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1.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 157-167, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600092

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the positive effects of a CPC-, GK2-, and TXA-based (CPC/GK2/TXA) mouthwash after implant placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients (n = 20) who underwent posterior implant-placement surgery were randomly and evenly allocated to the study or the placebo group. After the mouthwash was used 3x/day for 7 to 10 days postoperatively, sutures were analysed by counting the colony-forming units (CFU) for total aerobes, total G [-] anaerobes, total enterobacteria and total H. influenzae, followed by Real-Time PCR of bacterial-specific DNAs of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola, P. intermedia, P. micra, F. nucleatum, C. rectus, and E. corrodens. In vitro resistance of P. gingivalis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa was analysed. The compatibility of the mouthwash with Straumann SLA implant surfaces was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: Sixteen patients (n = 16) completed the trial. A statistically significantly greater number of CFU was found in the placebo group for almost all species, especially for total G [-] anaerobes. No statistically significant in vitro resistance was found for P. gingivalis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. SEM revealed no surface alteration after exposure to the mouthwash. CONCLUSION: The use of a CPC/GK2/TXA mouthwash inhibited propagation of the bacteria extracted from the post-surgical sutures after implant placement.


Assuntos
Cetilpiridínio , Ácido Tranexâmico , Ácido Glicirrízico , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Staphylococcus aureus
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(720-1): 50-53, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443831

RESUMO

2020 has seen the birth of several relevant studies in emergency medicine of which the following is a selection : 1) conservative treatment for primary spontaneous pneumothorax may be offered ; 2) tranexamic acid does not provide benefit in gastrointestinal bleeding ; 3) the Canadian Syncope Risk Score is validated for the risk stratification of syncopal patients ; 4) early administration of tranexamic acid does not have a significant effect on the neurological prognosis of patients with moderate to severe trauma brain injury ; 5) the notion of frailty seems to be predictive of mortality in the event of intra-hospital cardiac arrest in elderly patients ; 6) a pharmacological cardioversion strategy followed by electrical cardioversion is as effective as initial electrical cardioversion for atrial fibrillation in the emergency room.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/métodos , Medicina de Emergência/tendências , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Canadá , Cardioversão Elétrica , Fragilidade , Humanos , Pneumotórax/terapia , Medição de Risco , Síncope , Ácido Tranexâmico
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e040273, 2021 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455926

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Blood transfusion and anaemia are frequent and are associated with poor outcomes in patients with hip fracture (HF). We hypothesised that preoperative intravenous iron and tranexamic acid (TXA) may reduce the transfusion rate in these patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The HiFIT study is a multicentre, 2×2 factorial, randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial evaluating the effect of iron isomaltoside (IIM) (20 mg/kg) vs placebo and of TXA (intravenously at inclusion and topically during surgery) versus placebo on transfusion rate during hospitalisation, in patients undergoing emergency surgery for HF and having a preoperative haemoglobin between 95 and 130 g/L. 780 patients are expected. The primary endpoint is the proportion of patients receiving an allogenic blood transfusion of packed red blood cells from the day of surgery until hospital discharge (or until D30 if patient is still hospitalised). Enrolment started on March 2017 in 11 French hospitals. The study was stopped between July 2017 and August 2018 (because of investigation of serious AEs with IIM in Spain) and slowed down since March 2020 (COVID-19 crisis). The expected date of final follow-up is May 2022. Analyses of the intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations are planned. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The HiFIT trial protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Comité de Protection des Personnes Ouest II and the French authorities (ANSM). It will be carried out according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and the Good Clinical Practice guidelines. The results will be disseminated through presentation at scientific conferences and publication in peer-reviewed journals. The HiFIT trial will be the largest study evaluating iron and TXA in patients with HF. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: clinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02972294; EudraCT Number 2016-003087-40.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Método Duplo-Cego , França , Hemoglobinas/análise , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BJOG ; 128(1): 114-120, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) use to prevent postpartum haemorrhage. DESIGN: A trial-based economic evaluation. SETTING: Fifteen French university maternity hospitals. POPULATION: Women enrolled in the TRAAP randomised controlled trial comparing TXA versus placebo in women with vaginal delivery. TRAAP failed to show a reduction in postpartum haemorrhage of at least 500 ml in the intervention arm but evidenced significant lower rates of secondary outcomes related to blood loss. METHODS & MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We estimated direct medical costs from within-trial hospital resources collected prospectively from the study report form. All resources were costed at their value to the hospital. We estimated incremental cost per incremental haemorrhage averted. RESULTS: Among the 4079 women in the TRAAP trial, data necessary to calculate costs were available for 3836 (94.0%). The average total costs in the TXA and control groups were €2278 ± 388 and €2288 ± 409 per woman, respectively (P = 0.79). In women with postpartum haemorrhage of at least 500 ml (trial primary endpoint), costs were €2359 ± 354 and €2409 ± 525 (P = 0.14); for provider-assessed clinically significant postpartum haemorrhage and postpartum haemorrhage of at least 1000 ml, costs were respectively €2316 ± 347 versus €2381 ± 521 (P = 0.22) and €2321 ± 318 versus €2411 ± 590 (P = 0.35) in the tranexamic and placebo groups, respectively. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the use of TXA had a 65-73% probability of saving costs and improving outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the use of TXA, as both bleeding events and cost may be reduced three out of four times. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Tranexamic acid at vaginal delivery reduces both costs and bleeding events 3 times out of 4.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Parto Obstétrico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antifibrinolíticos/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , França , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Ácido Tranexâmico/economia
7.
Anesthesiology ; 134(2): 165-178, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether high-dose regimens of tranexamic acid in cardiac surgery (total dose, 80 to 100 mg/kg) confer a clinical advantage over low-dose regimens (total dose, approximately 20 mg/kg), particularly as tranexamic acid-associated seizure may be dose-related. The authors' aim was to characterize the exposure-response relationship of this drug. METHODS: Databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of intravenous tranexamic acid in adult patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Observational studies were added for seizure assessment. Tranexamic acid concentrations were predicted in each arm of each study using a population pharmacokinetic model. The exposure-response relationship was evaluated by performing a model-based meta-analysis using nonlinear mixed-effect models. RESULTS: Sixty-four randomized controlled trials and 18 observational studies (49,817 patients) were included. Seventy-three different regimens of tranexamic acid were identified, with the total dose administered ranging from 5.5 mg/kg to 20 g. The maximum effect of tranexamic acid for postoperative blood loss reduction was 40% (95% credible interval, 34 to 47%), and the EC50 was 5.6 mg/l (95% credible interval, 0.7 to 11 mg/l). Exposure values with low-dose regimens approached the 80% effective concentration, whereas with high-dose regimens, they exceeded the 90% effective concentration. The predicted cumulative blood loss up to 48 h postsurgery differed by 58 ml between the two regimens, and the absolute difference in erythrocyte transfusion rate was 2%. Compared to no tranexamic acid, low-dose and high-dose regimens increased the risk of seizure by 1.2-fold and 2-fold, respectively. However, the absolute risk increase was only clinically meaningful in the context of prolonged open-chamber surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, low-dose tranexamic acid seems to be an appropriate regimen for reducing bleeding outcomes. This meta-analysis has to be interpreted with caution because the results are observational and dependent on the lack of bias of the predicted tranexamic acid exposures and the quality of the included studies.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos
8.
J Clin Neurosci ; 82(Pt A): 147-154, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317724

RESUMO

Chronic subdural haemorrhage (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical entity with complex pathophysiological pathways. The generally favourable surgical outcome may be affected by its associated risks including recurrence rates. We performed a prospective randomized multi-center clinical trial comparing the addition of tranexamic acid (TXA) to standard neurosurgical procedures for patients with symptomatic CSDH. The primary endpoint was CSDH requiring repeat surgery within 6-month post-operatively. Secondary endpoints were comparison of post-operative volumes between the treatment arms and safety evaluation of the dosing regime. 90 patients were analyzed with 49 patients in the observation arm and 41 patients in the TXA arm. The observation arm had five (10.2%) recurrences compared to two (4.8%, p = 0.221) in the TXA arm. Patients in the TXA arm demonstrated a greater reduction of their CSDH volume at 6 weeks follow up (36.6%) compared to the observation arm (23.3%, p = 0.6648). There were no reportable serious adverse events recorded in the observation arm, compared to 4 (9.8%) patients in the TXA arm. The addition of TXA treatment to standard surgical drainage of CSH did not significantly reduce symptomatic post-operative recurrence. Patients in the TXA arm had a delay in the CSDH recurrence with a comparative reduction of residual hematoma volume at the 6-week follow up although the effect was unsustained. Larger randomized trials with dose adjustments should be considered to investigate subgroups of patients that may benefit from this medical adjunct.


Assuntos
Hematoma Subdural Crônico/tratamento farmacológico , Hematoma Subdural Crônico/cirurgia , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(12): 1561-1567, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319536

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the hemostatic effect and safety in primary unilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) receiving nadroparin calcium, enoxaparin sodium, rivaroxaban, or apixaban after anti-fibrinolysis with tranexamic acid (TXA) and explore the best anticoagulant. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 184 patients who underwent the primary unilateral THA between January 2014 and December 2018, administrated 15 mg/kg TXA before surgery and received nadroparin calcium, enoxaparin sodium, rivaroxaban, or apixaban. The patients were divided into four groups based on the different anticoagulants: 46 patients received nadroparin calcium; 45 patients received enoxaparin sodium; 47 patients received rivaroxaban; the other 46 patients received apixaban. There was no significant difference in age, gender, body mass, body mass index, the types of hip joint diseases, complications, anesthesia mode, operation time, and preoperative laboratory indexes (hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet, prothrombin time, activated partial prothrombin time, blood volume) ( P>0.05). Perioperative blood data (total blood loss, hidden blood loss, dominant blood loss, postoperative drainage volume, maximum loss of hemoglobin, and blood transfusion rate) and complications (incision, bleeding, and thrombosis) were recorded and compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference in total blood loss, hidden blood loss, dominant blood loss, postoperative drainage volume, maximum loss of hemoglobin, and blood transfusion rate between groups ( P>0.05). The comparison of postoperative complications showed that 1 case (2.1%) of redness and swelling of incision occurred in the rivaroxaban group, and 1 case (2.2%) of the other 3 groups each had poor incision healing. No incision infection, fat liquefaction, or other incision complications occurred in the 4 groups. There was no significant difference in incision complication between groups ( P>0.05). There were 2 cases (4.3%) bleeding events (1 case of right inguinal hematoma and 1 case of subcutaneous ecchymosis in front of left leg) in the nadroparin calcium group, while no bleeding event occurred in the other 3 groups, which had no significant difference in bleeding complication between groups ( χ 2=5.612, P=0.132). There was 1 case (2.2%) of intermuscular vein thrombosis of the lower extremity in the nadroparin calcium group and no case in the other 3 groups, which had no significant difference between groups ( χ 2=2.789, P=0.425). Neither deep venous thrombosis nor pulmonary embolism occurred in any group. Conclusion: No significant difference in the hemostatic effect and incidences of complications for patients underwent primary unilateral THA receiving nadroparin calcium, enoxaparin sodium, rivaroxaban, or apixaban after anti-fibrinolysis with TXA. One of the four anticoagulants can be selected to prevent thrombosis after anti-fibrinolysis with TXA, which has certain safety.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Artroplastia de Quadril , Hemostáticos , Ácido Tranexâmico , Anticoagulantes , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(12): 1612-1618, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319545

RESUMO

Objective: To review the perioperative blood management (PBM) of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). Methods: Recent researches on PBM for TKA and THA were comprehensively read and summarized. Then the advantages and disadvantages of various measures together with the clinical experience of West China Hospital of Sichuan University were evaluated from three aspects, including optimizing hematopoiesis, reducing blood loss and blood transfusion, which could provide a basis for clinical selection. Results: There are many PBM methods in TKA and THA, among which the optimization of hematopoiesis mainly includes the application of perioperative iron and erythropoietin. Measures to reduce bleeding include the use of tourniquet, intraoperative controlled hypotension, and perioperative antifibrinolytic agents. Autologous blood transfusion includes preoperative autologous blood donation, hemodilution and cell salvage. Allogeneic blood transfusion is the ultimate treatment for anemia. The application of erythropoietin combined with iron therapy for blood mobilization before surgery together with intraoperative controlled hypotension for bleeding control and the multiple use of tranexamic acid can achieve satisfactory clinical results. Conclusion: In the perioperative period of TKA and THA, single or multiple use of different blood management measures should be considered carefully according to the physical and economic conditions of patients individually, so as to reduce the blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion optimally, and finally accelerate the recovery of patients.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Ácido Tranexâmico , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , China , Humanos
11.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(4): 85-91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320318

RESUMO

Early tranexamic acid (TXA) administration for resuscitation of critically injured warfighters provides a mortality benefit. The 2019 Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) recommendations of a 1g drip over 10 minutes, followed by 1g drip over 8 hours, is intended to limit potential TXA side effects, including hypotension, seizures, and anaphylaxis. However, this slow and cumbersome TXA infusion protocol is difficult to execute in the tactical care environment. Additionally, the side effect cautions derive from studies of elderly or cardiothoracic surgery patients, not young healthy warfighters. Therefore, the 75th Ranger Regiment developed and implemented a 2g intravenous or intraosseous (IV/IO) TXA flush protocol. We report on the first six cases of this protocol in the history of the Regiment. After-action reports (AARs) revealed no incidences of post-TXA hypotension, seizures, or anaphylaxis. Combined, the results of this case series are encouraging and provide a foundation for larger studies to fully determine the safety of the novel 2g IV/IO TXA flush protocol toward preserving the lives of traumatically injured warfighters.


Assuntos
Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infusões Intraósseas
12.
Acta Ortop Mex ; 34(1): 6-9, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230992

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ATC can cause considerable blood loss. To reduce the need for blood transfusion, various preoperative techniques such as administration of tranexamic acid (ATX) are used. OBJECTIVE: to demonstrate that the use of ATX decreases the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in patients operated on ATC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective, observational, descriptive study, used to observe the allogeneic blood transfusion rate in patients who underwent unilateral primary ATC from May 2016 to December 2017. ATX was applied preoperatively and after 24 hours a blood count was taken and the need for blood transfusion was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 70 patients were included in the study. The average postoperative Hb 11.7 mg/dl with a range of 9.2 to 14.9 mg/dl and an average Ht of 37.1% with a range of 30.2 to 44.2%. None of the patients required allogeneic blood transfusión. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates how ATX is a transoperative strategy to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing primary ATC.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Artroplastia de Quadril , Ácido Tranexâmico , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Sangue , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico
13.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(11): 1468-1473, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191708

RESUMO

Objective: To review the advances in the application of tranexamic acid (TXA) in adolescent spinal corrective surgery. Methods: The mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic, effectiveness, dosage, safety as well as methods of administration were comprehensively summarized by consulting domestic and overseas related literature about the application of TXA in adolescent spinal corrective surgery in recent years. Results: TXA efficaciously reduce intraoperative blood loss, transfusion rate and volume, postoperative drainage volume in adolescent spinal corrective surgery. At present, the most common method of administration in adolescent spinal corrective surgery is that a loading dose is given intravenously before skin incision or induction of anesthesia, followed by a maintenance dose until the end of the surgery. The range of loading dose and maintenance dose is 10-100 mg/kg and 1-10 mg/(kg·h), respectively. No drug related adverse event has been reported in this range. Conclusion: The effectiveness and safety of TXA in adolescent spinal surgery have been basically confirmed. However, further studies are needed to determine the optimal dosage, method of administration as well as whether it could reduce blood loss after surgery.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Ácido Tranexâmico , Adolescente , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Sangue , Humanos , Período Pós-Operatório , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico
14.
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech ; 87(5): 363-366, 2020.
Artigo em Eslovaco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146607

RESUMO

Tranexamic acid (TXA) is widely used to limit the blood loss during total joint arthroplasty without an increased risk of thromboembolic events. We present a case of acute limb ischaemia due to thrombotic occlusion of the superficial femoral artery on the non-operated limb following a total hip arthroplasty in a 64-year-old male patient. Untreated peripheral artery disease, intravenous TXA administration, surgery, obesity and hypertension were identified as predisposing factors of the occlusion. Good reperfusion of the limb was obtained after mechanical thrombectomy. Other cases report that antifibrinolytic agents such as TXA could be associated with arterial thrombosis. The necessity to detect the risk factors of thrombotic events in each patient scheduled for total joint arthroplasty is emphasized. Therefore, topical TXA administration could be a reasonable alternative in a high-risk patient. Key words: tranexamic acid complications, total hip arthroplasty, arterial thrombosis.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Artroplastia de Quadril , Ácido Tranexâmico , Administração Tópica , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Humanos , Isquemia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22999, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of oral tranexamic acid (TXA) remain controversial because of the small number of clinical studies. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral TXA with intravenous TXA in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty in a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving oral and intravenous TXA in total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty up to December 2019 by searching databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library China Biology Medicine, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal Database and Wanfang. The mean difference or standard mean difference was used to assess continuous outcomes such as hemoglobin (Hb) drop, total blood loss, drain blood loss, and length of hospital stay, with a 95% confidence interval. Relative risks with a 95% confidence interval were used to assess dichotomous outcomes such as transfusion rate and the incidence of deep venous thrombosis and calf muscular vein thrombosis. Review Manager was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Ten RCTs containing 1080 participants met the inclusion criteria. We found no significant differences in terms of the average Hb drop (P = .60), total blood loss (P = .60), transfusion rate (P = .99), drain blood loss (P = .91), length of hospital stay (P = .95), and the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (P = .55) and calf muscular vein thrombosis (P = .19) between oral and IV TXA. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the IV TXA, oral TXA has similar effects on reducing the Hb drop, total blood loss, transfusion rate, drain blood loss, and length of hospital stay without increasing the risk of calf muscular vein thrombosis and deep venous thrombosis. Furthermore, oral TXA is easy to access and administer, which decreases the workload of nurses and even delivers cost-saving benefits to the health care system. We thus conclude that oral TXA may be an optimal approach in total joint arthroplasty. However, more high-quality and multicenter RCTs are still needed to confirm our conclusions. REGISTRATION: The current meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews), and the registration number was CRD42018111291.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem
17.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 10 05.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021328

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. Progressive intracranial bleeding is common in TBI and worsens outcome. The multicentre, randomized placebo-controlled CRASH-3 study enrolling 12,737 patients showed that early, <3h, administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) decreased mortality in mild-moderate TBI patients. In accordance with large previous trials, thromboembolic complications were not increased. In view of the favourable safety profile of TXA and the devastating effects from intracranial bleeds, the authors argue that TXA be administered within 3h post-injury to moderate-severe TBI patients, and in mild TBI to those with intracranial haemorrhage on acute CT.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Concussão Encefálica , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Ácido Tranexâmico , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos
18.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(9): 1151-1157, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862676

RESUMO

AIMS: Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. There remains a lack of prospective evidence for the use of TXA in patients undergoing periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). The purpose of this study was to determine if intravenous (IV) TXA is effective in reducing calculated blood loss and transfusions after PAO. METHODS: This was a single-centre prospective double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of 81 patients aged 12 to 45 years undergoing elective PAO by a single surgeon. The intervention group (n = 40) received two doses of IV TXA of a maximum 1 g in each dose; the control group (n = 41) received two doses of 50 ml 0.9% saline IV. The primary outcome was perioperative calculated blood loss. Secondary outcomes included allogenic transfusions and six-week postoperative complications. RESULTS: There were no differences in demographics or intraoperative variables between study groups. The TXA group demonstrated lower mean calculated blood loss (1,265 ml, (SD 321) vs 1,515 ml, (SD 394); p = 0.002) and lower frequency of allogenic transfusion (10%/n = 4 vs 37%/n = 15; p = 0.008). Regression analyses associated TXA use with significant reductions in calculated blood loss (p < 0.001) and transfusion (p = 0.007) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, preoperative haemoglobin, cell-saver volume, intraoperative mean arterial blood pressure, and operating time. No patients suffered venous thromboembolic complications. CONCLUSION: In this trial, IV TXA decreased postoperative calculated blood loss by 293 ml and reduced the frequency of allogenic transfusions by 73% (37% vs 10%) following PAO. TXA may be safe and effective for reducing blood loss in patients undergoing PAO. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(9):1151-1157.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Osteotomia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22028, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899057

RESUMO

Comparison of different anticoagulants in blood management and complications with tranexamic acid (TXA) in total hip arthroplasty (THA) is unclear. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety among receiving nadroparin calcium, enoxaparin sodium or rivaroxaban after TXA in THA.150 patients undergoing primary unilateral THA were received 15 mg/kg intravenous TXA (IV-TXA) before skin incision, followed by 1 of nadroparin calcium (Group A), enoxaparin sodium (Group B), or rivaroxaban (Group C) randomly during hospitalization. The primary outcome was hidden blood loss (HBL). Other outcomes such as the maximum hemoglobin (Hb) drop, total blood loss (TBL), the volume of drainage, transfusion rate, length of hospital stay (LOS), and complications were also compared.There were no statistically significant differences in HBL, the maximum hemoglobin (Hb) drop, transfusion rate, and complications among 3 groups. LOS was significantly higher for patients in Group B than Group A (P = .026). Neither deep venous thrombosis (DVT) nor pulmonary embolism (PE) occurred in any group.There were no differences in efficacy and safety in patients undergoing THA receiving nadroparin calcium, enoxaparin sodium, or rivaroxaban after anti-fibrinolysis with TXA.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nadroparina/administração & dosagem , Nadroparina/efeitos adversos , Sangue Oculto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Segurança , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 795-805, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981618

RESUMO

Successful emergency transfusions require early recognition and activation of resources to minimize treatment delays. The initial goals should focus on replacement of blood in a balanced fashion. There is an ongoing debate regarding the best approach to transfusions, with some advocating for resuscitation with a fixed ratio of blood products and others preferring to use viscoelastic assays to guide transfusions. Whole-blood transfusion also is a debated strategy. Despite these different approaches, it generally is accepted that transfusions should be started early and crystalloid infusions limited. As hemodynamic stability is restored, endpoints of resuscitation should be used to guide the resuscitation.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Tipagem e Reações Cruzadas Sanguíneas , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Protocolos Clínicos , Estado Terminal , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Hipotensão , Infusões Intraósseas , Infusões Intravenosas , Ressuscitação , Tromboelastografia , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
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