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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1637: 461858, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422793

RESUMO

Synthesised polypyrrole-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been successfully characterised and applied as sorbent for the magnetic-micro-dispersive solid-phase extraction of eleven phthalic acid esters from jelly and apple-based beverage matrices widely consumed by the population and, especially, by children. Sorbent was synthesised through chemical coprecipitation and subsequently characterised by different techniques. The influence of several parameters on the extraction efficiency was exhaustively evaluated using a step-by-step strategy. The separation and quantification of the selected phthalates were performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The validation of the methodology was carried out for jellies and apple-based beverages, employing dihexyl phthalate-3,4,5,6-d4 as the surrogate standard. Relative recovery values were in the range 70-114% for both matrices and relative standard deviations below 20% were obtained. The limits of quantification of the method were found in the range 0.147-0.416 µg/L. Feasibility of the developed methodology was proved by the analysis of commercialised jelly and apple-based beverage products.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Magnetismo , Malus/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Polímeros/química , Pirróis/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adsorção , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química
2.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116394, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388685

RESUMO

Common plasticizers and their alternatives are environmentally ubiquitous and have become a global problem. In this study, common plasticizers (phthalates and metabolites) and new alternatives [bisphenol analogs, t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP)] were quantified in urine and hair samples from children in Hong Kong, drinking water (tap water/bottled water) samples, and airborne particle samples from 17 kindergartens in Hong Kong. The results suggested that locally, children were exposed to various plasticizers and their alternatives. High concentrations of BPDP and BDP were present in urine, hair, tap water, bottled water, and air particulate samples. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine samples (126-2140 ng/L, detection frequencies < 81%) were lower than those detected in Japanese and German children in previous studies. However, a comparison of the estimated daily intake values for phthalates in tap water [median: 10.7-115 ng/kg body weight bw/day] and air particles (median: 1.23-7.39 ng/kg bw/day) with the corresponding reference doses indicated no risk. Bisphenol analogs were detected in 15-64% of urine samples at GM concentrations of 5.26-98.1 ng/L, in 7-74% of hair samples at GM concentrations of 57.5-2390 pg/g, in 59-100% of kindergarten air samples at GM concentrations of 43.1-222 pg/m3, and in 33-100% of tap water samples at GM concentrations of 0.90-3.70 ng/L. A significant correlation was detected between the concentrations of bisphenol F in hair and urine samples (r = 0.489, p < .05). The estimated daily urinary excretion values of bisphenol analogs suggest that exposure among children via tap water intake and airborne particle inhalation in kindergartens cannot be ignored in Hong Kong.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Ácidos Ftálicos , Pré-Escolar , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hong Kong , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111521, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254396

RESUMO

Phthalates (PAEs), bisphenol A (BPA), and oestrogenic compounds have become major concerns due to their endocrine-disrupting effect. However, few studies related to the occurrence of PAEs, BPA, and oestrogen in food and compost from different growth age livestock have been conducted. In this study, faeces, urine and food samples were collected from a typical livestock (cow) and a special livestock (pigeon) from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The daily total oestrogen excretion of a single cow ranged from 192 µg/day to 671 µg/day, which was significantly higher than that of a single pigeon (0-0.01 µg/day). Conjugated oestrogens represented 22.0-46.0% of the total oestrogens excreted from cow faeces and 80.7-91.8% of those from cow urine, indicating that the form of the excreted oestrogens depends on the livestock species and type of excrement. BPA was all detected in all livestock manure and food, and the concentration in pigeon was 9.2-40.2 ng/g and 23.1 ng/g respectively, while that in cattle was 50.5-72.0 ng/g and 41.1 ng/g respectively. The results indicated that the food is significant sources of BPA entering the process of cow and pigeon breeding. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was detected at high frequency in pigeon faeces samples, suggesting that pigeons were highly exposed to these plasticisers. The total oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQt) of livestock origin in aquatic environments was estimated to be 2.99 ng/L, which was higher than the baseline hazard value (1 ng/L) (Xu et al., 2018). The study provides data on the emissions and sources of PAEs, BPA, and oestrogenic compounds from different livestock in CAFOs and demonstrates that food is a significant source of BPA entering livestock.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Estrogênios/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Animais , Bovinos , China , Fezes/química , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Gado , Esterco/análise , Plastificantes
4.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127864, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768751

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a class of endocrine disruptors that are produced and used extensively in China. Given its presence in various products, a great quantity of PAEs flows into different aquatic systems each year. Hence, it is important to study the pollution levels and ecological risk of PAEs. This study investigated the distribution and seasonal variation of six priority PAEs in the surface water of Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China. In the wet season, the mean concentration of the total PAEs was 0.544 ± 0.173 µg/L, while the dry season concentration (1.003 ± 0.451 µg/L) nearly doubled. The most abundant PAE congeners were di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), followed by bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). To evaluate the ecological risks in Poyang Lake, the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) of four PAEs based on non-lethal effects were derived. For diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), DBP, and DEHP, the PNECs were 31.6, 3.30, 2.31, and 0.0210 µg/L, respectively. The tiered ecological risk assessment showed that DEP and BBP posed no risk in Poyang Lake. Meanwhile, DBP posed a potential risk in Poyang Lake, but the risk of DEHP was unacceptable and requires more actions. Specifically, the probabilities of exceeding the threshold for the protection of 95% of the aquatic organisms (HC5) were 3.30% and 4.43% for DEHP in the wet and dry season, respectively. This study provides an appropriate reference for the surface water management of PAE pollution in China.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Ésteres/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Organismos Aquáticos , China , Dibutilftalato , Disruptores Endócrinos , Lagos , Medição de Risco , Rios , Estações do Ano , Água
5.
Food Chem ; 336: 127722, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771902

RESUMO

In this article we describe a new and simple analytical method based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe technique followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up with C18 and Lipifiltr® and LC-HRMS for simultaneously extracting six phthalate diesters and six of their metabolites (phthalate monoesters) from highly consumed seafood species. The method was validated for seafood with high and low lipid contents. Apparent recoveries were up to 79% for all compounds. Matrix effect values ranged from -8 to -48% for all compounds in both types of matrices. Method limits of detection were 1-25 ng g-1 dry weight (d.w.) for most compounds. Five seafood species were analysed using this method, and several phthalate diesters and monoesters were successfully quantified. Phthalate diesters were found at concentrations of up to 982 ng g-1 (d.w.) and phthalate monoesters were found at concentrations of up to 178 ng g-1 (d.w.).


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ésteres/química , Limite de Detecção , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida
6.
Food Chem ; 338: 128031, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950007

RESUMO

A comprehensive study on packaging used in commercially available milk products from Spanish markets has been presented. Concentrations of four phthalates, seven parabens and BPA were determined in forty-two milk products. Eleven brands and five types of packaging (metallic aluminium bag, carton, high-density polyethylene, metal pail and polyethylene terephthalate) were included in the study. BPA showed the lowest concentrations (8.3 pg/g f.w.), far below those of phthalates (6431 pg/g f.w.) and parabens (6234 pg/g f.w.). Metallic aluminium bags were the least migrating packaging (considering plasticisers and monomers) followed by HDPE bottles, in the case of phthalates. Parabens showed their highest concentrations for fresh-milk samples. Levels found were far below the specific migration limits established by the EU and the cumulative hazard index was lower than 1, indicating that adverse health effects were not expected. In general, the results found in Spanish samples were lower than those reported in other countries.


Assuntos
Leite/química , Plastificantes/análise , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/análise , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Parabenos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Espanha
7.
Food Chem ; 334: 127547, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693334

RESUMO

Plastic food packages usually contain additives which may migrate from the package into the food and then be ingested by the consumer, representing a risk for their health. In this study, targeted and untargeted analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is proposed to monitor any contaminants of this type in honey. The application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) as a preconcentration technique allowed very low detection limits to be reached for all the substances. Fifteen target compounds, including styrene, phthalates, fatty acids, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, were quantified. Untargeted analyses were also carried out, allowing other migrants in the honey samples to be identified, such as two phthalates, four acids, three esters, one aldehyde, one hydrocarbon and two alkyl phenol compounds. The proposed method was seen to be a useful approach for the quantification and identification of potential migrants from plastics in challenging samples such as honey.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Mel/análise , Plásticos/química , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Migrantes
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1637: 461828, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373795

RESUMO

A novel double-microextraction approach, combining dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and vortex-assisted micro-solid-phase extraction (VA-µ-SPE) was developed. The procedure was applied to extract endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) consisting of three phthalate esters (PEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) associated with PM2.5 (airborne particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm). Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used for determination of the analytes. These analytes were first ultrasonically desorbed from PM2.5 in a 10% acetone aqueous solution. DLLME was used to first preconcentrate the analytes; the sample solution, still in the same vial, was then subjected to VA-µ-SPE. The synergistic effects provided by the combination of the microextraction techniques provided advantages such as high enrichment factors and good cleanup performance. Various extraction parameters such as type and volume of extractant solvent (for DLLME), and type of sorbent, extraction time, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent and desorption time (for µ-SPE) were evaluated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were found to be the most suitable sorbent. This procedure achieved good precision with intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations of between 1.93 and 9.95%. Good linearity ranges (0.3-100 ng/mL and 0.5-100 ng/mL, depending on analytes), and limits of detection (LODs) of between 0.07 and 0.15 ng/mL were obtained. The method was used to determine the levels of PEs and BPA in ambient air, with concentrations ranging between below the limits of quantification and 0.48 ng/m3. DLLME-VA-µ-SPE-GC-MS/MS was demonstrated to be suitable for the determination of these EDCs present in PM2.5.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/isolamento & purificação , Disruptores Endócrinos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Material Particulado/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Ésteres , Limite de Detecção , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Material Particulado/análise , Fenóis/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111667, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181942

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a class of the emerging pollutants that pose a potential environmental threat to marine ecosystems. In this study, a simple analytical method using ultrasound-assisted extraction combined with gas purges microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) coupled with GC-MS was utilized for the reliable and rapid determination of PAEs in different types of marine sediment. The analytical results showed that the method exhibited excellent reproducibility, linear responses, and detection limits, which verified the suitability of the method for the determination of PAEs in marine sediment. This approach requires minimal reagents, solvents, and sample pretreatment procedures as well as a short analysis time; thus, procedural blanks can be kept to a minimum. This method was demonstrated to be a highly efficient and sensitive quantitative analytical method for the simple detection of PAEs in marine sediment.


Assuntos
Ésteres , Ácidos Ftálicos , Ecossistema , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sedimentos Geológicos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111067, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745786

RESUMO

The impacts of microplastics (MPs) and phthalates (PAEs), a class of MP-associated contaminants, on the marine environment are not thoroughly understood despite concern over their adverse effects on humans and ecosystems. Field studies linking MPs and PAEs in seawater have not yet been reported. We investigate for the first time the correlation between MPs contamination and the presence of PAEs in the surface seawater of Jiaozhou Bay (JZB), a semi-enclosed metropolitan bay in northern China heavily impacted by human activity. The abundance of MPs, dominated by polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate mostly smaller than 2 mm, ranged between 24.44 items/m3 and 180.23 items/m3, with the majority being black and transparent fibers and fragments. Concentrations of PAEs varied from 129.96 ng/L to 921.22 ng/L. Relatively higher abundances of MPs and higher concentrations of PAEs were generally found in areas near riverine inputs and sewage treatment plants. There was a strong correlation between PAEs concentration and MPs abundance, suggesting that they are closely linked. In a risk assessment combining PAEs and MPs, the risk quotients (RQs) indicated that the ecological risk of di-n-butyl phthalate in JZB was relatively high (0.046

Assuntos
Baías/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Microplásticos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Dibutilftalato/análise , Ecossistema , Humanos , Polietileno/análise
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111169, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827961

RESUMO

The characteristics and content of organo-mineral complex were confirmed to be changed in agriculture soils under the biochar application with long-term, but the resulting environmental effects in the retention and lasting of agrochemicals and xenobiotic pollutants is far from clear. In this study, biochar-soil composites were prepared by one-step dry ball-milling method, and a sorption case study was proceed to investigate the biochar incorporated affection in soils on the transport of dimethyl phthalate (DMP). More surface oxygen-containing functional groups on ball-milled biochar enhanced its complexation with soil minerals. Sorption isotherms of DMP onto the biochar-soil composites were well described by the Freundlich model, both heterogeneous surface and multilayer interactions occurred simultaneously. The kinetics of sorption could be simulated with the pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.98), while the average sorption energy (Ea) calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms were found in the range of 3.83-5.60 kJ mol-1, which revealed that the sorption processes coexist of chemisorption and physisorption, and π-π electron donor-acceptor interaction, pore-filling and hydrophobic interactions could be identified as the main sorption mechanisms. Desorption of absorbed DMP appeared obvious nonlinear characteristics and lag effect, the calculated hysteresis index (HI) increased with the application of biochar into soil. Considering the phenomenon of biochar aging and soil complexation, it is important to verify how the transport and natural attenuation of contaminant will be influenced by biochar addition, especially the long-term effect in soil ecosystem.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adsorção , Agricultura , Ecossistema , Ésteres , Cinética , Modelos Teóricos , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461347, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797827

RESUMO

Phthalate diesters are a group of plasticizers extensively used in the manufacturing and processing of plastics. Phthalate monoesters are the primary degradation products of the diesters. Accumulation of endocrine disruptive diesters and monoesters in soil is of great concern because of the extensive use of plastic mulching and misdisposal of plastics. Accurate determination of their levels in soil is critical to assess the occurrence, exposure, and risks of phthalate diesters and monoesters. In this study, we aimed to develop a robust and environmentally friendly method for the simultaneous determination of phthalate diesters and monoesters in soil. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was used for quantification, combined with accelerated solvent extraction and in-line cleanup for sample preparation. The method detection limits for the 14 diesters and 11 monoesters were in the range of 0.59 to 10.08 ng g-1 d.w. Acceptable recoveries (69%-131%) for these analytes were obtained when four deuterated analogs were used for internal calibration, and intra- and inter-day variations were less than 15%. This method was later successfully applied to five soil samples, and 8 diesters and 7 monoesters were detected with the maximum concentration up to 1142.2 ng g-1 d.w. The method developed in this study can be used for screening and accurate quantification of phthalate diesters and monoesters in soil and possibly in other environmental matrices.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Solo/química , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/normas , Ésteres/química , Limite de Detecção , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/normas , Plastificantes/normas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Temperatura
13.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 941-950, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759552

RESUMO

This study reports the biological activity of essential oils from fertility tree and horseradish tree leaves, and the mechanisms by which these oils promote insecticidal activity using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Adult D. melanogaster were exposed to these essential oils at a final concentration of 10 µL/g for 24 hours. The exposure of flies to the essential oil resulted in significant decrease in their survival and fecundity. In addition, the essential oils produced significant reduction in acetylcholinesterase activity and induced oxidative stress in the flies as evidenced by an increase in reactive oxygen species, thiol and thiobarbituric reactive substance levels, as well as catalase activity. The essential oils were also characterized by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Constituents such as terpenoids, Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, benzeneacetaldehyde, phytol, octadecane, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- methyl ester, heneicosane, eicosane and others were characterized. Therefore, our results point out to the potential application of fertility tree and horseradish tree leaf essential oils as natural alternatives to synthetic insecticides in agricultural and pest control practices, especially against dipterans.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Bignoniaceae/química , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Inseticidas , Moringa oleifera/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Óleos Voláteis/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Terpenos/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 851-858, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641613

RESUMO

Phthalates (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants in environment and foodstuffs. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination possibility of phthalates and PAHs in packaged and canned fishes. For this purpose, tuna, salmon, sardine and mackerel canned and packaged with different liquid ingredients (water, olive oil, sunflower oil, mixture of sunflower and canola oil) attained from local markets in Turkey in 2019, were analyzed for presence of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), chrysene (Chr). The instrumental analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). In all analyzed samples, the levels of DBP, BBP, DINP and DIDP were less than their LOQ, so these phthalates were not quantified. The highest DEPH content was found 650 µg/kg in sample 2 (tuna in olive oil, packaged in plastic package). The highest sum of PAH 4 concentration was 9.97 µg/kg in sample 4 (salmon canned in sunflower oil). Some samples (19 samples) were free for all analyzed PAEs and PAHs. All levels of these persistent organic pollutants were lower than regulation limits of Turkey and EU.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Embalagem de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Turquia
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 39149-39163, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642892

RESUMO

Phthalates are widely used as a plasticizer in manufacturing polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles to improve softness, flexibility, durability, longevity, and workability. Phthalates are known in instigating profound human health hazards. In many developing countries, lack of proper disposal facilities established for empty PET bottles and the absence of legislation on reuse invariably persuade people to reuse them for storing potable water. An experiment was conducted with two commercial brands of PET bottles to explore the potential of phthalate migration when domestically refilled and reused in multiple times at two temperature conditions. Temperatures of ambient (27 ± 2 °C) and warm (60 ± 2 °C) were selected as the refilling temperatures because of the common practice by people. For both brands, only bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) levels were detected in refilled water in every event of reuse. For both brands, mean DEHP levels migrated to water at 60 ± 2 °C were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to those at 27 ± 2 °C. Risk analyses carried out on human health suggested that there exist no definite acute or chronic health risks when the refilled water is consumed continuously for 30 years for both temperatures. Still, such risks were higher for the consumption of refilled water of warm temperatures than those of ambient temperature. However, this study elucidates that DEHP migration would be at an alarming rate when the events of reuse of a single bottle increase so that regulations banning the reuse of empty PET bottles are paramount, especially for developing countries.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Humanos , Polietilenotereftalatos , Medição de Risco
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461307, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709350

RESUMO

In this study, the ultrasonic-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (UA-d-SPE) method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied for the analysis of phthalate esters in drinking water and distilled herbal beverages (Rosa, Mentha, Cichorium). A new nanocomposite based on layered double hydroxide supported on graphene oxide was synthesized and modified by sulfonated polyaniline via a simple one-pot in-situ polymerization method. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposite was confirmed by means of complementary techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of key parameters including adsorbent mass, type and amount of back extraction solvent, extraction and desorption time, pH of the solution and ionic strength were optimized and good precision and sensitivity were achieved. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection were between 0.06-0.3 ng mL-1 in aqueous solutions. The hybrid nanomaterial exhibited good adsorption ability toward phthalates in drinking water and distilled herbal beverages. The relative standard deviations (RSD%) for beverage samples varied from 0.1% to 9.9% (n = 3). The relative recoveries varied from 54.5% to 112.6%.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Bebidas/análise , Grafite/química , Hidróxidos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Adsorção , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanocompostos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Preparações de Plantas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 152: 110899, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479282

RESUMO

Distribution and ecological risks of Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are poorly studied in estuarine environments in India. An attempt is made to chart the sources and assess the ecological risk of six PAE congeners (∑6PAEs), present in dissolved and particulate forms in a tropical ecosystem (Cochin Estuary, India). Terrestrial input, as attested by a clear seasonality with substantial enrichment during monsoon (2-28 µg/L and 31-1203 µg/g; dissolved and particulate PAEs respectively) and post-monsoon (1-7 µg/L and 7-321 µg/g; dissolved and particulate PAEs respectively), was identified as the primary source. DnBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) and DEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate) were found to be the dominant species except for dissolved PAEs at pre-monsoon season. Statistical analysis identified two major clusters, in the ∑6PAEs, composed of medium to high molecular weight PAEs (derived from plastic products) and low molecular weight PAEs (derived from cosmetic products). Calculated Risk Quotient (RQ) indicated values indicated moderate to high ecological risk for DnBP and DEHP congeners is a grim pointer to their detrimental effects on human health through consumption of contaminated organisms. Although substantial enrichment of suspended matter gets flushed out of the estuary during monsoon, there is a net PAE accumulation in the estuary during post-monsoon following an increased sedimentary restitution. Data of PAEs generated herein raises a challenge for immediate enactment of statutory legislation to curb and regulate hazardous contamination of estuaries by phthalic acid esters.


Assuntos
Estuários , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , China , Dibutilftalato/análise , Ecossistema , Ésteres/análise , Humanos , Índia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 137978, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481218

RESUMO

As an important environmental reservoir of phthalate esters (PAEs), soil-plant system constitutes a key exposure pathway to human health. In this study, agricultural soil and vegetable samples were collected from the Yangtze River Delta (approximately 211,700 km2), one of the most developed regions in China, to determine the contamination characteristics of priority PAEs. The total concentrations of six PAEs ranged from 5.42 to 1580 ng·g-1 dry weight in soils and from 10.9 to 16,400 ng·g-1 dry weight in vegetables. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) accounted for 88.3% and 61.9% of the total PAEs in soils and vegetables, respectively. The spatial distribution of PAEs in the soils was as follows: Shanghai city (70.8-1583 ng·g-1 dw) > Anhui province (46.8-1530 ng·g-1 dw) > Jiangsu province (14.4-558 ng·g-1 dw) > Zhejiang province (5.40-488 ng·g-1 dw). Non-cancer risks exist for adults and children in 6.5% and 7.8% of the sites, respectively. Carcinogenic risks were regarded unacceptable in 5.6% and 1.3% of the sites for adults and children, respectively. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PAEs showed positive correlation with lipid content of vegetables. A basic reference of the lipid-content threshold to guarantee the safety of leafy vegetables was proposed based on partition-limited model. We suggested to cultivate vegetables with lipid content <0.21% in most heavily contaminated area in the region. This study provides information for effectively controlling PAEs contamination in soil-plant system in developed districts.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Dibutilftalato/análise , Ésteres/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Rios , Solo , Verduras
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552322

RESUMO

This study proposed a method for analysis of 10 phthalate esters compounds from wastewater treatment plant sludges. The analytical efficiency of GC-MS for of target compounds was verified by a standard mixture of phthalate esters. The response factors related to the respective internal standards from a five-point calibration curve quantified the phthalate esters in individual compounds. Based on the literature compiled by environmental agencies, new generation phthalate compounds have been developed, such as di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP), as alternative to conventional phthalates. The analytical results showed that the total PAEs concentration was in the range from 7.4 to 138.6 mg kg-1 dw in these seven analyzed sludge samples. More, di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) contributed to over 99% of PAEs in the sludge. The correlation between total PAEs concentration in household and sewage flow treated at seven WWTPs and concentrations of DEHP, DiNP and DiDP was significant.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Esgotos/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Taiwan
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(13): 8186-8197, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539399

RESUMO

Exposure to phthalates is pervasive and is of concern due to associations with adverse health effects. Exposures and exposure pathways of six phthalates were investigated for 51 women aged 18-44 years in Ontario, Canada, based on measured phthalate concentrations in hand wipes and indoor media in their residences. All six phthalates had detection frequencies of 100% in air (∑6670 ng m-3 geomean) and floor dust (∑6630 µg g-1), nearly 100% detection frequencies for hand palms and backs that were significantly correlated and concentrations were repeatable over a 3 week interval. Phthalates on hands were significantly correlated with levels in air and dust, as expected according to partitioning theory. Total exposure was estimated as 4860 ng kg bw-1 day-1 (5th and 95th percentiles 1980-16 950 ng kg bw-1 day-1), with dust ingestion, followed by hand-to-mouth transfer, as the dominant pathways. With the exception of diethyl phthalate (DEP), phthalates had over 50% detection frequencies in surface wipes of most electronic devices sampled, including devices in which the use of phthalates was not expected. Phthalate concentrations on surfaces of hand-held devices were ∼10 times higher than on non-hand-held devices and were correlated with levels on hands. The data are consistent with phthalate emissions from sources such as laminate flooring and personal care products (e.g., scented candles), followed by partitioning among air, dust, and surface films that accumulate on electronic devices and skin, including hands. We hypothesize that hands transfer phthalates from emission sources and dust to hand-held electronic devices, which accumulate phthalates due to infrequent washing and which act as a sink and then a secondary source of exposure. The findings support those of others that exposure can be mitigated by increasing ventilation, damp cloth cleaning, and minimizing the use of phthalate-containing products and materials.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Ontário , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Adulto Jovem
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