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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 128-137, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825613

RESUMO

Salmonellosis is a world-wide epidemic, and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) possess various health benefits. This study is aimed to investigate the preventive effects of n-3 LCPUFAs against Salmonella infection. By pretreatment with n-3 LCPUFAs, but not n-6 LCPUFAs, the survival rate of the infected mice was increased. Further studies showed that n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased the fecal contents of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The cytokine expression in the liver and production in serum were both modulated by n-3 LCPUFAs into an anti-inflammatory profile against infection. Moreover, the changes in gut microbiota by n-3 LCPUFAs favored the host against pathogens, closely related to the modified SCFA production and immune responses. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFAs prevented Salmonella infection through multiple mechanisms, especially by the interaction with gut microbiota and host immunology. Our results suggested great perspectives for n-3 LCPUFAs and their related products to control the prevalence of Salmonella, a most predominant food-borne pathogen.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/fisiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia
2.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104553, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563004

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of replacing a saturated fat diet by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA), on alveolar bone loss in hypercholesterolemic rats with experimental periodontitis (PD). METHODS: Eight week old Wistar rats were assigned according to dietary intake. Control group (C, n = 15) fed a commercial diet throughout the experiment. Atherogenic group (AT, n = 30) fed AT diet for 3 weeks; thereafter, AT was randomized to receive either a n-3PUFA (n = 15) or to continue with AT (n = 15) diet. Subsequently, PD was induced in all groups by unilateral ligature (L) of the first molar (M1) of the left mandible, non-ligated contralateral molars served as controls. After every week of PD induction, 5 rats per group were euthanized. Serum was collected for lipids assays and hemi-mandibles were subjected to histomorphometric (% upper and lower interradicular bone volume and periodontal ligament height, hPDL) and radiographic analyses (periodontal bone support, PBS, in ligated teeth, between M1-M2). RESULTS: Rats fed n-3PUFA diet rapidly induced a significant reduction in the serum lipids (p < 0.001). In all rats the ligated teeth showed a greater bone loss as compared with the unligated molars. At the end of the experiment the AT + L was the worst in % lower bone volume (p < 0.01), hPDL and PBS (p < 0.05). In contrast, rats fed n-3PUFA + L was similar to those rats fed C diet (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Alveolar bone and dyslipidemia improved by substituting saturated fat intake for a n-3PUFA rich diet, in hypercholesterolemic rats with PD.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/terapia , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Hipercolesterolemia/fisiopatologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Animais , Dislipidemias/terapia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(48): 13269-13281, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725275

RESUMO

We studied the long-term influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the pancreas of offspring and the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on offspring's pancreas. GDM offspring were divided into three groups: GDM offspring, n-3 PUFA-adequate-GDM offspring, and n-3 PUFA-deficient GDM offspring. All healthy and GDM offspring were fed up to 11 months old. The pancreas of GDM offspring exhibited fatty infiltration at 11 months old, whereas n-3 PUFA improved the pancreatic fatty infiltration. n-3 PUFA lowered the pancreatic oxidative stress and inflammation. Surprisingly, n-3 PUFA postponed pancreatic telomere shortening of GDM offspring at old age. Nontargeted metabolomics showed that many metabolites were altered in the pancreas of GDM offspring at old age, including l-valine, ceramide, acylcarnitines, tocotrienol, cholesteryl acetate, and biotin. n-3 PUFA modulated some altered metabolites and metabolic pathways. Therefore, GDM caused the long-term effects on offspring's pancreas, whereas n-3 PUFA played a beneficial role.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Gorduras/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pâncreas/química , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Telômero/metabolismo
4.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 97(5): 621-629, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580709

RESUMO

This study investigated the potential effect of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on inflammation and myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats, together with the underlying protective mechanisms, and screen out most effective ratio of n-6/n-3 within limits. The rats with pre-infarct treatment were distributed among 5 groups according to the n-6/n-3 ratio (36:1; 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 50:1); for the post-infarct treatment, the rats were distributed among 6 groups, including the control group (36:1) which was subjected to a sham procedure; the model group (36:1); and 4 test groups (n-6/n-3 ratio: 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 50:1). All of the rats were fed a purple perilla seed oil and safflower oil-based fatty emulsion. The serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Staining with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, hematoxylin and eosin, or Masson's trichrome was performed for histological examination. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay. Western blotting was performed to examine the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins and signaling pathway proteins. Our data indicate that in both the pre-infarct treatment and post-infarct treatment, low ratios of n-6/n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the levels of serum inflammatory factors, the infarct size of MIRI rats, number of cardiomyocytes undergoing apoptosis, and the expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax in the MIRI group. Thus a low ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs ameliorates inflammation and myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(4): 2525-2531, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results of the studies assessed the effect of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on lipid profile in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) are contradictory. Therefore, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), to assess the effect of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in patients with MS. METHODS: A systematic search was performed to find the related articles, up to April, 2019. There was no language and time limitation. Meta-analyses were carried out using both the random and fixed effects model where appropriate, and I2 index was used to evaluate the heterogeneity. RESULTS: Search yielded 1236 publications. Five RCTs with 254 patients were eligible. Results of the meta-analysis indicated that omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation significantly reduced the serum concentrations of TG and LDL, whereas, it had no significant effect on the serum levels of TC and HDL in overweight patients with MS. CONCLUSION: Present systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation have beneficial effects on lipid profile of overweight patients with MS. It significantly reduced the serum levels of TG and LDL in such patients.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Prognóstico
6.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(4): 769-776, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184699

RESUMO

Background: antineoplastic treatment for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) includes neodjuvant chemotherapy (NeoCT). However, side effects occur frequently, affecting the functional capacity and quality of life of patients as a result of the proinflammatory state of this therapy. In this work, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA Ω-3) were administered as they have been reported to modulate some molecular pathways such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which is associated with toxicity secondary to the administration of anthracyclines. Objective: to evaluate the effects of PUFA Ω-3 on the toxicity, side effects, body composition, cardiometabolic profile and quality of life in women with LABC after NeoCT. Methods: fifty-three women with LABC were included in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients randomly received 2.4 g/day of PUFA Ω-3 (EPA 1.6 g and DHA 0.8 g) or placebo during NeoCT with adriamycin/cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel+/-trastuzumab. Adverse effects related to chemotherapy were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 4.03) and the Subjective Global Scale of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). Body composition and cardiometabolic blood profile were also evaluated. Results: no significant differences were found between groups in the hematological and anthropometric toxicity parameters. Within the Edmonton scale, xerostomia presented a significant improvement (p = 0.032) in patients supplemented with PUFA Ω-3. Conclusion: supplementation with PUFA Ω-3 showed no change in body composition, cardiometabolic profile or toxicity due to NeoCT. It only showed significant improvement in xerostomia


Introducción: uno de los tratamientos para el cáncer de mama localmente avanzado (CMLA), es la quimioterapia neoadyuvante (QTNeo). Sin embargo, los efectos secundarios afectan el estado funcional y la calidad de vida de los pacientes, especialmente por el estado inflamatorio que originan. En este trabajo se administraron los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados omega 3 (AGPI Ω-3), ya que modulan negativamente algunas vías moleculares como las que inducen la activación del factor nuclear-kappa B (NF-κB), involucrado con los mecanismos de toxicidad secundaria a la administración de antraciclinas. Objetivo: valorar el efecto de los AGPI n-3, sobre la toxicidad de la QTneo, la composición corporal, el perfil cardiometabólico y la calidad de vida en mujeres con CMLA durante la QTNeo. Métodos: se incluyeron cincuenta y tres mujeres con CMLA, en un estudio clínico doble ciego controlado con placebo. Las pacientes recibieron aleatoriamente 2,4 g/día de AGPI Ω-3 (EPA 1,6 g y DHA 0,8 g) o placebo durante la quimioterapia neoadyuvante con adriamicina/ciclofosfamida seguido de paclitaxel +/- trastuzumab. Se evaluaron los eventos adversos relacionados con la quimioterapia mediante los Criterios de terminología común para eventos adversos (CTCAE, versión 4.03) y la escala Global subjetiva del Sistema de Evaluación de los Síntomas de Edmonton (ESAS), la composición corporal y la toxicidad cardiometabólica. Resultados: no hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos en los parámetros de toxicidad hematológica y antropométricos. La xerostomía de la escala de Edmonton, presento una mejora significativa (p = 0,032) en los pacientes suplementados con AGPI Ω-3. Conclusión: la suplementación con AGPI Ω-3 no mostró cambios en la composición corporal ni en la toxicidad del tratamiento neoadyuvante, solamente se encontró una mejoría significativa en la xerostomía


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Composição Corporal , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/toxicidade , Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Antraciclinas/toxicidade , Placebos , Xerostomia/complicações
7.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(4): 939-949, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184722

RESUMO

In a growing elderly population, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and age related cognitive decline (ARCD) are increasing in prevalence worldwide. In the search for food compounds able to ameliorate this condition, it has been postulated that n-3 Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), also known as omega-3, consumption could have a positive effect in the prevention or therapy of these cognitive declines. However, there are contradictory findings in the literature concerning the effects of n-3 LCPUFA on cognitive decline making it difficult to draw a conclusion on this topic. This current systematic review studies the relationship between n-3 LCPUFAs and cognitive status in aged adult and elder populations to determine whether there is or not a positive effect of n-3 LCPUFAs supplementation on cognitive decline. Additionally, we remark how duration periods, different cognitive baseline status in subjects, dosage of n-3 LCPUFAs administration and the presence of other factors might be related to different outcomes. A search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related with the relationship between cognitive impairment and n-3 LCPUFA (docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentanoic acid or combined) supplementation was conducted through PubMed database from January 2010 to December 2017 following the PRISMA statement. Interventional studies which included aged adults or elder subjects with or without MCI and with no previous intake of fish oil supplements (FOS) were included. Ten out of the fourteen RCTs reviewed showed positive outcome on at least one domain of cognitive function (working memory, executive function, verbal memory, short-term memory, perceptual speed, etc.). This systematic review concludes that omega-3 supplementation might have a positive effect on cognitive function. Thus, n-3 LCPUFAs could be used as a preventive or therapeutic tool for cognitive decline in aged or elder adults


En grupos de población de mayores en constante crecimiento, el deterioro cognitivo asociado o no a la edad incrementa en prevalencia mundialmente. Se ha postulado que el consumo de ácidos grasos de cadena larga n-3 (AGCL n-3), también conocidos como omega-3, podrían tener un efecto positivo en la prevención o tratamiento del deterioro cognitivo. Sin embargo, existen hallazgos contradictorios en la literatura respecto al efecto de los AGCL n-3 sobre la función cognitiva, lo cual hace difícil extraer una conclusión sobre su posible función. La presente revisión sistemática estudia la relación entre los AGCL n-3 y el estado cognitivo en adultos de mediana edad y mayores de 60 años para determinar si hay un efecto positivo de la suplementación con omega-3 en el deterioro cognitivo. Adicionalmente, se hace énfasis en cómo la duración de los ensayos, el estado cognitivo basal de los sujetos, la dosis de AGCL n-3 y la presencia de otros factores pudiesen estar relacionados con los diferentes resultados obtenidos. Una búsqueda de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados relacionados con la relación entre el deterioro cognitivo y la suplementación de AGCL n-3 (ácido docosahexaenoico, ácido eicosapentanoico o una combinación de los mismos) se llevó a cabo a través de la base de datos PubMed desde enero de 2010 hasta febrero de 2018 siguiendo la metodología PRISMA. Estudios de intervención que incluían sujetos adultos de mediana edad y mayores de 60 años con o sin deterioro cognitivo leve sin que hubieran recibido otros suplementos (aceite de pescado) fueron incluidos. Diez de los 14 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados mostraron una mejora en algún dominio de la función cognitiva (memoria de trabajo, función ejecutiva, memoria verbal, memoria a corto plazo, rapidez de percepción, etc.). Esta revisión sistemática concluye que la suplementación con AGCL n-3 puede tener un efecto positivo en la función cognitiva. De esta manera, podrían ser usados como una medida preventiva o como tratamiento para el deterioro cognitivo


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336991

RESUMO

This study determined fatty acid (FA) concentrations in maternal milk and investigated the association between omega-3 fatty acid levels and their maternal current dietary intake (based on three-day dietary records) and habitual dietary intake (based on intake frequency of food products). Tested material comprised 32 samples of human milk, coming from exclusively breastfeeding women during their first month of lactation. Milk fatty acids were analyzed as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by gas chromatography using a Hewlett-Packard 6890 gas chromatograph with MS detector 5972A. We did not observe any correlation between current dietary intake of omega-3 FAs and their concentrations in human milk. However, we observed that the habitual intake of fatty fish affected omega-3 FA concentrations in human milk. Kendall's rank correlation coefficients were 0.25 (p = 0.049) for DHA, 0.27 (p = 0.03) for EPA, and 0.28 (p = 0.02) for ALA. Beef consumption was negatively correlated with DHA concentrations in human milk (r = -0.25; p = 0.046). These findings suggest that current omega-3 FA intake does not translate directly into their concentration in human milk. On the contrary, their habitual intake seems to markedly influence their milk concentration.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactação/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna
9.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330792

RESUMO

Plant-based diets are becoming increasingly popular, and scientific information concerning the nutritional status in this population is needed. This study determined the fatty acid profile of Spanish lacto-ovo vegetarians (LO-vegetarians) and vegans. Participants were 104 healthy adults, LO-vegetarians (n = 49) and vegans (n = 55). Lifestyle habits and consumption of food and omega-3 supplements were estimated by questionnaires. BMI, blood pressure, and abdominal and body fat were determined. Serum was collected to analyze fatty acids, glucose, lipids, homocysteine, insulin, and leptin. Volunteers were classified according to serum omega-6 to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) ratio into three groups: n-6/n-3 < 10, n-6/n-3 ≥ 10 to 20, and n-6/n-3 > 20. Results showed low cardiovascular risk and high insulin sensitivity with negligible differences between diet types. Linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) was the major serum fatty acid, followed by oleic (C18:1n-9) and palmitic (C16:0) acids. In contrast, serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) were (median, interquartile range) 0.27, 0.18% and 1.59, and 0.93%, respectively. Users of n-3 supplements (<10% of total vegetarians) had significantly higher EPA than non-users, while frequent consumption of flax-seeds was associated with increased α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). However, neither n-3 supplementation nor food consumption affected DHA levels in this vegetarian population.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Vegetarianos , Adolescente , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
10.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(2): 1649-1656, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is linked to chronic inflammation, which in return leads to a set of chronic disorders. Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to reduce inflammation. Furthermore, Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids co-supplementations may be more effective than the single supplementation in control dyslipidemia. Therefore, we designed and conducted the current systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of co-supplementation of vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids on the lipid profile. METHODS: A comprehensive search for studies published between January 1990 and July 2018 was performed. The initial search extracted 3015 potentially relevant articles. After studying these publications, 9 RCTs were potentially eligible and retrieved in full text. RESULTS: The meta-analysis indicate that on total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride individually did not show any significant difference between intervention and control groups, but vitamin E an omega-3 fatty acids co-supplementations significantly reduce VLDL levels. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available evidence, omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin E co-supplementation can reduce VLDL, although its effect on other lipid profile parameters requires more well-designed studies.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lipídeos/sangue , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Dislipidemias/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Prognóstico
11.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(8): 811-819, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271554

RESUMO

Background The beneficial effects of treating hypertriglyceridemic adults with omega-3 fatty acids have been reported. However, information regarding omega-3 treatment of pediatric patients is limited. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of administering omega-3 fatty acids (3 g/day for 12 weeks) to children/adolescents with obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study involving pediatric patients (10-16 years old) with obesity and hypertriglyceridemia was conducted. The National Center for Health Statistics (CDC) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) ≥95th percentile. Subjects with triglyceride concentrations ranging from 150 to 1000 mg/dL were randomized into two groups: those receiving omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) (n = 65) and those receiving a placebo (n = 65) for 12 weeks. Serum triglyceride concentrations were always measured from 8 to 9 am after a 12-h fast. Results By the end of treatment, triglyceride concentrations had decreased by 39.1% in the omega-3 group and 14.6% in the placebo group (p < 0.01). The incidence of adverse gastrointestinal events (e.g. flatulence, belching) was 41.2% and 6.2% in the omega-3 and placebo groups, respectively (p < 0.01). There were no serious drug-related adverse events. Conclusions Supplementation with 3 g/day of omega-3 fatty acids is a safe and effective option for treating hypertriglyceridemia in children and adolescents with obesity.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Hipertrigliceridemia/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade Pediátrica/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/etiologia , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
12.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340612

RESUMO

The long-term influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on offspring and the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on GDM offspring are poorly understood. We studied the long-term diabetic risk in GDM offspring and evaluated the effect of n-3 PUFA intervention. Healthy offspring rats were fed standard diet (soybean oil) after weaning. GDM offspring were divided into three groups: GDM offspring (soybean oil), n-3 PUFA adequate offspring (fish oil), and n-3 PUFA deficient offspring (safflower oil), fed up to 11 months old. The diabetic risk of GDM offspring gradually increased from no change at weaning to obvious impaired glucose and insulin tolerance at 11 months old. N-3 PUFA decreased oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver of older GDM offspring. There was a differential effect of n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA on hepatic telomere length in GDM offspring. Non-targeted metabolomics showed that n-3 PUFA played a modulating role in the liver, in which numerous metabolites and metabolic pathways were altered when GDM offspring grew to old age. Many metabolites were related to diabetes risk, such as α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, ceramide, oxaloacetic acid, tocotrienol, tetrahydro-11-deoxycortisol, andniacinamide. In summary, GDM offspring exhibited obvious diabetes risk at old age, whereas n-3 PUFA decreased this risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fígado/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Encurtamento do Telômero , Telômero/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Risco , Telômero/genética , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151215

RESUMO

We conducted this cross-sectional study in the American general population to explore the association of dietary n3 and n6 fatty acids intake and the risk of hypertension. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2014 in this study. We obtained dietary n3 and n6 fatty acids data through two 24 h dietary recall interviews and n3, n6 fatty acids intake were adjusted by weight. We defined hypertension as now taking prescribed medicine for hypertension or blood pressure above 130/80 mmHg. We applied binary logistic regression, multinomial logistic regression, and restricted cubic spline to evaluate the associations of dietary n3 and n6 fatty acids intake with hypertension. A total of 18,434 participants were included in this study. In the multivariate-adjusted model 2, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of hypertension were 0.58 (0.49-0.68), 0.53 (0.45-0.63), and 0.92 (0.80-1.06) for the highest versus the lowest tertile of dietary n3, n6 fatty acids intake and n6:n3 ratio, respectively. Further excluded participants with hypertension history, the ORs with 95% CI of newly diagnosed hypertension were 0.60 (0.50-0.73), 0.52 (0.43-0.62), and 0.95 (0.79-1.14) for the highest versus lowest tertile of dietary n3, n6 fatty acids intake and n6:n3 ratio, respectively. Dose-response analyses showed that the risk of hypertension was associated with dietary n3 and n6 fatty acids intake. Our study suggested that dietary n3 and n6 fatty acids intake were inversely associated with the risk of hypertension in US adults.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ann Ital Chir ; 90: 174-181, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182701

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to irreversible damage following head trauma, many overlapping pathophysiological events occur including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, edema, oxidative stress inflammation and apoptosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this this study, after the rats were separated in to groups theserats were fed throughout fourteen days with betaine, omega-3 or betaine+omega-3 combination in physiological limits prior to the trauma. After a closed head trauma, the damaged brain tissues were collected for biochemically and histologically analyses. This examination involved analyses of levels of caspase-3 and cytochrome C and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels in brain tissue. RESULTS: These analyses showed that traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused an increase in the levels of caspase-3, cytochrome C and neuron-specific enolase (NED) in the brain tissues examined. DISCUSSION: In this study, apoptotic and/or necrotic cell death via mitochondrial cytochrome C caspase pathway in traumatized cells and neuron-specific enolase (NED) increase indicative of neuronal damage confirmed the research hypothesis. CONCLUSION: Level of the biomarkers induced by brain injury in the groups fed with betaine, omega-3 and betaine+omega-3 combination before the traumatic damage approximated to that of control group values, suggesting that these products may have a neuroprotective role. KEY WORDS: Betain, Caspase-3, Cytochrome C and Neuron-specific enolase, Omega-3, Traumatic brain injury.


Assuntos
Betaína/administração & dosagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Química Encefálica , Caspase 3/análise , Grupo dos Citocromos c/análise , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/análise , Ratos
15.
Vopr Pitan ; 88(2): 91-100, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233693

RESUMO

Adequate and balanced intake of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LCPUFA) is important throughout life, and directly affects health status: from preconception and pregnancy to the prevention of various diseases. Russia geographically belongs to regions with a low level of consumption of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. In addition, gender characteristics and genetic polymorphisms underlie the variability of the synthesis of ω-3 LCPUFA in the human organism from alpha-linolenic acid. ω-3 LCPUFA play one of the key roles in the human organism: they regulate lipid metabolism, have a positive effect on cognitive functions, have anti-inflammatory activity, and contribute to the prolongation of pregnancy. ω-3 LCPUFA should be ingested in sufficient quantities, since they are essential nutrients, be in the form of release, provide high compliance for admission and be balanced in content of EPA and DHA.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(3): 222-238, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055971

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simultaneous supplementation of laying hens with dietary sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and carotenoids on egg quality, fatty acids and carotenoid profile of the egg yolk and on feed and yolk lipid peroxidation. A 6-week experiment was carried out with 53-week old laying hens (96 Tetra SL) assigned to a control and three treatment groups supplemented with 5% flaxseeds and different levels of dried tomato waste (DTW, 2.5%, 5.0% and 10.0%). Hens from the groups supplemented with 5% and 7.5% DTW had a significantly lower average daily feed intake and laying percentage as compared to the control. Increased doses of dietary DTW enhanced yolk Roche colour score in direct correlation with the enrichment of egg yolk in carotenoids but decreased their transfer efficiency from feed to egg. After 4 weeks, egg yolk from hens fed with 5% flaxseeds and 7.5% DTW had increased lutein and zeaxanthin levels (by 29% and 24%, respectively) and the colour score was 3.5 fold higher compared to the control group. As a result of the dietary supplementation with flaxseed, the n-3 fatty acid content was 3.1-3.7-fold higher in egg yolk compared with the control and the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased from 18.3 (control) to 4.1-5.4 in supplemented diets. Dietary supplementation with 5% DTW effectively prevented lipid oxidation of eggs enriched with n-3 PUFA, but the increase in DTW content depressed the absorption and deposition of n-3 PUFA in egg yolk.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Linho/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gema de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/fisiologia
17.
Free Radic Res ; 53(6): 669-679, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106614

RESUMO

Menopause occurs as consequence of ovarian senescence that leads to a drop of oestrogen hormone. The decreased oestrogen levels combined with the impairment of the redox system may contribute to the increased risk of postmenopausal cardiovascular disease. Supplementation with antioxidants may be an alternative to reduce cardiovascular risk. The study evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and α-lipoic acid (LA) for a period of 16 weeks on oxidative stress biomarkers in the hearts of ovariectomized 3-month-old rats. Ovariectomy did not increase the level of the damage markers malondialdehyde and carbonyl, and both were decreased by LA supplementation. Ovariectomy increased the levels of the endogenous antioxidants glutathione, vitamin C and H2O2 consumption, after restoration by DHA, EPA, and LA supplementation. Vitamin E, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase are not altered by ovariectomy. Lipid and protein damage are not increased after ovariectomy and a portion of the endogenous antioxidants concomitantly increased, suggesting that hearts may be protected by these antioxidants. DHA, EPA, and LA restored these endogenous antioxidants, showing that all evaluated supplements are effective in modulating the antioxidant redox system in the heart. LA showed additional effect on redox markers, decreasing lipid and protein damage markers.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ácido Tióctico/administração & dosagem
18.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(5): 1321-1327, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127884

RESUMO

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine association of dietary intake ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with breast cancer risk in Western and Asian countries. Methods: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of published research articles on association of dietary intake ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with breast cancer risk in Western and Asian countries published between January 2000 and February 2019 in online article databases of PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO. Pooled risk ratios (RR) were calculated using fixed and random-effect models. Publication bias was visually evaluated by performing funnel plots and statistically assessed by Egger's and Begg's tests. Data were processed by using Stata version 14.2 (Stata Corporation). Results: This study reviewed 913 articles. There were 13 studies included in systematic review continued by meta-analysis of relevant data with total number of samples: 275,264 patients. The results showed dietary intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs with breast cancer risk in Western and Asian countries (RR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.92-1.07). Dietary intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs with breast cancer risk in Western countries reached (RR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91-1.06) and there was any significant publication bias for studies included. Dietary intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs with breast cancer risk in Asian countries reached (RR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.94-1.47) and there was not any significant publication bias for studies included. Conclusion: This analysis confirmed association of dietary intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs with breast cancer risk in Western and Asian countries. Higher dietary intake ratio is associated with lower risk of breast cancer in Asian countries rather than Western countries. This study suggests increasing dietary intake ratio n-3/n-6 PUFAs will provide benefit for breast cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Ásia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(4): e201900405, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066787

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of the nutraceuticals omega-6/3 and omega-9/6 on endometriosis-associated infertility and pain. METHODS: Controlled experimental study, with each group composed of eight female rats. Fertility groups: sham-operated control (0.9% saline solution); control with endometriosis (0.9% saline); omega-6/3 (1.2 g/kg/day); omega-9/6 (1.2 g/kg/day); and meloxicam (0.8 mg/kg/day). Pain groups: sham-operated control (0.9% saline); control with endometriosis (0.9% saline); omega-6/3 (1.2 g/kg/day); omega-9/6 (1.2 g/kg/day); medroxyprogesterone acetate (5 mg/kg/every 3 days); and meloxicam (0.8 mg/kg/day). Peritoneal endometriosis was surgically induced. Pain was evaluated with the writhing test. Fertility was evaluated by counting the number of embryos in the left hemi-uterus. RESULTS: The mean number of writhings was as follows: sham-operated, 11.1 ± 2.9; control with endometriosis, 49.3 ± 4.4; omega-6/3, 31.5 ± 2.7; omega-9/6, 34.1 ± 4.5; medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.1 ± 0.8; meloxicam, 1 ± 0.3. There was a significant difference between both controls and all drugs used for treatment. Regarding fertility, the mean values were as follows: sham-operated, 6.8 ± 0.6; control with endometriosis, 4.2 ± 0.7; omega-6/3, 4.7 ± 1; omega-9/6, 3.8 ± 0.9; and meloxicam, 1.8 ± 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: The omega-6/3 and omega-9/6 nutraceuticals decreased pain compared to the controls. There was no improvement in fertility in any of the tested groups.


Assuntos
Endometriose/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/administração & dosagem , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Peritônio/patologia , Ratos
20.
J Urol ; 202(4): 689-695, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091175

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We explored the prevalence and trends of self-reported complementary and alternative medicine use among patients with prostate cancer using CaPSURE™ (Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 7,989 CaPSURE participants completed questionnaires between 1996 and 2016 on the use of nearly 70 complementary and alternative medicine types. Participants were defined as users if they indicated that they had ever used complementary and alternative medicines. To evaluate trends among 7,696 patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer we considered complementary and alternative medicine use within 24 months of diagnosis and calculated the percent change in complementary and alternative medicine use between groups defined by the year of diagnosis. RESULTS: Of patients with prostate cancer 56% reported complementary and alternative medicine use on at least 1 questionnaire. Multivitamin and omega-3 fatty acid use was common at 40% and 24% of patients, respectively. Compared to nonusers greater proportions of complementary and alternative medicine users were college educated, had a higher household income and lived in the West and Midwest. Median prostate specific antigen at diagnosis was 5.8 (IQR 4.4-8.4) and 6.2 ng/ml (IQR 4.7-10.1) among users and nonusers, respectively (p <0.01). Between those diagnosed in 1996 to 2000 and 2011 to 2016, complementary and alternative medicine use increased 128% from 24% to 54%. When comparing participants diagnosed in 2006 to 2010 with those diagnosed in 2011 to 2016, a 108% increase was seen in supplemental vitamin D use and a -48% decrease was seen in supplemental vitamin E use. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with prostate cancer reported complementary and alternative medicine use. Multivitamins and omega-3 fatty acids were commonly ingested and vitamin D use increased dramatically from 2006 to 2010 compared to 2011 to 2016. These data can guide clinical discussions and decision making such as nutritionist referral and help prioritize future research.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/tendências , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutricionistas , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
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