg phytase with no effects on alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glucose, triglycerides (TAG), calcium (Ca), and urea concentrations. Phytase supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) the phytate-P concentration in the ileal digesta and increased the digestibility of phytate-P and total P with no effects on the AID of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), nitrogen (N), and Ca. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of 3,000 FYT/kg phytase on feed efficiency may due to the increased release of both myo-inositol and phosphorus (P), and may not be solely due to myo-inositol release by this level of phytase.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Suínos/sangue
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6287-6295, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walph) is predominantly consumed in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, and its biofortification with iron seeks to reduce the high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in these regions. It is commonly eaten cooked; however, in the germinated form, it can improve nutritional quality by reducing the antinutritional factors and consequently improving the bioavailability of elements. The present study aimed to determine the physico-chemical characteristics, bioaccessibility and bioavailability of iron in biofortified germinated cowpea. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the germinated and cooked beans with regard to centesimal composition. Germinated beans had phytates and tannins similar to cooked beans. The phytate-iron molar ratio for all groups did not present a statistical difference (cooking 3.58 and 3.41; germinated 3.94 and 3.51), nor did the parameters evaluating in vivo iron bioavailability. Total phenolics was higher in the germinated group (cooking 0.56 and 0.64; Germinated 2.05 and 2.45 mg gallic acid kg-1 ). In vitro bioaccessibility of iron of germinated beans presented higher values (P ≤ 0.05) compared to cooked beans. There was higher expression of divalent metal transporter-1 in biofortified and germinated beans. CONCLUSION: The iron bioavailability from the biofortified and germinated beans was comparable to ferrous sulfate. Germination can be considered as an alternative and efficient method for consuming cowpea, presenting good iron bioaccessibility and bioavailability. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vigna/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Culinária , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Germinação , Ferro/análise , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Vigna/química , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(16): 6435-6448, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254000

RESUMO

Phytases are important industrial enzymes able to catalyze the release of up to six phosphates from phytate in a stepwise hydrolysis reaction. Phytases are almost exclusively used as a feed supplement. However, phytases are also used in human nutrition, food processing, non-food industrial products, and emerging applications like enzymatic phosphate recovery from renewable resources. Phytate, the main phosphorus storage form in seeds, and its hydrolysis products act as a chelator and reduce protein and mineral bioavailability in intestinal absorption. Full phosphate hydrolysis from the common storage compound phytate remains a challenge. Phytate hydrolysis patterns of tailored phytases and their protein engineering campaigns are discussed. The aim of our review is to give an overview on developed and emerging application areas (animal nutrition, food processing, and environmental resource management) and thereby generate an awareness for the importance of phosphorus stewardship in a circular bioeconomy. Emphasis will be given to processes using organic-bound phosphorus and related recycling strategy of this valuable resource. In detail, the main challenge in designing phytases to completely hydrolyze phosphate from phytate to inositol and the need for engineering campaigns to broaden their industrial use are described.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/genética , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrólise , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos
10.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5562-5570, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189179

RESUMO

Gnotobiotic broiler chickens were used to study interactive effects of supplemented phosphorus, calcium (PCa), and phytase (Phy) on myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate) (InsP6) degradation and release of myo-inositol in the digestive tract. In 2 subsequent runs, the chickens were subjected to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with and without PCa and Phy supplementation. Sanitized eggs were hatched in 8 germfree isolators, and a minimum of 9 male Ross 308 chickens were placed in each pen (total 16 pens). Treatments implemented on day 10 included gamma-irradiated diets without (PCa-; 4.1 g P and 6.2 g Ca/kg DM) or with (PCa+; 6.9 g P and 10.4 g Ca/kg DM) monosodium phosphate and limestone supplementation and without (Phy-) or with (Phy+) 1,500 FTU Phy/kg feed in a factorial arrangement. On day 15, digesta was collected from different sections of the intestinal tract and analyzed for InsP isomers and myo-inositol. The isolators did not remain germfree, but analysis of contaminants and results of InsP degradation indicated no or minor effects of the identified contaminants. Prececal InsP6 disappearance was 42% with the PCa-Phy- treatment and 17% with PCa+Phy-. No InsP3-4 isomers were found in the digesta of the terminal ileum in PCa-Phy-. The concentration of myo-inositol in the ileal digesta from PCa-Phy- (6.1 µmol/g DM) was significantly higher than that from PCa+Phy- (1.7 µmol/g DM), suggesting rapid degradation of the lower InsP isomers by mucosal phosphatases and their inhibition by PCa. Phytase supplementation increased InsP6 disappearance and prevented inhibitory effects of PCa supplements (72% in PCa-Phy+ and 67% in PCa+Phy+). However, PCa supplementation reduced the degradation of lower InsP isomers mainly in the posterior intestinal sections in the presence of Phy, resulting in significantly lower myo-inositol concentrations. It is concluded that mucosa-derived phosphatases might significantly contribute to InsP6 degradation in broiler chickens. The potential of mucosa-derived phosphatases to degrade InsP6 and lower InsP is markedly reduced by dietary PCa supplementation.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Vida Livre de Germes , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino
11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3451-3459, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190064

RESUMO

Phytase is added to swine diets to improve the utilization of phytate-bound P in swine diets. This provides financial and environmental benefits to the pig industry. However, it is unclear if phytase works equally well in all dietary circumstances. The objective of this experiment was to determine if insoluble fiber affects the efficacy of the phytase enzyme in nursery pigs when fed diets limiting in P content. A total of 480 pigs (initial BW 5.48 ± 0.14 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned (10 pigs per pen) to treatment within the block. A common nutrient-adequate diet was fed from days -14 to -5, and two basal P deficient diets (either a corn-soy diet containing 0.16% standardized total tract digestible [STTD] P [low insoluble fiber [LF]], or a corn-soybean meal plus 20% corn bran containing 0.14% STTD P [high insoluble fiber [HF]]) were fed from days -5 to 0 to acclimate pigs to a P deficient diet. From days 0 to 21, pigs received eight dietary treatments (six pens per treatment: n = 6). Experimental diets consisted of LF supplemented with one of four levels of added phytase (0, 109, 218, and 327 phytase units [FTU]/kg; Quantum Blue 5 G, AB Vista, Wiltshire, United Kingdom) expected to provide 0.16, 0.21, 0.26, and 0.31% STTD P, respectively, or HF supplemented with one of the same four levels of added phytase expected to provide 0.14, 0.19, 0.24, and 0.29% STTD P. Titanium dioxide was added to the diet at 0.4% as an indigestible marker. On day 21, one pig representing the average BW for each pen was euthanized, and fibulae were collected and analyzed for bone ash. Fecal samples were collected from each pen on days 19-20. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. There were no interactions between insoluble fiber and phytase for any of the variables evaluated. For days 0-21, adding phytase increased ADG (P < 0.001) with the response being linear (P < 0.001), whereas insoluble fiber decreased ADG (P = 0.033). There were no effects of phytase or insoluble fiber on ADFI (P = 0.381 and P = 0.632, respectively). Phytase improved G:F ratio (P < 0.001) with the response being linear (P < 0.001). Insoluble fiber tended to decrease G:F ratio (P = 0.097). Phytase increased bone ash (P = 0.005) with the response being linear (P = 0.001), but there was no effect of insoluble fiber (P = 0.949). Phytase did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, NDF, or ADF (P > 0.050), whereas insoluble fiber decreased the ATTD of DM (P < 0.001), NDF (P < 0.001), and ADF (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the addition of insoluble fiber did not affect the ability of phytase to improve growth performance and bone mineralization in nursery pigs fed a P deficient diet.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fósforo/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Fezes/química , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Minerais , Fósforo/deficiência , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Soja , Suínos , Zea mays
12.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5700-5713, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250002

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of phytase and protease supplementation on prececal (pc) amino acid (AA) digestibility, phytate (InsP6) degradation, and MEn concentration in diets using 3 oilseed meals as main protein sources in broiler chicken feed. The broiler chicken diets, which lacked mineral phosphorus, contained either soybean meal (SBM), SBM and rapeseed meal (SBM/RSM), or SBM and sunflower meal (SBM/SFM) as main protein sources. Diets were not supplemented with enzymes or supplemented with 1,500 or 3,000 FTU phytase/kg, or with 1,600 mg protease/kg. For diets containing SBM as the main protein source, the effects of phytase supplementation with and without monocalcium phosphate were also investigated. Data were obtained during 2 subsequent runs from days 14 to 22 and from days 23 to 31. Each diet was tested using 8 replicates with 4 replicates per run. For pc AA digestibility, no significant interactions were observed between main protein sources, enzyme supplementation, or addition of monocalcium phosphate except for Cys. Supplementation of 1,500 FTU phytase/kg increased pc digestibility of all AA. No differences in pc AA digestibility were observed between 1,500 and 3,000 FTU phytase/kg supplementation treatments. Prececal disappearance of InsP6 and pc P digestibility were greater in the high phytase supplementation treatment. Protease supplementation increased pc digestibility of all AA except for Cys when SBM/RSM was the main protein source. Supplementation of protease and 3,000 FTU phytase/kg increased MEn concentrations. The effect of phytase on pc AA digestibility was fully expressed at a lower supplementation level than needed for a maximized pc InsP6 disappearance and MEn concentration.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Brassica rapa/química , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Intestinos/fisiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Soja/química
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5969-5983, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is a nutrient for animals and humans, and is considered beneficial to higher plants. Selenium concentrations are low in most soils, which can result in a lack of Se in plants, and consequently in human diets. Phytic acid (PA) is the main storage form of phosphorus in seeds, and it is able to form insoluble complexes with essential minerals in the monogastric gut. This study aimed to establish optimal levels of Se application to cowpea, with the aim of increasing Se concentrations. The efficiency of agronomic biofortification was evaluated by the application of seven levels of Se (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 g ha-1 ) from two sources (selenate and selenite) to the soil under field conditions in 2016 and 2017. RESULTS: Application of Se as selenate led to greater plant Se concentrations than application as selenite in both leaves and grains. Assuming human cowpea consumption of 54.2 g day-1 , Se application of 20 g ha-1 in 2016 or 10 g ha-1 in 2017 as selenate would have provided a suitable daily intake of Se (between 20 and 55 µg day-1 ) for humans. Phytic acid showed no direct response to Se application. CONCLUSION: Selenate provides greater phytoavailability than selenite. The application of 10 g Se ha-1 of selenate to cowpea plants could provide sufficient seed Se to increase daily human intake by 13-14 µg d-1 . © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Ácido Fítico/análise , Ácido Selênico/análise , Ácido Selenioso/análise , Selênio/análise , Vigna/química , Fertilizantes/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Vigna/metabolismo
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 536-551, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247320

RESUMO

Phytic acid (PA) is one of the most common anti-nutritional factors in plant-derived protein feeds, and it poses considerable threats to aquaculture production. However, little is known about the effects of PA on fish intestinal health. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of PA on intestinal immune function in on-growing grass carp. To achieve this goal, a growth trial was conducted for 60 days by feeding 540 fish (120.56 ±â€¯0.51 g) with six semi-purified diets containing graded levels of PA (0, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0%). Then fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 6 days. The results indicated that, compared with the control group (0% PA), PA did the following: (1) suppressed fish growth performance (percentage weight gain and feed efficiency) and reduced their ability to resist enteritis; (2) decreased fish intestinal antimicrobial ability by reducing intestinal lysozyme (LZ) activities, the contents of complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM), and downregulating the mRNA levels of hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2A (LEAP-2A), LEAP-2B, and ß-defensin-1; and (3) aggravated fish intestinal inflammation responses by upregulating the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) (except in the DI), interferon γ2 (IFN-γ2), IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-15 (except in the DI) and IL-17D, which is partly related to the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway, whereas downregulating the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines including transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1), IL-4/13A, IL-4/13B, IL-10 and IL-11, which is partially associated with the target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway. The possible reasons for some distinctive gene expression patterns in fish three intestinal segments were discussed. Finally, based on the percent weight gain, enteritis morbidity, IgM content and LZ activity in the PI, the maximum tolerance levels of PA for on-growing grass carp were estimated to be 2.17, 1.68, 1.47 and 1.18% of the diet, respectively.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Intestinos/imunologia , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Ácido Fítico/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2524-2533, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056701

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of increasing the dose of a 6-phytase from Buttiauxella on phytate degradation, mineral, energy, and AA digestibility in weaned pigs fed complex diets based on wheat, corn, soybean meal, barley, and rapeseed meal. A negative control (NC) diet containing no added inorganic phosphorus (P) and a reduction of 0.1% calcium (Ca) and 36 kcal/kg ME was supplemented with Buttiauxella phytase at 0, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 FTU/kg diet and tested against a nutritionally adequate, positive control (PC) diet. One phytase units (FTU) is the amount of enzyme that liberates 1 micromole of inorganic phosphate per minute from a sodium phytate substrate at pH 5.5 and 37 °C. Barrows (Topigs × Pietrian; initial mean body weight 19.3 kg) were housed individually in metabolic crates and fed the test diets in mash form via 2 equal meals per day for 9 d (fed at 2.5 times the maintenance energy requirement), with 8 replicate pigs per treatment, in 2 experimental runs (total n = 48). After a 3-d adaptation period, urine and feces were collected over 5 d for measurements of apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of nutrients. On day 9, pigs were euthanized and ileal digesta collected for measurements of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients. Phytase improved (P < 0.05) digestibility of all measured AA except Trp (P < 0.1), and AID P, nitrogen, phytate, ATTD P, Ca versus NC. Increasing phytase dose from 0 (NC) to 2,000 FTU/kg increased AID Lys, Cys, Thr, Val, Ile, Leu, mean AA, P, N, phytate, ATTD P, N, Na, energy, ME, P retention (g/d), and reduced P excretion (g/d) in a linear or exponential manner (P < 0.05). Phytase at 2,000 FTU/kg improved AA digestibility by between +3.1 percentage points (Trp) and +8.8 percentage points (Cys) versus NC (average +6.3 percentage points) (P < 0.05). Phytase inclusion at 2,000 FTU/kg reduced P excretion (g/d) by 57% versus PC (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increasing Buttiauxella phytase in the range of 0 to 2,000 FTU/kg increased phytate degradation, improved AA and P digestibility, and reduced P excretion in weaned pigs fed complex diets.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Brassica rapa , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hordeum , Minerais/metabolismo , Soja , Triticum , Zea mays
16.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 3007-3015, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069380

RESUMO

A total of 2,156 weaned pigs (6.75 ± 0.11 kg BW) were used in a 42-d study to evaluate whether improvements in growth performance associated with super-dosing phytase can be explained by the complete dephosphorylation of phytate and liberation of inositol. Two phytase doses (0 and 2,500 FTU/kg) and 3 inositol concentrations (0%, 0.15%, and 0.30%) were combined to create 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Pigs were fed a 3-phase feeding program, with periods being 10, 10, and 22 d, respectively. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 21, and 42 from a subset of 48 pigs to analyze mineral and myo-inositol concentrations. During Phase 1, super-dosing phytase tended to improve ADG compared with pigs fed diets without phytase (P = 0.09). Increasing concentrations of inositol improved the efficiency of gain in pigs fed diets without phytase (1,022.1, 1,040.9, and 1,089.2 g/kg), but not diets with phytase (1,102.2, 1,087.2, and 1,076.2 g/kg), and this improvement was equivalent to that observed with super-dosing phytase in the absence of inositol (interaction, P = 0.015). During Phase 2, super-dosing phytase improved ADG (P = 0.001), resulting in heavier BW (P = 0.007). During Phase 3 and overall, inositol supplementation increased ADG and ADFI in a quadratic manner (P < 0.10), with the highest ADG and ADFI observed for pigs fed 0.15% of inositol. Super-dosing phytase increased serum Zn on day 21, but not on day 42 (interaction, P = 0.008), increased serum Cu (P = 0.01), but decreased serum Fe (P = 0.02). Plasma myo-inositol increased linearly from 66.9 to 97.1 and 113.2 nmol/mL with increasing inositol (P < 0.001). When plasma myo-inositol was analyzed within the subgroup of pigs fed diets without added inositol, super-dosing phytase increased plasma myo-inositol from 57.81 to 76.05 nmol/mL (0 and 2,500 FTU/kg, respectively; P = 0.05). Results demonstrate that exogenous inositol improved efficiency of gain in weaned pigs to the same level as that observed with super-dosing phytase, but this occurred only during the first 10 d of the nursery period. This suggests that the improvement in efficiency of growth when applying super-dosing phytase could be linked, in part, to complete dephosphorylation of phytate and liberation of myo-inositol, and that myo-inositol had a greater metabolic impact in piglets immediately after weaning. Consequently, myo-inositol may be a conditionally essential nutrient for young pigs during weaning stress, but further research is needed to prove this hypothesis.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Minerais/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Suínos/sangue , Desmame
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 5239-5248, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudocereals are nutrient-rich grains with high mineral content but also phytate content. Phytate is a mineral absorption inhibitor. The study's aim was to evaluate phytate degradation during spontaneous fermentation and during Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® fermentation of quinoa, canihua, and amaranth grains and flours. It also aimed to evaluate the accessibility of iron, zinc, and calcium and to estimate their bioavailability before and after the fermentation of flours with starter culture. Lactic acid, pH, phytate, and mineral content were analyzed during fermentation. RESULTS: Higher phytate degradation was found during the fermentation of flours (64-93%) than during that of grains (12-51%). Results suggest that phytate degradation was mainly due to endogenous phytase activity in different pseudocereals rather than the phytase produced by added microorganisms. The addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® resulted in a higher level of lactic acid (76.8-82.4 g kg-1 DM) during fermentation, and a relatively quicker reduction in pH to 4 than in spontaneous fermentation. Mineral accessibility was increased (1.7-4.6-fold) and phytate : mineral molar ratios were reduced (1.5-4.2-fold) in agreement with phytate degradation (1.8-4.2-fold) in fermented flours. The reduced molar ratios were still above the threshold value for the improved estimated mineral bioavailability of mainly iron. CONCLUSION: Fermentation proved to be effective for degrading phytate in pseudocereal flours, but less so in grains. Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® improved mineral accessibility and estimated bioavailability in flours. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/microbiologia , Chenopodium quinoa/microbiologia , Chenopodium/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Amaranthus/química , Amaranthus/metabolismo , Chenopodium/química , Chenopodium/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fermentação , Farinha/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Minerais/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/análise
18.
Food Funct ; 10(6): 3344-3355, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095149

RESUMO

The impact of phytic acid on lipid digestion and curcumin bioaccessibility in oil-in-water nanoemulsions was investigated using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The size, charge, and structural organization of the colloidal particles in the system were measured as the curcumin-loaded emulsions (7 mg curcumin per g lipid) were passed through simulated mouth (pH 6.8, 2 min), stomach (pH 2.5, 2 hours), and small intestine (pH 7.0, 2 hours) stages. After the small intestine stage, the level of free fatty acids (FFAs) generated and the bioaccessibility of curcumin were measured. The total amount of FFAs released significantly decreased with increasing phytic acid level, from 105.7 ± 5.9% (control) to 78.4 ± 6.4% (0.5% phytic acid). Conversely, curcumin bioaccessibility significantly increased from 39.4 ± 3.5% (control) to 74.7 ± 2.6% (0.5% phytic acid). The inverse relationship between lipolysis and curcumin bioaccessibility was ascribed to the impact of phytic acid on droplet flocculation and the level of free calcium ions present, which affected the production of mixed micelles capable of solubilizing the nutraceutical. The knowledge obtained here might prove beneficial for the employment of phytic acid as a multifunctional ingredient that inhibits lipid digestion while boosting nutraceutical bioavailability.


Assuntos
Curcumina/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Curcumina/química , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/metabolismo , Excipientes/química , Excipientes/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química
19.
Planta ; 250(1): 219-227, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980245

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In sweetcorn (Zea mays L.), embryo Zn is accumulated mainly as Zn-phytate, whereas endosperm Zn is complexed with a N- or S-containing ligand. Understanding the speciation of Zn in crop plants helps improve the effectiveness of biofortification efforts. Kernels of four sweetcorn (Zea mays L.) varieties were analysed for Zn concentration and content. We also assessed the speciation of the Zn in the embryo, endosperm, and pericarp in situ using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The majority of the Zn was in the endosperm and pericarp (72%), with the embryo contributing 28%. Approximately 79% of the Zn in the embryo accumulated as Zn-phytate, whereas in the endosperm most of the Zn was complexed with a N- or S-containing ligand, possibly as Zn-histidine and Zn-cysteine. This suggests that whilst the Zn in the endosperm and pericarp is likely to be bioavailable for humans, the Zn in the embryo is of low bioavailability. This study highlights the importance of targeting the endosperm of sweetcorn kernels as the tissue for increasing bioavailable Zn concentration.


Assuntos
Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Biofortificação , Endosperma/genética , Endosperma/metabolismo , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X , Zea mays/genética , Zinco/análise
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(17): 5043-5052, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977368

RESUMO

The low phytic acid ( lpa) soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.) mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1-M, resulting from a 2 bp deletion in GmMIPS1, was crossed with a commercial cultivar. F3 and F5 progenies were subjected to nontargeted GC-based metabolite profiling, allowing analysis of a broad array of low molecular weight constituents. In the homozygous lpa mutant progenies the intended phytic acid reduction was accompanied by remarkable metabolic changes of nutritionally relevant constituents such as reduced contents of raffinose oligosaccharides and galactosyl cyclitols as well as increased concentrations in sucrose and various free amino acids. The mutation-induced metabolite signature was nearly unaffected by the cross-breeding and consistently expressed over generations and in different growing seasons. Therefore, not only the primary MIPS1 lpa mutant but also its progenies might be valuable genetic resources for commercial breeding programs to produce soybean seeds stably exhibiting improved phytate-related and nutritional properties.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Mio-Inositol-1-Fosfato Sintase/genética , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Hibridização Genética , Mutação , Mio-Inositol-1-Fosfato Sintase/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Sacarose/análise , Sacarose/metabolismo
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