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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7315-7324, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184122

RESUMO

A high-fat diet (HFD) is the main cause of metabolic diseases. However, HFD in previous studies consists of much lard, which contains a large amount of omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and little omega-3 (ω-3) PUFA. The role of ω-6/ω-3 ratio of HFD in the development of metabolic diseases remains incompletely discussed. In this study, rats were fed with either a low or a high ω-6/ω-3 ratio HFD singly or combined with inulin. Metabolism state was valued and metabolomics of cecal content were detected. Results show that HFD with low ω-6/ω-3 ratio promotes the glucose utilization in rats. However, inulin had different effects on metabolism with different diets. Xanthosine and kynurenic acid in cecum were positively related to epididymal white adipose tissues (eWAT) mass. The present study indicates the beneficial effects of low ω-6/ω-3 ratio HFD (LRD) on the metabolic state of rats. Moreover, xanthosine and kynurenic acid were closely related to the development of metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Inulina/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Purinas/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
J Food Sci ; 84(5): 1035-1044, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990893

RESUMO

Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) oil is mainly composed of ω-3 fatty acids (61% to 70%). Despite being nutritionally favorable, higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids result in poorer oxidative stability. Thus, the aim of this work was to produce edible vegetable oil blends rich in ω-3 fatty acids and with greater oxidative stability than pure chia oil. Blending of chia with other specialty oils (walnut, almond, virgin, and roasted sesame oils) was assessed in the following respective proportions: 20:80, 30:70, and 40:60 (v/v). An accelerated storage test was conducted (40 ± 1 °C, 12 days). Primary and secondary oxidation products, free fatty acid content, antioxidant compounds, fatty acid composition, and induction time were determined. The blends presented higher oxidative stability indices than chia oil. Sensory analysis showed that, given a pure oil, judges did not identify statistically significant differences among the blends. The results suggest that blending of chia oil is an adequate alternative to obtain ω-3-enriched oils with higher oxidative stability indices. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Vegetable oil blending is a widely used practice in the edible oil industry to produce blended oils with enhanced stability and nutritional and sensory properties at affordable prices. The blends developed in this study from chia, sesame, walnut, and almond oils take advantage of the properties of each parent oil to yield products with improved oxidative stability, essential fatty acid presence, and sensory characteristics. To achieve a daily intake of 2.22 g/day of ω-3 fatty acids as recommended by the Intl. Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL), it is necessary to consume approximately one spoonful of the formulated mixtures.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Óleos Vegetais/química , Salvia/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 4870-4876, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005316

RESUMO

Yogurt is a healthy dairy food fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Because consumers demand healthier and more nutritious yogurt, numerous substances have been used to supplement yogurt. Chia seed has been reported to contain abundant phenolic compounds, dietary fiber, and n-3 fatty acids and therefore is a potential functional food additive. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chia seed extracts on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of set-type yogurt. Yogurt was fortified with chia seed water extract (CSWE) or chia seed ethanol extract (CSEE) at 0.05 or 0.1% (vol/vol). Results showed that supplementation with CSWE or CSEE significantly accelerated the fermentation rate and growth of LAB. Both CSWE and CSEE improved the viscosity, syneresis, and water-holding capacity of yogurt. The radical scavenging activity of yogurt was increased with both extracts, and the 0.1% CSEE yogurt exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, 0.1% CSEE yogurt significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced production of hydrogen peroxide in human colon cells. Addition of chia seed extract improves the growth of LAB, the physiochemical properties, and the health-beneficial effects of set-type yogurt.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Aditivos Alimentares , Salvia , Iogurte , Células Cultivadas , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Fermentação , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Salvia/química
4.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884831

RESUMO

Fish is an important source of the essential fatty acids contributing to foetal growth and development, but the evidence linking maternal fatty fish consumption with birth outcomes is inconsistent. In the UK, pregnant women are recommended to consume no more than two 140 g portions of fatty fish per week. This study aimed to investigate the association between fatty fish consumption before and during pregnancy with preterm birth and size at birth in a prospective birth cohort. Dietary intake data were acquired from a cohort of 1208 pregnant women in Leeds, UK (CARE Study) to assess preconception and trimester-specific fatty fish consumption using questionnaires. Multiple 24-h recalls during pregnancy were used to estimate an average fatty fish portion size. Intake was classified as ≤2, >2 portions/week and no fish categories. Following the exclusion of women taking cod liver oil and/or omega-3 supplements, the associations between fatty fish intake with size at birth and preterm delivery (<37 weeks gestation) were examined in multivariable regression models adjusting for confounders including salivary cotinine as a biomarker of smoking status.. The proportion of women reporting any fatty fish intake decreased throughout pregnancy, with the lowest proportion observed in trimester 3 (43%). Mean intakes amongst consumers were considerably lower than that recommended, with the lowest intake amongst consumers observed in the 1st trimester (106 g/week, 95% CI: 99, 113). This was partly due to small portion sizes when consumed, with the mean portion size of fatty fish being 101 g. After adjusting for confounders, no association was observed between fatty fish intake before or during pregnancy with size at birth and preterm delivery.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Trimestres da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Feminino , Peixes , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido
5.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 67, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) of the knee joint has received lots of attention recently due to its emerging role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), where it displays an inflammatory phenotype. The aim of the present study was to examine the infrapatellar fatty acid (FA) composition in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) model of early OA created by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). METHODS: OA was induced randomly in the left or right knee joint of skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits by ACLT, while the contralateral knee was left intact. A separate group of unoperated rabbits served as controls. The IFP of the ACLT, contralateral, and control knees were harvested following euthanasia 2 or 8 weeks post-ACLT and their FA composition was determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) ratio shifted in a pro-inflammatory direction after ACLT, already observed 2 weeks after the operation (0.20 ± 0.008 vs. 0.18 ± 0.009). At 8 weeks, the FA profile of the ACLT group was characterized with increased percentages of 20:4n-6 (0.44 ± 0.064 vs. 0.98 ± 0.339 mol-%) and 22:6n-3 (0.03 ± 0.014 vs. 0.07 ± 0.015 mol-%) and with decreased monounsaturated FA (MUFA) sums (37.19 ± 1.586 vs. 33.20 ± 1.068 mol-%) and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios (0.20 ± 0.008 vs. 0.17 ± 0.008). The FA signature of the contralateral knees resembled that of the unoperated controls in most aspects, but had increased proportions of total n-3 PUFA and reduced MUFA sums. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel information on the effects of early OA on the infrapatellar FA profile in the rabbit ACLT model. The reduction in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio of the IFP is in concordance with the inflammation and cartilage degradation in early OA and could contribute to disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Osteoartrite do Joelho/metabolismo , Patela/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Feminino , Articulação do Joelho/metabolismo , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Coelhos
6.
Anim Sci J ; 90(5): 619-627, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821084

RESUMO

Focus of this study was to evaluate the most suitable breed/crossbred and the appropriate nutritional strategies to increase marbling in beef muscle and to improve its healthy properties, in particular the n-3 fatty acids content. One hundred and seventy-six heifers of three crossbreed commonly reared by Emilia-Romagna farmers: 48 Bleu Belge × Freisian (ITA), 48 Charolais × Aubrac (FRA), and 80 Angus (ANG) were used. Animals of each breed were randomly subdivided in two experimental groups that received two diets, differing for the dietary lipid source. Control group (C) received a basal diet containing protected vegetable fats, whereas treated one (T) received the same basal diet supplemented with 0.9 kg/head/day of extruded flaxseed. After slaughtering, a sample of Longissimus thoracis was collected from each animal for meat quality analysis. Our results demonstrated that, in a shorter fattening period, ANG animals obtained the best dry matter intake, average daily gain and the best fattening scores. ITA and ANG meat presented the highest marbling scores. ANG breed had the highest amount of C18:1, the highest unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio. The T animals, independently from breed, showed the highest amount of α-linolenic acid (ALA). In addition, ANG-T meat presented the highest ALA content.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Cruzamento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne Vermelha , Ração Animal , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Linho , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/análise , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(3): 209-223, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760671

RESUMO

Buglossoides arvensis is indigenous to India and its seed oil is rich in unique and nutritionally important omega-3 fatty acid namely, stearidonic acid (SDA). It is a non-conventional oil seed plant and needs to be agronomically adapt for commercial utilization. In the present study, oil extracted from the agronomically adapted high yielding cultivar of B. arvensis seeds was analyzed for its oil content, fatty acid (FA) composition, physico-chemical characteristics, total lipids and triacylglycerol molecular species. The oil content, peroxide, acid, iodine, p-anisidine values and tocopherol content of the oil were 18.53% (w/w), 2.06 meq of active oxygen / kg of oil, 2.55 mg KOH/g oil, 217.2 g I2/100g oil, 10.7 and 774.8 mg/kg oil respectively. Oxidative stability as determined by the induction period was found to be 3.1 h. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the oil was 81.3% (of total FA), comprising of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 48.5%), SDA (18.6%), linoleic acid (LA; 10.3%) and γ-linolenic acid (GLA; 3.9%). Profiling of lipid classes showed neutral lipids (89.3%, w/w) as most abundant lipid class followed by glycolipids (7.4%, w/w) and phospholipids (3.3%, w/w). High resolution mass spectrometric analysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species showed TAGs with C54 carbons in the acyl chain as most abundant. Positional distribution analysis showed GLA and SDA predominantly at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerol. FTIR analysis revealed common characteristics molecular features similar to PUFA rich oils. Overall, the results suggest that B. arvensis seed oil is an excellent ω3-ω6-ω3 or ALA-SDA-GLA source for food and nutraceutical industries.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/isolamento & purificação , Índia , Oxirredução , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Tocoferóis/análise , Tocoferóis/química , Tocoferóis/isolamento & purificação , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(9): 2570-2580, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739448

RESUMO

A novel three-liquid-phase system which contained fish oil as the nonpolar phase was developed for the lipase-based hydrolysis of fish oil and subsequent enrichment of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in the glyceride fraction of the fish oil. In comparison with the traditional oil/water system, the enrichment factor of n-3 PUFA in this system was increased by 363.4% as a result of a higher dispersity, higher selectivity of the lipase for the other fatty acids except for n-3PUFA, and relief of product inhibition. The content of n-3 PUFA in the glyceride fraction could be concentrated to 67.97% by repeated hydrolysis after removing the free fatty acids. Furthermore, the lipase could be reused for at least eight rounds. This method would be an ideal approach for enriching n-3 PUFA because it is cost-effective, low in toxicity, and easily scaled up.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/isolamento & purificação , Óleos de Peixe/química , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Glicerídeos/química , Hidrólise , Atum
9.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 21(2): 171-185, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588551

RESUMO

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), are essential for neural development and human health. The n-3 PUFAs are mainly obtained from marine fish by dietary intake. Freshwater fish species usually contain low level of n-3 PUFAs due to the lack of n-3 PUFAs in their food chain. In this study, we report on the substantial production of EPA and DHA in a globally important freshwater fish species, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). This was achieved by introducing an "all-fish" transgene CA:fat1 containing the fish codon-optimized omega-3 desaturase gene (fat1) driven by the common carp ß-actin promoter (CA). Through a sperm sample screening method, we successfully generated fat1-positive F1 transgenic population with high efficiency. In F1 population, the muscle contents of ALA (18:3n-3), EPA and DHA were significantly increased when compared with non-transgenic siblings. Thereafter, four independent F2 heterozygous lines were obtained from 4 F1 transgenic males and a detailed comparison of fatty acids profile and growth performance was carried out for these 4 lines. All fat1-transgenic common carps from 4 lines showed an evident decrease in n-6 PUFA contents and a substantial increase in n-3 PUFA contents, among which line 4 stands out, showing a statistically significant increase in all 4 types of n-3 PUFAs including ALA (4.4-fold increase, p < 0.001), EPA (4.8-fold increase, p < 0.01), C22:5n-3 (DPA, 2.4-fold increase, p < 0.05), and DHA (1.9-fold increase, p < 0.05). Therefore, the line 4 was selected as the optimized breeding stock for further study, and the proximate nutrition composition and PUFA synthesis pathway were analyzed. Our study demonstrates that in the transgenic group, the muscular lipid content did not change, while fat accumulations in the internal organs and especially in the liver were significantly decreased as a result of hyperactivation of fatty acid oxidation process. Finally, we conclude that the "all-fish" CA:fat1-transgenic freshwater fish-common carp-can serve as a novel healthy dietary source of n3-PUFAs, especially EPA and DHA.


Assuntos
Caderinas/genética , Carpas/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/biossíntese , Valor Nutritivo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Masculino
10.
Food Chem ; 277: 515-523, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502178

RESUMO

The nutritional value of fish fillet can be largely affected by dietary oils. However, little is known about how dietary oils modify lipid molecules in fish fillets. Through biochemical and lipidomics assays, this study demonstrated the molecular characteristics of fillet lipids in Nile tilapia fed with different oils for six weeks. High 18:2n-6 and low 18:3n-3 deposition in phosphoglycerides resulted high 18:2n-6/18:3n-3 ratio in tilapia. Dietary n-3 VLCUFAs intake increased its deposition at sn-1/3 of triglycerides and at sn-2 of phosphatidylcholines. Irrespective of dietary oil, 16:0 was distributed preferentially at the outer positions of glycerol backbone. High 18:2n-6 accumulated at sn-2 position for fish fed with n-3 PUFA-enriched oils. High 18:3n-3 deposited at sn-1/3 in TG, sn-1 in phosphatidylethanolamines, while at sn-2 in phosphatidylcholines. Together, dietary oils change the composition and positional distribution of fatty acids on the glycerol backbone, and change nutritional value of fish for human health.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bioensaio , Ciclídeos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Glicerol/análise , Glicerofosfolipídeos/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Triglicerídeos/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 276: 218-230, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409587

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of UK dairy production system, month, and their interaction, on retail milk fatty acid (FA) profile throughout the year. Milk samples (n = 120) from four conventional (CON), four organic (ORG) and two free-range (FR) brands were collected monthly. ORG milk had more nutritionally-desirable polyunsaturated FA, including rumenic acid and the omega-3 PUFA α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids, and less of the nutritionally-undesirable palmitic acid. Milk FA profile was similar between FR and CON systems, but FR milk had less saturated FA (SFA) and/or palmitic acid, and/or greater α-linolenic and rumenic acids in certain months within the peak-grazing season. According to the measured milk FA profiles and UK milk fat intakes, milk and dairy products contribute around one-third of the maximum recommended SFA intake. A small increased intake of beneficial PUFA may be expected by consuming ORG milk but human health implications from such differences are unknown.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Estações do Ano , Reino Unido
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196154

RESUMO

The mitochondrial F1FO-ATPase, the key enzyme in cell bioenergetics, apparently works in the same way in mollusks and in mammals. We previously pointed out a raft-like arrangement in mussel gill mitochondrial membranes, which apparently distinguishes bivalve mollusks from mammals. To explore the relationship between the microenvironmental features and the enzyme activity, the physico-chemical features of mitochondrial membranes and the F1FO-ATPase activity temperature-dependence are here explored in the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum). Similarly to the mussel, clam gill mitochondrial membrane lipids exhibit a high sterol content (42 mg/g protein), mainly due to phytosterols (cholesterol only attains 42% of total sterols), and abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (70% of total fatty acids), especially of the n-3 family. However, the F1FO-ATPase activation energies above and below the break in the Arrhenius plot (22.1 °C) are lower than in mussel and mammalian mitochondria. Laurdan fluorescence spectroscopy analyses carried out at 10 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C on mitochondrial membranes and on lipid vesicles obtained from total lipid extracts of mitochondria, indicate a physical state without coexisting domains. This mitochondrial membrane constitution, allowed by lipid-lipid and lipidprotein interactions and involving PUFA-rich phospholipids, phytosterols (much more diversified in clams than in mussels) and proteins, enables the maintenance of a homogeneous physical state in the range 10-30 °C. Consistently, this molecular interaction network would somehow extend the temperature range of the F1FO-ATPase activity and may contribute to clam resilience to temperature changes.


Assuntos
Bivalves/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Animais , Bivalves/enzimologia , Bivalves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ativação Enzimática , Estabilidade Enzimática , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Feminino , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Itália , Bicamadas Lipídicas , Lipossomos , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microdomínios da Membrana/química , Microdomínios da Membrana/enzimologia , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/química , Fitosteróis/análise , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Esteróis/análise , Esteróis/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 274: 123-129, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372916

RESUMO

Fatty acid profiles and distribution among lipid classes in the edible parts of seven commonly consumed marine fishes in Chile were investigated. Peruvian morwong, Chilean jack mackerel and Pacific sandperch were found to be the richest sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with 440.2, 343.7 and 313.9 mg EPA + DHA/100 g raw fillet respectively among the studied fishes. DHA was mainly found in the phospholipid fraction in all cases, following EPA the same trend except for Pacific sandperch, Chilean hake (most EPA in triacylglycerols) and Peruvian morwong (most EPA as free fatty acid). A very favorable n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio was found in all studied species, and PUFA/SFA ratios ranged between 0.94 and 1.72, which is desirable to keep a healthy cardiovascular status. This is the first study reporting fatty acid profiles and distribution of commonly consumed marine fishes in Chile.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Chile , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Peixes , Perciformes , Triglicerídeos/análise
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(2): 1294-1311, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591336

RESUMO

Flaxseed has been extensively used as a supplement for dairy cows because of its high concentrations of energy and the n-3 fatty acid (FA) cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3. However, limited information is available regarding the effect of ground flaxseed on dry matter intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, and nutrient utilization in grazing dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 111 ± 49 d in milk in the beginning of the study were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate the effects of supplementing herbage (i.e., grazed forage) with ground corn-soybean meal mix (control diet = CTRL) or ground flaxseed (flaxseed diet = FLX) on animal production, milk FA, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility. The study was conducted from June to September 2013, with data and sample collection taking place on wk 4, 8, 12, and 16. Cows were fed a diet formulated to yield a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio consisting of (dry matter basis): 40% cool-season perennial herbage, 50% partial total mixed ration, and 10% of ground corn-soybean meal mix or 10% ground flaxseed. However, estimated herbage DMI averaged 5.59 kg/d or 34% of the total DMI. Significant treatment by week interactions were observed for milk and blood urea N, and several milk FA (e.g., trans-10 18:1). No significant differences between treatments were observed for herbage and total DMI, milk yield, feed efficiency, concentrations and yields of milk components, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Total-tract digestibility of organic matter decreased, whereas that of neutral detergent fiber increased with feeding FLX versus CTRL. No treatment effects were observed for ruminal concentrations of total volatile FA and NH3-N, and ruminal proportions of acetate and propionate. Ruminal butyrate tended to decrease, and the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased in the FLX diet. Most saturated and unsaturated FA in milk fat were changed. Specifically, milk proportion of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3, Σn-3 FA, and Σ18C FA increased, whereas that of cis-9,cis-12 18:2, Σn-6 FA, Σ odd-chain FA, Σ<16C FA, and Σ16C FA decreased with feeding FLX versus the CTRL diet. In conclusion, feeding FLX did not change yields of milk and milk components, but increased milk n-3 FA. Therefore, costs and industry adoption of premiums for n-3-enriched milk will determine the adoption of ground flaxseed in pasture-based dairy farms.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Linho , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Linho/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
15.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 236 p. tab, graf.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007591

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: As doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) aparecem em primeiro lugar entre as principais causas de mortalidade no mundo, representando 46,2% do total de mortes, número muito próximo aos encontrados no Brasil, impactando os gastos com saúde. A prevenção baseia-se em estilo de vida saudável, contudo, uma vez instaladas, é consenso o tratamento medicamentoso com estatinas. Alguns tratamentos alternativos vêm sendo estudados como o ômega-3 (w-3) na prevenção das DCV. Apesar das evidências clínicas favoráveis, não existem muitos estudos acerca da viabilidade econômica de tais tratamentos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o custo-efetividade das intervenções com w-3 isolado ou associado às estatinas na redução dos fatores de risco cardiovascular sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Para avaliar a efetividade do w-3 isolado e combinado com estatina foram utilizados os dados secundários do ensaio clínico CARDIONUTRI no momento basal e após 8 semanas. A amostra foi composta por 186 indivíduos com idade entre 30 e 74 anos divididos entre aqueles que não tomavam medicação e os que tomavam estatinas. Aleatoriamente, uma parcela deles recebeu cápsulas de 1 g de w-3 (37% de ácido eicosapentaenoico e 23% de docosaexaenoico) ou cápsulas de placebo. A recomendação era de que todos deveriam tomar 3 cápsulas ao dia, totalizando 3g/dia (de w-3 ou placebo) durante 8 semanas. Ao final, obteve-se quatro grupos: a) w-3; b) placebo; c) w-3 + estatina; e d) estatina. Para a avaliação do impacto foi usado o método Diferenças em Diferenças com a adição de variáveis de controle: densidade calórica do consumo alimentar, Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC), prática de atividade física, idade, sexo, raça, hábito tabagista, escolaridade e grau de adesão. Os custos dos tratamentos foram estimados com base no custo médio ponderado pelas probabilidades das eventuais intercorrências relacionadas a efeitos adversos e de sucesso e fracasso por meio do método da árvore de decisão. Foi considerado para fins do cômputo dos custos o período de 2 meses de tratamento. RESULTADOS: Nos quatro grupos, a maioria eram mulheres, obesas e com escore de risco muito alto para DCV. Os grupos w-3 e placebo possuíam maior escolaridade e renda comparadas a aqueles que tomavam estatinas. Todas as variáveis de controle foram estatisticamente significantes em pelo menos um dos modelos, exceto raça. A suplementação com w-3 associada às estatinas mostrou efetividade sobre HDLPEQUENA, com diminuição de 2,211 mg/dL e custo-efetividade de R$ 109,31 por redução em mg/dl da lipoproteína em 2 meses de tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com 1,8g de óleo de peixe isolado ou associado às estatinas em intervenção primária não evidenciou efeitos significativos nas mudanças dos parâmetros lipídicos, exceto no caso da HDLPEQUENA com o tratamento associado, mostrando não ser custo-efetivo na redução dos fatores de risco cardiovascular em geral. Em virtude da existência de controvérsias acerca de seus potenciais efeitos, sugere-se que os ensaios clínicos utilizem métodos estatísticos mais robustos para avaliar o impacto líquido da suplementação


INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the leading causes of death worldwide, accounting for 46.2% of all cases, very close to those found in Brazil, impacting health expenses. Current prevention is based on a healthy lifestyle, and once a CVD diagnosis is made, the current consensus is drug treatments with statins. Some alternative treatments such as omega-3 (w-3) have been studied in the prevention of these diseases. However, despite favorable clinical evidence, there are not many studies of economic viability of this treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions with w-3 alone or associated with statins in reducing cardiovascular risk factors from the perspective of the Unified Health System (SUS). METHODS: To assess the effectiveness of w-3 alone and its combination with statin, the secondary data of the classic lipid profile and lipoprotein size of the CARDIONUTRI clinical trial were used at baseline and after 8 weeks. The sample consisted of 186 subjects aged 30 to 74 years randomly received capsules containing 3g of w-3 per day (37% of eicosapentaenoic acid and 23% of docosahexaenoic acid) or 3g of mineral oil (placebo). Capsules were randomly assigned to individuals who were not taking medication or were already taking statins, separated into four groups: a) w-3; b) placebo; c) w-3 associated with statins; d) statins. Data analysis was conducted using the Difference in Differences statistical method with the addition of control variables: caloric density of food consumption, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity practice, age, sex, race, smoking, educational level and adherence to the treatment. The treatment costs were estimated based on the weighted average cost by the probabilities of the eventual intercurrences related to adverse effects and of success and failure by means of the decision tree method elapsed in 2 months of treatment. RESULTS: In all four groups, the majority were women, obese and with a very high-risk score for CVD. W-3 and placebo groups had higher educational level and income compared to those who were already taking statins. All control variables were statistically significant in at least one of the models except race. W-3 supplementation showed efficacy on HDLSMALL among those who consumed w-3 + statins with a reduction of 2,211 mg /dL and cost-effectiveness R$ 109.31 per mg/dL for 2 months of treatment. CONCLUSION: The treatment with 1.8g of fish oil isolated or associated with statins in primary intervention did not show significant effects on changes in lipid parameters except HDLSMALL of interventions associated with statins. Therefore it was not cost-effective in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Due to the existence of controversies about its potential effects, it is suggested that clinical trials use more robust statistical methods to assess the net impact of supplementation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia
16.
Lipids ; 53(10): 1005-1015, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592061

RESUMO

Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) have several health benefits. In particular, low n-3 LCPUFA status is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and led to the development of the omega-3 index that is the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the erythrocyte membranes, as a marker of CVD risk. Most methods used to measure the omega-3 index are laborious and time consuming. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a high-throughput method for the extraction and measurement of erythrocyte fatty acids and the omega-3 index. For sample extraction and quantification, two methods were used; a single-step extraction, degradation, and derivatization method by Lepage and Roy, followed by gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID), which is commonly used and a high-throughput method using an automated methyl tert-butyl ether extraction followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Both methods were first applied to the analysis of known concentrations of synthetic phospholipid (PL) mixtures to determine recovery and precision prior to their application in the analysis of human erythrocytes. The range of recoveries over five synthetic PL mixtures were 86.4-108.9% and the coefficient of variation was <10% (within-run) and ≤15.2% (between-run). Both methods showed high correlation (R = 0.993) for the omega-3 index and there was no systematic bias in the detection of omega-3 index using either method. The new high-throughput method described here offers considerable advantages in terms of simplicity and throughput compared to the GC-FID method and provides additional information on molecular PL concentrations.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/economia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/economia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
17.
Molecules ; 23(12)2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545062

RESUMO

Background: Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the continuous temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a new means for rapid high throughput material identification and quality control. Methods: Using 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 0.2 °C increments and first/second derivatives allows complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes. The entire set or any subset of the any of the contour plots, first derivatives or second derivatives can be utilized to create a graphical standard to quickly authenticate a given source. In addition, a temperature range can be specified that maximizes information content. Results: We compared GTRS and DSC data for five commercial fish oils that are excellent sources of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Each product has a unique, distinctive response to the thermal gradient, which graphically and spectroscopically differentiates them. We also present detailed Raman data and full vibrational mode assignments for EPA and DHA. Conclusion: Complex lipids with a variety of fatty acids and isomers have three dimensional structures based mainly on how structurally similar sites pack. Any localized non-uniformity in packing results in discrete "fingerprint" molecular sites due to increased elasticity and decreased torsion.


Assuntos
Óleos de Peixe , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Óleos de Peixe/análise , Óleos de Peixe/química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Análise Espectral Raman
18.
J Oleo Sci ; 67(9): 1091-1099, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175765

RESUMO

Concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids ethyl esters (FAEE) by urea complexation from Echium oil was studied. Different variables involved in the process were investigated: amount and particle size of urea, solvent volume and ratio (hexane/ethanol), load of FAEE and reaction time. Hence, the main goal was to optimize SDA concentration (%) and yield (%) of stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 ω-3) and other bioactive FAEE. Similar behaviors were observed in fractionation between α-linolenic (ALA)-linoleic (LA), and γ-linolenic (GLA)-stearidonic (SDA) acids, attributed to similarities on their chemical structures, due to the position of the double bonds. At laboratory scale, the optimal conditions were 3 g urea (powder), 3.6 mL of hexane, 0.54 mL of ethanol and 800 mg of FAEE, during 20 h at 25°C. A scaling-up at pilot plant was carried out twice, obtaining more than 100 g of a final product, with ~29% SDA concentration and ~78% yield. Besides, after two washings with water, ethyl carbamates (urethanes) were not detected in the final product. Thus, a mixture of FAEE with about 85% of bioactive fatty acids with anti-inflammatory properties was obtained, which can be a high added-value product with great potential for the synthesis of functional lipids and nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Echium/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ureia/química , Anti-Inflamatórios , Ésteres/análise , Ésteres/química , Etanol/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Hexanos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Solventes/química , Fatores de Tempo , Uretana , Água
19.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 64(3): 179-184, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962428

RESUMO

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have an important role in reducing hypertriglyceridemia, these acids decrease the mortality for Coronary Heart Disease. Very important is the relationship between fatty acid biosynthesis and distribution in organs and tissues involved in insulin resistance and hypertension due to its role in the production of vasoactive eicosanoids and their effects on insulin sensitivity; which is estimated with the HOMA-IR index, which relates the physiological and metabolic behavior of glucose and insulin in the body. The aim of this project was to compare the effect of sardine oil and omega-3 oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids: EPA (≈30%) and DHA (≈50%) administered for 6 to 8 wk respectively; on the lipid composition of the plasma membrane of epididymal adipocytes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their relation to obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. The administration of omega-3 enriched oil significantly decreased the HOMA criteria as an insulin resistance indicator compared to the sardine oil.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adipócitos/ultraestrutura , Animais , Membrana Celular/química , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Óleos de Peixe/química , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Lipídeos de Membrana/análise , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
20.
Meat Sci ; 145: 461-468, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059942

RESUMO

Supplementation of feed for bulls with selenium (+50%), vitamin D3 (+300%), vitamin E (+825%), vitamin K3 (+325%) and omega-3 fatty acids (+120%) affected beef nutrient composition. Twelve bulls (½â€¯year old) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments; control (Con) or supplemented (Sup), and fed 170 days pre-slaughter at an amount of 1% of body weight. Daily gain and feed efficiency were equal in the two groups. Homogenate meat from left forequarter in the Sup group contained more selenium (+26%), vitamin MK4 (+123%), D (+197%), E (+318%), and had lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio (-24%) compared to Con meat. Sup meat fulfilled the requirements to be labelled by health claims and nutrient claims as: "A food item containing a significant amount of selenium, vitamin K and vitamin D". We suggest supplementation of cattle rations during the finishing period as a strategy to increase meat content of specific nutrients important to human health.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Carne Vermelha/análise , Selênio/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Selênio/análise , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Vitamina D/análise , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina E/análise , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Vitamina K/análise , Vitamina K/farmacologia , Vitaminas/análise
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