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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125458, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505416

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effects of feeding flaxseed meal (FSM) and turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) supplementation on tissue lipid profile, lipid metabolism, health indices, oxidative stability, and physical properties of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation significantly increased the ω-3 PUFA, particularly ALA, EPA, DPA, and DHA of broiler chicken meat due to the corresponding increase ∆9 and Δ5 + Δ6 desaturase activities. The increased activities of the desaturases resulted in significantly better health indices of the broiler chicken meat. The feeding of 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation reduced the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM feeding reduced the oxidative stability, water holding capacity, extract release volume of broiler chicken meat and increased drip loss, whereas, 10.0 g TRP supplementation reversed these negative effects of FSM.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Curcuma/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Linho/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Galinhas , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Oxirredução , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 587-594, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The research deals with the addition of microalgae Schizochytrium limacinum as an alternative to fish oil in a feed-mixture for laying-hens and its effect on the deposition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFAs) [α-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in the lipids of egg yolks. In the study, 240 Tetra SL laying hens housed in enriched cages were used, divided into six groups, each in five repetitions. Groups E1, E3 and E5 were given 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% microalgae and groups E2, E4 and E6 were given feed mixtures with 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% fish oil. The mixtures were modified on the basis of 17% of the crude protein and 11.7 MJ ME kg-1 . RESULTS: The results showed satisfactory disposal of n-3 PUFA in egg yolks of laying-hens fed mixtures with the addition of either fish oil or microalgae. Eggs of E1, E3 and E5 groups contained in 100 g: 321.07 mg, 361.60 mg and 399.34 mg n-3 PUFA, respectively (P < 0.001). Eggs of E2, E4 and E6 groups contained in 100 g: 346.25 mg, 346.17 mg and 369.02 mg n-3 PUFA, respectively (P < 0.001). By increasing the content of fish oil or microalgae in feed-mixtures for laying hens, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in egg yolk lipids (P < 0.001) was decreased. CONCLUSION: Our results justified the usage of the microalgae Schizochytrium limacinum in the enrichment of table eggs with n-3 fatty acids as an alternative feed to fish oil. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Ovos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Óleos de Peixe/análise , Microalgas/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Gema de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Microalgas/química , Estramenópilas/química
3.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 97(5): 621-629, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580709

RESUMO

This study investigated the potential effect of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on inflammation and myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats, together with the underlying protective mechanisms, and screen out most effective ratio of n-6/n-3 within limits. The rats with pre-infarct treatment were distributed among 5 groups according to the n-6/n-3 ratio (36:1; 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 50:1); for the post-infarct treatment, the rats were distributed among 6 groups, including the control group (36:1) which was subjected to a sham procedure; the model group (36:1); and 4 test groups (n-6/n-3 ratio: 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 50:1). All of the rats were fed a purple perilla seed oil and safflower oil-based fatty emulsion. The serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Staining with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, hematoxylin and eosin, or Masson's trichrome was performed for histological examination. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay. Western blotting was performed to examine the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins and signaling pathway proteins. Our data indicate that in both the pre-infarct treatment and post-infarct treatment, low ratios of n-6/n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the levels of serum inflammatory factors, the infarct size of MIRI rats, number of cardiomyocytes undergoing apoptosis, and the expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax in the MIRI group. Thus a low ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs ameliorates inflammation and myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1161: 219-232, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562632

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) offer protection against vascular inflammation, neuroinflammation, hypertension, and thrombosis. Recently, biochemical studies have demonstrated that these benefits are partially mediated by their conversion to ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxide metabolites. These lipid metabolites originate from the epoxidation of ω-3 endocannabinoids, docosahexanoyl ethanolamide (DHEA) and eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide (EPEA) by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases to form epoxydocosapentaenoic acid-ethanolamides (EDP-EAs) and epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid-ethanolamides (EEQ-EAs), respectively. The EDP-EAs and EEQ-EAs are endogenously produced in rat brain and peripheral organs. Additionally, EDP-EAs and EEQ-EAs dose-dependently decrease pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine and increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. Furthermore, the EEQ-EAs and EDP-EAs attenuate angiogenesis and cell migration in cancer cells, induce vasodilation in bovine coronary arteries, and reciprocally regulate platelet aggregation in washed human platelets. Taken together, the ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides represent a new class of dual acting molecules that display unique pharmacological properties.


Assuntos
Endocanabinoides , Compostos de Epóxi , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Compostos de Epóxi/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Humanos , Vasodilatação , Vasodilatadores/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4055, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492836

RESUMO

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), particularly the omega-3 LC-PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been associated with beneficial health effects. Consequently, sustainable sources have to be developed to meet the increasing demand for these PUFAs. Here, we demonstrate the design and construction of artificial PUFA biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoding polyketide synthase-like PUFA synthases from myxobacteria adapted for the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Genomic integration and heterologous expression of unmodified or hybrid PUFA BGCs yielded different yeast strains with specific LC-PUFA production profiles at promising yield and thus valuable for the biotechnological production of distinct PUFAs. Nutrient screening revealed a strong enhancement of PUFA production, when cells were phosphate limited. This represents, to the best of our knowledge, highest concentration of DHA (16.8 %) in total fatty acids among all published PUFA-producing Y. lipolytica strains.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Myxococcales/enzimologia , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biotecnologia/métodos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Myxococcales/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370264

RESUMO

The following study reports on the first thraustochytrid isolates identified from Iceland. They were collected from three different locations off the northern coast of the country (Location A, Skagaströnd; Location B, Hveravík; and Location C, Eyjafjörður). Using 18S rDNA sequence analysis, isolates from Locations A and B were identified within the Thraustochytrium kinnei species while other isolates within the Sicyoidochytrium minutum species when compared to other known strains. Cells isolated from Locations A ( 2 . 10 ± 0 . 70 g/L) and B ( 1 . 54 ± 0 . 17 g/L) produced more biomass than the ones isolated from Location C ( 0 . 43 ± 0 . 02 g/L). This study offers the first-time examination of the utility of byproducts from fisheries as a nitrogen source in media formulation for thraustochytrids. Experiments showed that isolates produced more biomass (per unit of substrate) when cultured on nitrogen of marine ( 2 . 55 ± 0 . 74 g/L) as compared to of commercial origin (  1 . 06 ± 0 . 57 g/L). Glycerol ( 2 . 43 ± 0 . 56 g/L) was a better carbon source than glucose ( 1 . 84 ± 0 . 57 g/L) in growth studies. Fatty acid (FA) profiles showed that the isolates from Location C (S. minutum) had low ratios of monounsaturated ( 4 . 21 ± 2 . 96 % ) and omega-6 ( 0 . 68 ± 0 . 59 % ) FAs. However, the isolates also had high ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 35 . 65 ± 1 . 73 % ) and total omega-3 FAs ( 40 . 39 ± 2 . 39 % ), indicating that they could serve as a source of marine oils for human consumption and in aquaculture feeds. The T. kinnei isolates from Location A could be used in biodiesel production due to their high ratios of monounsaturated ( 18 . 38 ± 6 . 27 % ) long chain ( 57 . 43 ± 8 . 27 % ) FAs.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Meios de Cultura/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Pesqueiros , Glicerol/química , Islândia , Nitrogênio/química , Estramenópilas/isolamento & purificação
7.
Psychiatriki ; 30(2): 129-141, 2019.
Artigo em Grego Moderno | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425141

RESUMO

Brain is an organ with the highest lipid concentration in the body. Cellular membrane lipids can affect both the positioning and the functioning of membrane proteins, thus regulating several cell actions. Changes in the lipid composition of cell membrane can modulate the microenvironment and consequently the function of its proteins, e.g. neurotransmission. Some of the first studies on the subject have shown a negative correlation between serum cholesterol levels and depression, suicidality and behavioral disorders. Several studies -but not all- have found decreased concentrations of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFA) in plasma or erythrocyte membranes of patients with depression, bipolar disorder or after a suicide attempt. In some cases, positive results after their administration have been reported. The effect of ω-3-PUFA in affective disorders is attributed to their action on neurotransmission, neuroplasticity as well as to their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Besides, decreased levels of ω-3-PUFA have been found in erythrocytes or platelets of schizophrenic patients. Some studies have shown in schizophrenics an increased rate of membrane phospholipids breakdown and a decreased ratio of ω-3-PUFA incorporation in phospholipids, possibly because of increased activity of phospholipase A2, an enzyme with crucial role in signaling transduction. Deficient dietetic ingestion of ω-3-PUFA may increase the risk for development of schizophrenia, while a diet rich in ω-3-PUFA may have a preventive role for the disease or improve its course. Although there is no evidence for their action as a monotherapy, they may be useful as an add-on therapy to drug treatment. Some authors suggest that abnormal sphingolipid metabolism, leading to accumulation of ceramides, may be responsible for the development of mood and anxiety disorders, as well as for induction of inflammation or oxidative stress, mechanisms possibly responsible for the physical symptoms of depression. Some drugs seem to combine inhibition of sphingomyelinase (an enzyme catalyzing the production of ceramides) and antidepressant effect. Despite the multitude of related studies, many aspects of the subject remain obscure. Current research focuses on the validity of preventive (especially in the perinatal period) or therapeutic administration of ω-3-PUFA as well as to the pharmacological manipulation of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (e.g. sphingomyelinase) for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Humanos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426560

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a rapidly growing global public health problem. Since HF results in high mortality and re-hospitalization, new effective treatments are desired. Although it remains controversial, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), such as the eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, have been widely recognized to have benefits for HF. In a large-scale clinical trial regarding secondary prevention of HF by n-3 PUFA (GISSI-HF trial), the supplementation of n-3 PUFA significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization. Other small clinical studies proposed that n-3 PUFA potentially suppresses the ventricular remodeling and myocardial fibrosis, which thereby improves the ventricular systolic and diastolic function both in ischemic and non-ischemic HF. Basic investigations have further supported our understanding regarding the cardioprotective mechanisms of n-3 PUFA against HF. In these reports, n-3 PUFA has protected hearts through (1) anti-inflammatory effects, (2) intervention of cardiac energy metabolism, (3) modification of cardiac ion channels, (4) improvement of vascular endothelial response, and (5) modulation of autonomic nervous system activity. To clarify the pros and cons of n-3 PUFA on HF, we summarized recent evidence regarding the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on HF both from the clinical and basic studies.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos
9.
Food Chem ; 301: 125198, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374533

RESUMO

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of five rubber seed oil (RSO) levels (0, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 6%) on hens laying performance, egg quality, and yolks fatty acid composition and cholesterol contents. Three hundred and sixty 30-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens were allotted to 5 groups. The results showed that the egg production was increased in 4% RSO group (P < 0.05), but egg quality parameters and the contents of dry matter, lipid, and protein in yolks were not influenced among treatments (P > 0.05). Yolk cholesterol contents were reduced in RSO supplemental groups (P < 0.05). The concentration of total n-3 PUFA in yolks increased gradually while the ratio of n-6/n-3 decreased gradually with increasing dietary RSO levels (P < 0.001). In conclusion, dietary RSO supplementation increased yolk n-3 PUFA levels, improved yolk color, and reduced yolk cholesterol contents without negative influence on laying performance parameters.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Colesterol/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/química , Gorduras Insaturadas/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Colesterol/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/análise
10.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 167(3): 343-346, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346865

RESUMO

We studied the effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus on the level of glycemia and some other indices of lipid metabolism, including fatty acid metabolism and LPO intensity, during the development of diabetes mellitus in rats. Even at the early terms of diabetes development, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were accompanied by changes in the blood content of fatty acid (at the expense of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids) that persisted throughout the observation period. Intensification of LPO against the background of suppressed activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced level of ω3 fatty acids attested to the development of oxidative stress. These data attest to antioxidant property of ω3 fatty acids, which is seen from positive correlations between these fatty acids and activity of antioxidant enzymes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Dislipidemias/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
11.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315273

RESUMO

Dietary omega-3 fatty acids (ω3), particularly long-chain ω3 (LCω3), have protective effects against prostate cancer (PCa) in experimental studies. Observational studies are conflicting, possibly because of the biomarker used. This study aimed at evaluating associations between grade reclassification and ω3 levels assessed in prostatic tissue, red blood cells (RBC), and diet. We conducted a validation cross-sectional study nested within a phase II clinical trial. We identified 157 men diagnosed with low-risk PCa who underwent a first active surveillance repeat prostate biopsy session. Fatty acid (FA) intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and their levels measured in prostate tissue and RBC. Associations were evaluated using logistic regression. At first repeat biopsy session, 39 (25%) men had high-grade PCa (grade group ≥2). We found that high LCω3-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) level in prostate tissue (odds ratio (OR) 0.25; 95% (confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.79; p-trend = 0.03) was associated with lower odds of high-grade PCa. Similar results were observed for LCω3 dietary intake (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p-trend = 0.02) but no association for RBC. LCω3-EPA levels in the target prostate tissue are inversely associated with high-grade PCa in men with low-risk PCa, supporting that prostate tissue FA, but not RBC FA, is a reliable biomarker of PCa risk.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Estudos Transversais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próstata/química , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
12.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340612

RESUMO

The long-term influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on offspring and the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on GDM offspring are poorly understood. We studied the long-term diabetic risk in GDM offspring and evaluated the effect of n-3 PUFA intervention. Healthy offspring rats were fed standard diet (soybean oil) after weaning. GDM offspring were divided into three groups: GDM offspring (soybean oil), n-3 PUFA adequate offspring (fish oil), and n-3 PUFA deficient offspring (safflower oil), fed up to 11 months old. The diabetic risk of GDM offspring gradually increased from no change at weaning to obvious impaired glucose and insulin tolerance at 11 months old. N-3 PUFA decreased oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver of older GDM offspring. There was a differential effect of n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA on hepatic telomere length in GDM offspring. Non-targeted metabolomics showed that n-3 PUFA played a modulating role in the liver, in which numerous metabolites and metabolic pathways were altered when GDM offspring grew to old age. Many metabolites were related to diabetes risk, such as α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, ceramide, oxaloacetic acid, tocotrienol, tetrahydro-11-deoxycortisol, andniacinamide. In summary, GDM offspring exhibited obvious diabetes risk at old age, whereas n-3 PUFA decreased this risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fígado/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Encurtamento do Telômero , Telômero/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Risco , Telômero/genética , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Food Chem ; 297: 124937, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253257

RESUMO

Diatoms are a major group of high omega 3-fatty acid producing algae that play a key role in global climate change and ecosystem function. Phaeodactylum tricornutum is one of only two diatoms whose genomes have been completely sequenced, leading to metabolic engineering of high eicosapentaenoic acid producing strains. Based on its rapid growth, high lipid content, and especially omega-3 long chain unsaturated fatty acids, P. tricornutum exhibits a large commercial potential. However, until now, it is predominately produced as feed for the aquaculture industry, rather than food supplement. This review compares the change of P. tricornutum lipid composition under different treatments, and identifies suitable lipid induction, cultivation and harvesting methods for industry adoption. If produced in a biorefinery setting, P. tricornutum has strong potential for value generation from human health products (omega-3-rich oil and high-value protein) with cost estimates of AU$6.14 per kg dry weight and AU$20.47 for omega-3-rich oil.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Indústria Alimentícia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242698

RESUMO

High-fat diets rich in fish oil (HFO diet, mainly ω3-PUFAs), in contrast to high-fat diets rich in lard (HL diet, mainly saturated fatty acids) have been shown to induce improvement in mitochondrial function and fusion processes associated with a reduction in reactive oxygen species production in both liver and skeletal muscle. High-fat diets may also impair testicular function, and mitochondria represent important cellular organelles with a pivotal role in reproductive function. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that frequently undergo fission/fusion processes. A shift toward mitochondrial fusion process has been associated with improvement of mitochondrial function, as well as with ω3-PUFAs protective effects. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of chronic overfeeding (six weeks) with HFO or HL diet on testicular tissue histology, oxidative stress, antioxidant defenses, and mitochondrial fusion (mitofusin 2) and fission (dynamic related protein 1) protein. Our results showed that HFO diet induced less testicular histology impairment, oxidative stress, and apoptosis compared to a HL diet. This finding was associated with an increase in antioxidant activities and a shift toward mitochondrial fusion processes induced by HFO diet compared to HL diet, suggesting that ω3-PUFAs may act as bioactive compound targeting mitochondria dynamics to prevent testicular impairment.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Óleos de Peixe , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(2): 121-127, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148180

RESUMO

In this study, a total of 172 putative omega-3 producers were isolated from 28 sediment samples from the Arabian Gulf employing a selective isolation procedure using marine agar containing 0·1% triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC). Out of these 172 isolates, 19 isolates produced eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as confirmed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The EPA content of the isolated bacterial strain varied from 1·76 to 6·52% of total fatty acids. Among the 19 isolates of EPA producers, while 17 isolates harboured both pfaA gene and Δ6 desaturase gene, only five isolates harboured Δ5 desaturase gene. Two of the EPA positive strains harbour none of the three genes tested. The 16s RNA identification of these isolates revealed that except one, all the EPA producers were Gram-positive marine bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, family Bacillacea, genera Bacillus and Oceanobacillus. Halomonas pacifica was the only Gram-negative Gamma-Proteobacteria detected to produce EPA from this region. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Recently, marine bacteria are considered as a promising source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) over marine fishes and microalgae. PUFA producers reported from polar and deep-sea sources were restricted to five well-known marine genera under two distinct domains of bacteria such as proteobacteria (Shewanella, Colwellia, and Moritella) and cytophaga group (Flexibacter, Psychroflexus). This study revealed that subtropical marine environment could also be the source of PUFA producing bacteria, and they predominantly belonged to the class of Firmibacteria. This finding opens up new avenue for research to study the inherent mechanism and physiology of such organisms from this unique environment.


Assuntos
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Firmicutes/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Halomonas/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Firmicutes/química , Firmicutes/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/química , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Halomonas/química , Halomonas/genética , Halomonas/isolamento & purificação
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234541

RESUMO

Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6ω3) are important fatty acids for human health. These ω3 LC-PUFAs are produced from their ω3 precursors by a set of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis pathway and are also converted from ω6 LC-PUFA by omega-3 desaturases (ω3Ds). Here, we have investigated eight ω3-desaturases obtained from a cyanobacterium, plants, fungi and a lower animal species for their activities and compared their specificities for various C18, C20 and C22 ω6 PUFA substrates by transiently expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Our results showed hitherto unreported activity of many of the ω3Ds on ω6 LC-PUFA substrates leading to their conversion to ω3 LC-PUFAs. This discovery could be important in the engineering of EPA and DHA in heterologous hosts.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Animais , Cianobactérias/enzimologia , Fungos/enzimologia , Plantas/enzimologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Especificidade por Substrato , Tabaco/genética
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7315-7324, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184122

RESUMO

A high-fat diet (HFD) is the main cause of metabolic diseases. However, HFD in previous studies consists of much lard, which contains a large amount of omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and little omega-3 (ω-3) PUFA. The role of ω-6/ω-3 ratio of HFD in the development of metabolic diseases remains incompletely discussed. In this study, rats were fed with either a low or a high ω-6/ω-3 ratio HFD singly or combined with inulin. Metabolism state was valued and metabolomics of cecal content were detected. Results show that HFD with low ω-6/ω-3 ratio promotes the glucose utilization in rats. However, inulin had different effects on metabolism with different diets. Xanthosine and kynurenic acid in cecum were positively related to epididymal white adipose tissues (eWAT) mass. The present study indicates the beneficial effects of low ω-6/ω-3 ratio HFD (LRD) on the metabolic state of rats. Moreover, xanthosine and kynurenic acid were closely related to the development of metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Inulina/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Purinas/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(3): 222-238, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055971

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simultaneous supplementation of laying hens with dietary sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and carotenoids on egg quality, fatty acids and carotenoid profile of the egg yolk and on feed and yolk lipid peroxidation. A 6-week experiment was carried out with 53-week old laying hens (96 Tetra SL) assigned to a control and three treatment groups supplemented with 5% flaxseeds and different levels of dried tomato waste (DTW, 2.5%, 5.0% and 10.0%). Hens from the groups supplemented with 5% and 7.5% DTW had a significantly lower average daily feed intake and laying percentage as compared to the control. Increased doses of dietary DTW enhanced yolk Roche colour score in direct correlation with the enrichment of egg yolk in carotenoids but decreased their transfer efficiency from feed to egg. After 4 weeks, egg yolk from hens fed with 5% flaxseeds and 7.5% DTW had increased lutein and zeaxanthin levels (by 29% and 24%, respectively) and the colour score was 3.5 fold higher compared to the control group. As a result of the dietary supplementation with flaxseed, the n-3 fatty acid content was 3.1-3.7-fold higher in egg yolk compared with the control and the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased from 18.3 (control) to 4.1-5.4 in supplemented diets. Dietary supplementation with 5% DTW effectively prevented lipid oxidation of eggs enriched with n-3 PUFA, but the increase in DTW content depressed the absorption and deposition of n-3 PUFA in egg yolk.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Linho/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gema de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/fisiologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035722

RESUMO

Childhood obesity represents an important public health issue worldwide and is strongly linked to metabolic alterations such as hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. The constellation of these conditions is commonly known as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Metabolic syndrome is not just a simple cluster of metabolic complications due to excess of adipose tissue, but is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Evidence from several human and animal studies suggests that environmental and nutritional exposure during pregnancy may affect the newborn development and future health through epigenetic changes, playing a potential role in determining obesity and obesity-related complications. Understanding how nutritional epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the "transgenerational risk" for obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial in order to develop early prevention strategies for children's health. Nutrigenetics is the science that studies the role of nutrients in gene expression. Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LCPUFAs) are known for their health benefits, especially in relation to their ability to modulate inflammation and improve some obesity-associated comorbidities, mainly by decreasing plasma triglycerides. Recent nutrigenetic research is focusing on the potential role of LCPUFAs in influencing epigenetic markers. In this review, we present the most recent updates about the possible interaction between n-3 LCPUFAs and epigenetic pathways in metabolic syndrome. Literature from MEDLINE® and the Cochrane database between May 2005 and December 2018 has been scanned.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Acetilação , Fatores Etários , Animais , Biomarcadores , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , DNA Metiltransferases Sítio Específica (Adenina-Específica)
20.
Chem Biol Interact ; 308: 20-44, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067438

RESUMO

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide, which is characterized by an imbalance between cardiac oxygen supply and demand predominantly due to obstruction of coronary arteries. Activation of the innate immune system and the consequent inflammatory response plays a role in the pathogenesis of IHD. Where an excessive inflammatory response may contribute to adverse cardiac remodeling and fibrosis, making inflammation an important therapeutic target for improving outcomes of IHD. While there are many discrepancies in the literature, evidence from both bench and clinical research demonstrate important effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), toward IHD. N-3 PUFAs, and their metabolites, have been demonstrated to modulate various components of the immune system, including regulation of chemokines and cytokines, leukocyte chemotaxis and inflammasome formation. In this article, we provide an overview of the role the innate immune system has in IHD and focus on the immunomodulatory effects of n-3 PUFAs and their biologically active metabolites.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Imunidade Inata , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Alarminas/metabolismo , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/citologia , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/imunologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/metabolismo
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