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1.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116219, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401204

RESUMO

Seven perfluorinated and polyfluorinated substances (PFASs), namely perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluoro-1,10-decanedicarboxylic acid (PFDDA), were evaluated in urine and hair samples from children (age: 4-6 years, N = 53), airborne particles sampled at 17 kindergartens, and tap water and bottled water samples. All samples were collected in Hong Kong. The analytical results suggested widespread PFAS contamination. All target PFASs were detected in at least 32% of urine samples, with geometric mean (GM) concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 2.97 ng/L, and in 100% of drinking water samples at GM concentrations of 0.18-21.1 ng/L. Although PFOS and PFDDA were not detected in hair or air samples, the other target PFASs were detected in 48-70% of hair samples (GM concentrations: 2.40-233 pg/g) and 100% of air samples (GM concentrations: 14.8-536.7 pg/m3). In summary, the highest PFAS concentrations were detected in airborne particles measured in kindergartens. PFOA was the major PFAS detected in hair, urine, and drinking water samples, while PFOA, PFDA, and PFHpA were dominant in airborne particles. Although a significant difference in PFAS concentrations in hair samples was observed between boys and girls (p < .05), no significant sex-related difference in urinary PFAS or paired PFAS (hair/urine) concentrations was observed.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Cabelo/química , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116355, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401211

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a focus of scientific and regulatory attention nowadays. However, PFAAs dynamics in the environment and the factors that determine wildlife exposure are still not well understood. In this study we examined PFAAs exposure in chicks of a generalist seabird species, the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), breeding 49 km away of a PFAAs hotspot (a fluorochemical plant in Antwerp, Belgium). In order to study the pathways of PFAAs exposure, we measured how chicks' PFAAs burden varied with age, sex, and body condition. In addition, we related PFAA concentrations to chicks' diet using stable isotope signatures. For this purpose, we studied plasma PFAA concentrations in 1-week and 4-week-old gull chicks. Only 4 (PFOS, PFOA, PFDA and PFNA) out of the 13 target PFAA compounds were detected. Measured concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were generally high compared to other seabird species but were highly variable between individuals. Furthermore, our results suggest that maternal transfer plays a significant role in determining chicks' PFAAs burden, and that there are variable sources of exposure for PFOS and PFOA during post-hatching development. The association between PFOS and specific stable isotopes (i.e. δ15N and δ13C) suggests a higher exposure to PFOS in birds with a predominantly marine diet. We also found that males' condition was positively associated with PFOS plasmatic concentration, probably due to the indirect effect of being fed a high quality (marine) diet which appears PFOS rich. Yet, exact exposure source(s) for PFOA remain(s) unclear. Given that PFOS concentrations measured in some chicks surpassed the toxicity reference value calculated for top avian predators, continued monitoring of exposure and health of this gull population, and other wildlife populations inhabiting the area, is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Bélgica , Aves , Cruzamento , Caprilatos , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142146, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254889

RESUMO

The biomagnification of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was investigated in a tropical mangrove food web from an estuary in Bahia, Brazil. Samples of 44 organisms (21 taxa), along with biofilm, leaves, sediment and suspended particulate matter were analyzed. Sum (∑) PFAS concentrations in biota samples were dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 93% detection frequency in tissues; 0.05 to 1.97 ng g-1 ww whole-body (wb)), followed by perfluorotridecanoate (PFTrDA, 57%; 0.01 to 0.28 ng g-1 ww wb). PFOS precursors such as perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA, 54%; 0.01 to 0.32 ng g-1 ww wb) and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA; 30%; 0.01 to 0.21 ng g-1 ww wb) were also detected. PFAS accumulation profiles revealed different routes of exposure among bivalve, crustacean and fish groups. Statistics for left-censored data were used in order to minimize bias on trophic magnification factors (TMFs) calculations. TMFs >1 were observed for PFOS (linear + branched isomers), EtFOSA (linear + branched isomers), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and in all cases, dissimilar accumulation patterns were observed among different trophic positions. The apparent biodilution of some long-chain PFCAs through the food chain (TMF < 1) may be due to exposure from multiple PFAS sources. This is the first study investigating bioaccumulation of PFASs in a tropical food web and provides new insight on the behavior of this ubiquitous class of contaminants.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Bioacumulação , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Cadeia Alimentar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128284, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297228

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have emerged as global concerning contaminants because of their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicological effects. The transport and fate of PFAAs on dimension of plain river networks (PRNs) are difficult to model due to the unique regional characteristics (i.e., undirectional flows, low slope, complicated structure and connectivity) and the lack of data on PFAAs concentrations and compositions. A typical PRN (Taihu Basin, China) was selected to elucidate the spatial patterns of PFAAs in multi-matrices, including colloidal phase, soluble phase, suspended particles, and sediment. PFAAs were ubiquitously detected in plain rivers with total concentrations of 18.48-1220 ng/L in colloids, 139.07-721.37 ng/L in soluble phase, 97.69-2247 ng/g dw in suspended particles, and <72.04-178.12 ng/g dw in sediment. PFAAs were more likely to transport via dissolved phase and accumulate into sediment. Colloids carried 45.46-62.59% of ∑PFAAs in overlying water, while suspended particles contained <36.63% of ∑PFAAs, suggesting the important role of colloids in preloading PFAAs. Moreover, PFAAs variability was correlated with indicators of the structure and connectivity of river network by gray relational analysis. The mean gray relational degrees can be sorted as edge-node ratio (0.7609) > network connectivity (0.7191) > river density (0.7012) > water surface ratio (0.6887) > river development coefficient (0.6504) > functional connectivity (0.4780). These results suggested that the effects of catchment characteristics should be taken into account in understanding PFAAs fate in the PRNs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127606, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805650

RESUMO

PerFluoroOctane Sulfonate (PFOS), is a toxic anthropogenic chemical that has been produced and gradually released into the environment for the past seven decades. An accurate audit of global PFOS contamination and contaminated sites are yet to be published. The available technologies to remediate PFOS contaminated soil are limited and often basic strategies such as temporary soil containment are adopted as immediate measures to manage the contaminated sites. In this study, the in situ soil flushing technique is assessed for its capacity to remediate soil contaminated with PFOS. A complete treatment process with several operation units was proposed such as solvent flushing, ground water pumping, solvent recovery and water treatment for PFOS. Potential solvents were identified and it was observed that more than 98% PFOS removal could be attained by flushing with five bed volumes of 50% ethanol. In addition, the study investigated thirteen commercially available filter materials and identified PFA694E, K6362, MP 62, Amberlite IRA 67 and Dowexoptopore V493 as suitable to eliminate PFOS with competitive PFOS adsorption characteristics. The proposed method can be recommended to remediate PFOS in recognised contaminated soils, such as those at defence sites. Furthermore, a contaminated site with favourable characteristics to implement the suggested method was identified in Australia and described in this paper.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adsorção , Austrália , Poluição Ambiental , Água Subterrânea , Solo , Purificação da Água
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 141900, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916484

RESUMO

We compared long-term (1977 to 2014) trends in concentrations of PFAS in eggs of the marine sentinel species, the Northern gannet (Morus bassanus), from the Irish Sea (Ailsa Craig) and the North Sea (Bass Rock). Concentrations of eight perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) were determined and we report the first dataset on PFAS in UK seabirds before and after the PFOS ban. There were no significant differences in ∑PFAS or ∑PFSAs between both colonies. The ∑PFSAs dominated the PFAS profile (>80%); PFOS accounted for the majority of the PFSAs (98-99%). In contrast, ∑PFCAs concentrations were slightly but significantly higher in eggs from Ailsa Craig than in those from Bass Rock. The most abundant PFCAs were perfluorotridecanoate (PFTriDA) and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA) which, together with PFOA, comprised around 90% of the ∑PFCAs. The ∑PFSAs and ∑PFCAs had very different temporal trends. ∑PFSAs concentrations in eggs from both colonies increased significantly in the earlier part of the study but later declined significantly, demonstrating the effectiveness of the phasing out of PFOS production in the 2000s. In contrast, ∑PFCAs concentrations in eggs were constant and low in the 1970s and 1980s, suggesting minimal environmental contamination, but residues subsequently increased significantly in both colonies until the end of the study. This increase appeared driven by rises in long chain compounds, namely the odd chain numbered PFTriDA and PFUnA. PFOA, had a very different temporal trend from the other dominant acids, with an earlier rise in concentrations followed by a decline in the last 15 years in Ailsa Craig; later temporal trends in Bass Rock eggs were unclear. Although eggs from both colonies contained relatively low concentrations of PFAS, the majority had PFOS residues that exceeded a suggested Predicted No Effect Concentration and ~ 10% of the eggs exceeded a suggested Lowest-Observable-Adverse-Effect.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Morus , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Mar do Norte , Reino Unido
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(12): 5428-5437, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374059

RESUMO

Coastal tourism resorts have been developing rapidly in recent years, and the quality of their waterbodies directly affects human health. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are found in every environmental medium and have garnered widespread social concern because of their potential ecological harm. This study investigated the contamination characteristics and potential ecological risks of 12 PFASs in the water and sediment of 20 coastal tourism resorts in Shandong Peninsula. The results revealed that all targeted pollutants were observed in the water and most sediment samples collected from the coastal tourism resorts. The sum of the 12 PFASs ∑PFASs averaged 67.91 ng·L-1 and 5.89 ng·g-1 in the water and sediment, respectively. The predominant compounds were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in both water and sediment. The ∑PFASs and its homologues concentration indicated the spatial variations in the water and sediment of different tourism resorts, and the values were higher in the tourism resorts near the city center and the industrial areas than in other areas. The partition coefficient (Kd) of all the target compounds in the water/sediment system of different tourism resorts showed obvious differences. In addition, the Kd of the compounds with longer carbon chains (C ≥ 7) generally had higher Kd values, which suggests that long-chain PFAAs are prone to adsorption by sediment. Therefore, the discharge of municipal industrial wastewater and domestic sewage is the main source of contamination. The salinity of water and the total carbon contents of sediment did not show any effect on the partition of PFASs in the water/sediment system. PFOS and PFOA might have great potential ecological risks in the water environment of all tourism resorts.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Turismo , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 4069-4075, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124287

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of manmade chemicals and are ubiquitously detected in aquatic environments. China is a major producer and consumer of PFASs. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and characteristics of PFASs in the surface sediments from three fluorine industrial parks in North China, the Xihe River in Liaoning Province (Fuxin Section), the Xiaoqing River in Shandong Province (Zibo Section), and the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province (Changshu Section), using the UPLC/MS-MS method. The total concentration of PFASs (∑PFASs) in surface sediments of the Xihe River ranged from 15.8 to 2770 ng ·g-1, and PFTeDA and HFPO-DA were the dominant pollutants. In the surface sediments of the Xiaoqing River, ∑PFASs ranged from 12.2 to 7853 ng ·g-1, and PFOA and HFPO-DA were the dominant pollutants. In the surface sediments of the Yangtze river, ∑PFASs ranged from 9.20 to 35.9 ng ·g-1, and PFTeDA and 6:2 FTS were the main pollutants. Sewage discharge from the industrial parks (point source pollution) was the main source of PFASs in three regions in this study. The PFAS content and composition in three regions varied significantly depending on the production capacity and industry type. There was no significant correlation between the content of PFASs and its components and the particle size and TOC of the sediments. The correlations between the components of PFASs indicated that the enrichment process of PFASs in sediments was impacted by various factors.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Flúor , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Chemosphere ; 261: 128018, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113642

RESUMO

Highly persistent, toxic and bioaccumulative per - and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) represents a serious problem for the environment and their concentrations and fate remain largely unknown. The present study consists of a PFAS screening in sludges originating from 43 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Czech Republic. To analyze an extended group of PFAS consisting of 32 PFAS, including GenX and other new replacements of older and restricted PFAS in sludge, a new method was optimized and validated using pressurized solvent extraction, followed by the SPE clean-up step to eliminate the observed matrix effects and LC-MS/MS. The results revealed high PFAS contamination of sewage sludge, reaching values from 5.6 to 963.2 ng g-1. The results showed that in the majority of the samples (about 60%), PFOS was the most abundant among the targeted PFAS, reaching 932.9 ng g-1. Approximately 20% of the analyzed samples contained more short-chain PFAS, suggesting the replacement of long-chain PFAS (especially restricted PFOA and PFOS). GenX was detected in 9 samples, confirming the trend in the use of new PFAS. The results revealed that significantly higher contamination was detected in the samples from large WWTPs (population equivalent > 50,000; p-value <0.05). Concerning the application of sludge in agriculture, our prediction using the respective PFAS bioconcentration factors, the observed concentrations, and the legislatively permitted management of biosolids in Czech Republic agriculture revealed that PFAS can cause serious contamination of cereals and vegetables (oat, celery shoots and lettuce leaves), as well as general secondary contamination of the environment.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Propionatos/análise , Esgotos/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/química , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Biossólidos , Cromatografia Líquida , República Tcheca , Fertilizantes/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água
10.
Chemosphere ; 261: 128078, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113667

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in a wide variety of consumer products, including ski waxes, and are widespread persistent and hazardous environmental contaminants. We examined the environmental impact of ski wax use at an outdoor recreation area with significant cross-country ski activity by measuring PFAS levels in melted snow, soil and water following a collegiate ski race. We found extremely high levels of long- and short-chain PFAS (C4-C14) contamination in snow at the race start line (∑[PFAS] 7600-10,700 ng/L), with the longer-chain analytes (C10-C14) predominating. The complement of 14 PFAS detected in snow matched what has been found in ski wax. This snow contamination was greatly reduced at a point 3.9 km into the race. Soil at the start line contained the four most predominant PFAS in snow at a mean individual concentration of 2.81 ng/g dry weight. Control soil contained only perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), not found in other soil samples, at a concentration of 2.80 ng/g. Shallow groundwater from an on-site well contained only the shorter-chain PFAS (C4-C8), with a mean individual concentration of 4.95 ng/L. Our results suggest that ski wax use, from which fluorocarbons abrade at very high levels onto snow during a ski race, are the main source of PFAS contamination at our site. Regulation of ski wax use is warranted to reduce PFAS pollution.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Lubrificantes/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Maine , Esqui , Neve/química , Solo/química , Ceras
11.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 333-342, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057757

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a legacy contaminant that has been detected globally within the environment and throughout numerous species, including humans. Despite an international ban on its use, this unique contaminant continues to persist in organisms and their surroundings due to PFOS's inability to breakdown into nontoxic forms resulting in bioaccumulation. In this study, we analyzed the effects of a technical mixture of PFOS (linear and branched isomers) in the adult Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, at 2 days and 7 days exposure. Biomarker analysis (lysosomal destabilization, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione assays) in oyster tissue along with chemical analysis (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) of PFOS in oyster tissue and water samples revealed the oysters' ability to overcome exposures without significant damage to lipid membranes or the glutathione phase II enzyme system; however, significant cellular lysosomal damage was observed. The oysters were able to eliminate up to 96% of PFOS at 0.3 mg/L and 3 mg/L exposures when allowed to depurate for 2 days in clean seawater. Chemical analysis showed the linear isomer to be the prevailing fraction of the residual PFOS contained in oyster tissue. Results provide insight into possible detrimental cellular effects of PFOS exposure in addition to offering insight into contaminant persistence in oyster tissue.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Crassostrea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Humanos , Isomerismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Teóricos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Água do Mar/química , South Carolina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
12.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(10): 2023-2030, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940316

RESUMO

Twenty per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were determined in human milk from residents of three Chinese cities (Shanghai, Jiaxing, and Shaoxing; [n = 10 individuals per city]), sampled between 2010 and 2016. These data were compared to a combination of new and previously reported PFAS concentrations in human milk from Stockholm, Sweden, collected in 2016 (n = 10 individuals). Across the three Chinese cities, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; sum isomers), 9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanone-1-sulfonic acid (9Cl-PF3ONS; also known as 6:2 Cl-PFESA or by its trade name "F53-B"), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; sum isomers) occurred at the highest concentrations among all PFAS (up to 411, 976, and 321 pg mL-1, respectively), while in Stockholm, PFOA and PFOS were dominant (up to 89 and 72 pg mL-1, respectively). 3H-Perfluoro-3-[(3-methoxy-propoxy)propanoic acid] (ADONA) was intermittently detected but at concentrations below the method quantification limit (i.e. <10 pg mL-1) in Chinese samples, and was non-detectable in Swedish milk. The extremely high concentrations of F53-B in Chinese milk suggest that human exposure assessments focused only on legacy substances may severely underestimate overall PFAS exposure in breastfeeding infants.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , China , Cidades , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Leite Humano/química , Suécia
13.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115381, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841908

RESUMO

Poly/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have some water solubility so that they are more liable to enter surface water. A comprehensive analysis method was established to analyze 17 classes of 58 PFASs in surface water by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after automated solid phase extraction (SPE). The method showed acceptable recoveries and precision with recoveries of 60%-130% and RSD less than 30% with a few exceptions, and method detection limits (MDLs) of 0.004 ng/L-2.0 ng/L. It was investigated the surface water around Zhangjiang High-Technology Park in Shanghai. The concentration of ∑PFASs ranged from 115 ng/L to 600 ng/L. The main pollutant was perfluoro-3-methylheptanoic acid (P3MHpA), which is isopropyl isomer of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), accounting 41.6% of ∑PFASs. It was detected in all samples and its level was far higher than that of PFOA with the maximum of 432 ng/L determined surrounding integrated circuits company. Short-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and PFOA were also major constituents accounting for 39.9% of ∑PFASs. Perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSAs (C4, 6, 8)) were detected in all samples, while most concentrations were below 10 ng/L. In addition, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctane sulfonate (6:2) (6:2 FTS), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(1,1,2,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoic acid (HFPO-DA) and 9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-sulfonate (9Cl-PF3ONS) were also detected in all samples at low level. Long chain PFCAs and PFSAs and other classes of PFASs were also detected with low levels and/or low frequencies. The level of PFASs shows an increasing trend in surface water in Shanghai. The whole risk is low for residents from water exposure, while it should cautious to the emission of P3MHpA from integrated circuits and its potential risk.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 748: 141195, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805563

RESUMO

Risk management measures (RMMs) are a broad set of tools used in global treaties and national regulations to manage, ban or restrict the use of toxic chemicals. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of chemicals that are persistent, bioaccumulate, biomagnify and are inherently toxic to the environment and human health. For these reasons global RMMs have been imposed on the manufacture and use of select PFAS. To evaluate the occurrence and potential current risk of PFAS in the Ontario environment, PFAS were quantitatively measured in source waters pre- (2005-2007) and post- (2012-2016, 2018-2019) implementation of RMMs. Source water samples were collected pre- (n = 105), and post-RMMs (n = 326) from lake, river and groundwater and analyzed for up to 14 PFAS. Pre-RMMs, the most frequently detected PFAS in source water were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; 83%) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; 76%) followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS; 47%) and the maximum ∑PFAS10 was 42.1 ng/L. Post-RMMs, the maximum ∑PFAS10 (which includes PFOS) was statistically significantly reduced to 15.5 ng/L, well below the Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines for PFOS. To evaluate post-RMMs risk to human health, 226 drinking water samples were collected from 25 drinking water systems with conventional and advanced treatment. All individual (or ∑PFAS) concentrations are well below current and proposed Health advisory levels or regulatory guidelines/standards for PFAS in drinking water with calculated Risk Quotients (RQ) <0.02. This survey indicates that the implementation of RMMs for select PFAS have made a significant difference to the concentrations detected in source waters in Ontario, Canada.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos , Água Potável/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Ontário , Gestão de Riscos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(15): 9334-9344, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634304

RESUMO

Feathers have been shown to be useful in the biomonitoring of environmental contaminants, such as metals and persistent organic pollutants. However, little is known regarding the levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in feathers and the applicability of these structures for the biomonitoring of these compounds. In the present study, we report the extent to which feathers are suitable for monitoring PFAA concentrations in the blood plasma of an insectivorous songbird model species, the great tit (Parus major), settled at and in the vicinity of a fluorochemical plant in Antwerp, Belgium. For most of the target analytes (out of the 15 investigated), the feather PFAA concentrations near the plant are the highest ever reported in free-living birds. As PFAA concentrations did not differ in the adjacent sites, no pollution gradient with distance from the plant was observed. In addition, the PFAA concentrations were not associated with the age and sex of the birds. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations were significantly higher in P. major feathers than in blood plasma, but for most other PFAAs, these differences were not observed. The concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and PFOA in P. major feathers and plasma were significantly and positively correlated when combining data from all sites but often not at individual sites. This result was likely caused by lower sample sizes at the individual sites and the use of matrices that represent different time periods. Our results suggest that P. major feathers cannot be used to estimate PFOA and PFOS concentrations in blood plasma, except when there is a great deal of variation in pollutant concentrations among sites/individual birds. Both matrices represent different time frames, providing complementary information on environmental PFAA concentrations, as illustrated by the observation that more PFAA compounds could be detected in P. major feathers than in blood plasma.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Aves Canoras , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Bélgica , Caprilatos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plumas/química , Fluorcarbonetos/análise
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(4): 1607-1618, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608666

RESUMO

This study concentrated on the 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the coastal areas of China and South Korea, an urbanized area with intensive human activities. In total, 126 water samples and 125 sediment samples were collected and determined by HPLC-MS/MS. Fifteen PFASs were detected at least once in all the sites. The total concentrations of PFASs in water and sediment samples ranged from 6.75 ng·L-1 to 20982 ng·L-1 and from 0.229 ng·g-1 to 53.8 ng·g-1 (dw), respectively. The concentrations of PFASs in waters and sediments were relatively high in China, and PFOA was the predominant PFAS. In contrast, short chain compounds such as PFBA and PFPeA played a major role in water, and PFOS, PFBA, and PFOA dominated the sediment samples in South Korea. The partition coefficients of PFASs were closely related to the fraction of organic carbon in the sediment and the carbon chain length of PFASs. Among the 15 compounds, the partition coefficients of 9 were significantly correlated with the fraction of organic carbon (r>0.21, P<0.05), and the partition coefficient steadily increased with the increase of the carbon chain length. The results of ecological risk assessment suggested that the coastal urbanized areas of China and South Korea are still at a low risk. However, some specific areas also showed PFAS pollution. More attention should be paid to the potential health risks.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , República da Coreia , Rios , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38580-38590, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623677

RESUMO

In this study, the occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the surface waters of the Lingang hybrid constructed wetland were systematically investigated. Twenty-three PFASs were analyzed from 7 representative sampling zones. The obtained results indicated that PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFBS, PFOS, and HFPO-DA were frequently detected; and PFBA, PFOA, and PFOS were the dominant PFASs with the relative abundances in ranges of 26.91 to 52.26%, 11.79 to 28.79%, and 0 to 31.98%, respectively. The total concentrations of 8 PFASs (Σ8PFASs) ranged from 25.9 to 56.6 ng/L, and the highest concentration was observed in subsurface flow wetland. Moreover, HFPO-DA with high toxicity was detected in wetlands for the first time. Based on the principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) analysis, three sources and their contributions were fluoropolymer processing aids (67.6%), fluororesin coatings and metal plating (17.9%), and food packaging materials and atmospheric precipitation (14.5%), respectively. According to the risk quotients (RQs), the ecological risk of 8 PFASs was low to the aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115120, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682161

RESUMO

In this study, biosolids from 12 waste water treatment plants across Australia were analysed to quantify the concentration of 28 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). PFAS concentration varied significantly between locations (5.4-150 µg kg-1) while perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant analyte in 9 of 12 biosolid samples (4.7-86 µg kg-1) contributing 17-93% to the total PFAS concentration. However, in WWTP2 and WWTP10, PFAS composition differed significantly, with fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide-based substances (FOSAMs), precursor compounds of restricted PFAS, contributing significantly to Σ28 PFAS concentration. Five additional biosolid samples from historical stockpiles of varying ages located at WWTP3 were analysed to assess changes in Σ28 PFAS concentration with biosolid age (10-50 years). While temporal trends in Σ28 PFAS or individual PFAS concentration were not observed, a strong negative correlation was observed between pH and Σ28 PFAS concentration over a pH range of 4.1-6.6. Three samples (WWTP2, 3 and 10) were selected for further analysis using the total oxidisable precursor (TOP) assay to provide insights into the potential impact of oxidative transformation on individual PFAS concentration. Treatment with persulfate resulted in the decrease of 6:2 and 8:2 FTS (WWTP2), MeFOSE (WWTP2 and 3), EtFOSE (WWTP2), MeFOSAA (WWTP2, 3, 10) and EtFOSAA (WWTP2, 3, 10) with an increase in C4-C9 PFCAs (1-232 µg kg-1), while changes in PFSA concentrations were negligible (<7 µg kg-1). Application of PFAS biosolids international guidance to samples analysed highlighted that 24-88% of biosolids exceeded regulatory standards, although this number increased when precursor compound oxidation was taken into consideration.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Austrália , Biossólidos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sulfonamidas
19.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127587, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663673

RESUMO

In this work, a three-dimension grapnene-PbO2 (3DG-PbO2) composite anode was prepared using coelectrodeposition technology for electrocatalytic oxidation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The effect of 3DG on the surface morphology, structure and electrocatalytic activity of PbO2 electrode was investigated. The results indicated that the 3DG-PbO2-0.08 anode (3DG concentration in electrodeposition solution was 0.08 g L-1) possessed the best electrocatalytic activity due to its stronger ·OH radicals generation capacity, more active sites and smaller charge-transfer resistance. The degradation rate constant of PFOS on 3DG-PbO2-0.08 anode was 2.33 times than that of pure PbO2 anode. Additionally, the by-products formed in electrocatalytic degradation of PFOS were identified and a PFOS degradation pathway was proposed accordingly, which was dominated by the dissociation of -CF2- groups via the attack of ·OH radicals. Finally, the toxicity evolution of degradation solution was examined to evaluate the ecological risk of electrocatalytic oxidation of PFOS by acute toxicity assays to zebrafish embryos.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Grafite/química , Chumbo/química , Nanocompostos/química , Óxidos/química , Titânio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Eletrodos , Galvanoplastia , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Oxirredução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 156: 111236, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510380

RESUMO

Thirteen PFASs in water (n = 58), sediment (n = 58) and edible fish samples (n = 81) collected from three special management sea areas of Korea including Gwangyang bay, Masan bay and Busan harbor in July 2018 were investigated. The mean PFASs concentration in water (ng/L) were in order Masan (5.09) > Busan (2.82) > Gwangyang (1.74). PFASs levels were found as the low concentration in sediment. The greatest total PFASs concentration in each fish tissue was found as 3.04 (ng/g ww) in a Japanese amberjack fish for muscle in Busan, 66.23 (ng/mL) in Japanese amberjack fish for blood in Masan and 125.03 (ng/g ww) flathead grey mullet in Busan bay. The BCF (L/kg) of PFDoDA was found as the highest in muscle of all species with values from 30,922 (grey mullet in Gwangyang) to 69,131 (grey mullet in Busan). PFDS was the highest BCF's PFASs (110,599 L/kg) in muscle which was found in Japanese amberjack in Busan bay.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , República da Coreia
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