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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127745, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795855

RESUMO

Microalgae are a precious source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), however extraction is difficult due to the peculiar microalgae cell structure. Here we describe a new method based on the application of chitosan nanoaggregates as CO2 responsive emulsifier, used to promote the swelling of algae cell wall and the formation of a large oil - ethanol interphase area during the ethanolysis. Tests were carried out with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Nannochloropsis sp. at different biomass/ethanol/chitosan ratios. CO2 was added to trigger demulsification to promote an easy recovery of the lipid fraction. The highest yields in PUFA were obtained with Nannochloropsis sp. (207.9 mg/g of oil) using 0.4% wt of chitosan and 1:10 biomass:ethanol ratio; 43.6 mg/g of linolenic acid were obtained from Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Overall, because the method employs ethanol, a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) solvent, and food grade additives, it is suited for the preparation of PUFA supplements.


Assuntos
Quitosana/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Suplementos Nutricionais , Esterificação/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/farmacologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242543, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326419

RESUMO

Clinical studies using a range of omega-3 supplements have yielded conflicting results on their efficacy to control inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids are substrate for the formation of potent immune-protective mediators, termed as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). Herein, we investigated whether observed differences in the potencies of distinct omega-3 supplements were linked with their ability to upregulate SPM formation. Using lipid mediator profiling we found that four commercially available supplements conferred a unique SPM signature profile to human macrophages, with the overall increases in SPM concentrations being different between the four supplements. These increases in SPM concentrations were linked with an upregulation of macrophage phagocytosis and a decreased uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins. Pharmacological inhibition of two key SPM biosynthetic enzymes 5-Lipoxygenase or 15-Lipoxygenase reversed the macrophage-directed actions of each of the omega-3 supplements. Furthermore, administration of the two supplements that most potently upregulated macrophage SPM formation and reprogrammed their responses in vitro, to APOE-/- mice fed a western diet, increased plasma SPM concentrations and reduced vascular inflammation. Together these findings support the utility of SPM as potential prognostic markers in determining the utility of a given supplement to regulate macrophage responses and inflammation.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Leucotrienos/biossíntese , Lipoxinas/biossíntese , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Prostaglandinas/biossíntese , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/imunologia , Araquidonato 15-Lipoxigenase/genética , Araquidonato 15-Lipoxigenase/imunologia , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/genética , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/imunologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucotrienos/imunologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipoproteínas LDL/farmacologia , Lipoxinas/imunologia , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , Análise de Componente Principal , Prostaglandinas/imunologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031994

RESUMO

As the infected cases of COVID-19 reach more than 20 million with more than 778,000 deaths globally, an increase in psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression has been reported. Scientists globally have been searching for novel therapies and vaccines to fight against COVID-19. Improving innate immunity has been suggested to block progression of COVID-19 at early stages, while omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been shown to have immunomodulation effects. Moreover, n-3 PUFAs have also been shown to improve mood disorders, thus, future research is warranted to test if n-3 PUFAs may have the potential to improve our immunity to counteract both physical and mental impact of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/imunologia , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/virologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Depressão/imunologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/virologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(11): 915-930, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949497

RESUMO

Prospective observational studies support the use of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, randomised controlled trials, have often reported neutral findings. There is a long history of debate about the potential harmful effects of a high intake of omega-6 PUFAs, although this idea is not supported by prospective observational studies or randomised controlled trials. Health effects of PUFAs might be influenced by Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturases, the key enzymes in the metabolism of PUFAs. The activity of these enzymes and modulation by variants in encoding genes (FADS1-2-3 gene cluster) are linked to several cardiometabolic traits. This Review will further consider non-genetic determinants of desaturase activity, which have the potential to modify the availability of PUFAs to tissues. Finally, we discuss the consequences of altered desaturase activity in the context of PUFA intake, that is, gene-diet interactions and their clinical and public health implications.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236601, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730353

RESUMO

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), exhibit antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, diets rich in n-3 PUFAs are known to improve disease resistance and limit pathogen infection in commercial aquaculture fishes. In this study, we examined the effects of transgenic overexpression of n-3 PUFA biosynthesis genes on the physiological response to bacterial infection in tilapia. We first established tilapia strains with single or dual expression of salmon delta-5 desaturase and/or delta-6 desaturase and then challenged the fish with Vibrio vulnificus infection. Interestingly, our data suggest that n-3 PUFA-mediated alterations in gut microbiota may be important in determining disease outcome via effects on immune response of the host. Both liver- and muscle-specific single and dual expression of delta-5 desaturase and delta-6 desaturase resulted in higher n-3 PUFA content in transgenic fish fed with a LO basal diet. The enrichment of n-3 PUFAs in dual-transgenic fish is likely responsible for their improved survival rate and comparatively reduced expression of inflammation- and immune-associated genes after V. vulnificus infection. Gut microbiome analysis further revealed that dual-transgenic tilapia had high gut microbiota diversity, with low levels of inflammation-associated microbiota (i.e., Prevotellaceae). Thus, our findings indicate that dual expression of transgenic delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase in tilapia enhances disease resistance, an effect that is associated with increased levels of n-3 PUFAs and altered gut microbiota composition.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/metabolismo , Tilápia/microbiologia , Vibrio vulnificus/patogenicidade , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Análise Discriminante , Resistência à Doença/genética , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/genética , Tilápia/genética , Vibrioses/patologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 74-83, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-chain n-3 PUFAs (n-3 LCPUFAs) accrete in the brain during childhood and affect brain development. Randomized trials in children show inconsistent effects of n-3 LCPUFAs on cognitive and socioemotional function, and few have investigated effects of fish per se. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on overall and domain-specific cognitive and socioemotional scores and explore sex differences. METHODS: Healthy 8-9-y-old children (n = 199) were randomly allocated to receive ∼300 g/wk oily fish or poultry (control) for 12 ± 2 wk. At baseline and endpoint, we assessed attention, processing speed, executive functions, memory, emotions, and behavior with a large battery of tests and questionnaires and analyzed erythrocyte fatty acid composition. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-seven (99%) children completed the trial. Children in the fish group consumed 375 (25th-75th percentile: 325-426) g/wk oily fish resulting in 2.3 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.6) fatty acid percentage points higher erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA than in the poultry group. The overall cognitive performance score tended to improve by 0.17 (95% CI: -0.01, 0.35) points in children who received fish compared with poultry, supported by n-3 LCPUFA dose dependency. This was driven mainly by fewer errors [-1.9 (95% CI: -3.4, -0.3)] in an attention task and improved cognitive flexibility measured as faster reaction time [-51 ms (95% CI: -94, -7 ms)] in a complex relative to a simple task ("mixing cost"). The fish intervention furthermore reduced parent-rated Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties by -0.89 (95% CI: -1.60, -0.18) points mainly due to a -0.63 (95% CI: -1.11, -0.16) points reduction in internalizing problems that was reflected in tendency to a decrease in the overall socioemotional problems score of -0.13 (95% CI: -0.26, 0.01) points. The overall effects were similar in boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: Oily fish dose-dependently improved cognitive function, especially attention and cognitive flexibility, and reduced socioemotional problems. The results support the importance of n-3 LCPUFAs for optimal brain function and fish intake recommendations in children.The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02809508.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Cognição , Peixes/metabolismo , Animais , Criança , Emoções , Função Executiva , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413078

RESUMO

Lupus is a debilitating multi-organ autoimmune disease clinically typified by periods of flare and remission. Exposing lupus-prone female NZBWF1 mice to crystalline silica (cSiO2), a known human autoimmune trigger, mimics flaring by inducing interferon-related gene (IRG) expression, inflammation, ectopic lymphoid structure (ELS) development, and autoantibody production in the lung that collectively accelerate glomerulonephritis. cSiO2-triggered flaring in this model can be prevented by supplementing mouse diet with the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A limitation of previous studies was the use of purified diet that, although optimized for rodent health, does not reflect the high American intake of saturated fatty acid (SFA), ω-6 PUFAs, and total fat. To address this, we employed here a modified Total Western Diet (mTWD) emulating the 50th percentile U.S. macronutrient distribution to discern how DHA supplementation and/or SFA and ω-6 reduction influences cSiO2-triggered lupus flaring in female NZBWF1 mice. Six-week-old mice were fed isocaloric experimental diets for 2 wks, intranasally instilled with cSiO2 or saline vehicle weekly for 4 wks, and tissues assessed for lupus endpoints 11 wks following cSiO2 instillation. In mice fed basal mTWD, cSiO2 induced robust IRG expression, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine elevation, leukocyte infiltration, ELS neogenesis, and autoantibody production in the lung, as well as early kidney nephritis onset compared to vehicle-treated mice fed mTWD. Consumption of mTWD containing DHA at the caloric equivalent to a human dose of 5 g/day dramatically suppressed induction of all lupus-associated endpoints. While decreasing SFA and ω-6 in mTWD modestly inhibited some disease markers, DHA addition to this diet was required for maximal protection against lupus development. Taken together, DHA supplementation at a translationally relevant dose was highly effective in preventing cSiO2-triggered lupus flaring in NZBWF1 mice, even against the background of a typical Western diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/farmacologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/dietoterapia , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite/dietoterapia , Glomerulonefrite/metabolismo , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
8.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 398: 115034, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387183

RESUMO

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist that elicits a broad spectrum of dose-dependent hepatic effects including lipid accumulation, inflammation, and fibrosis. To determine the role of inflammatory lipid mediators in TCDD-mediated hepatotoxicity, eicosanoid metabolism was investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orally gavaged with sesame oil vehicle or 0.01-10 µg/kg TCDD every 4 days for 28 days. Hepatic RNA-Seq data was integrated with untargeted metabolomics of liver, serum, and urine, revealing dose-dependent changes in linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. TCDD also elicited dose-dependent differential gene expression associated with the cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 epoxidation/hydroxylation pathways with corresponding changes in ω-6 (e.g. AA and LA) and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), as well as associated eicosanoid metabolites. Overall, TCDD increased the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs. Phospholipase A2 (Pla2g12a) was induced consistent with increased AA metabolism, while AA utilization by induced lipoxygenases Alox5 and Alox15 increased leukotrienes (LTs). More specifically, TCDD increased pro-inflammatory eicosanoids including leukotriene LTB4, and LTB3, known to recruit neutrophils to damaged tissue. Dose-response modeling suggests the cytochrome P450 hydroxylase/epoxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways are more sensitive to TCDD than the cyclooxygenase pathway. Hepatic AhR ChIP-Seq analysis found little enrichment within the regulatory regions of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in eicosanoid biosynthesis, suggesting TCDD-elicited dysregulation of eicosanoid metabolism is a downstream effect of AhR activation. Overall, these results suggest alterations in eicosanoid metabolism may play a key role in TCDD-elicited hepatotoxicity associated with the progression of steatosis to steatohepatitis.


Assuntos
Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On the 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was informed of a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown origin detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The infection spread first in China and then in the rest of the world, and on the 11th of March, the WHO declared that COVID-19 was a pandemic. Taking into consideration the mortality rate of COVID-19, about 5-7%, and the percentage of positive patients admitted to intensive care units being 9-11%, it should be mandatory to consider and take all necessary measures to contain the COVID-19 infection. Moreover, given the recent evidence in different hospitals suggesting IL-6 and TNF-α inhibitor drugs as a possible therapy for COVID-19, we aimed to highlight that a dietary intervention could be useful to prevent the infection and/or to ameliorate the outcomes during therapy. Considering that the COVID-19 infection can generate a mild or highly acute respiratory syndrome with a consequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, a dietary regimen modification in order to improve the levels of adiponectin could be very useful both to prevent the infection and to take care of patients, improving their outcomes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2616-2623, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359597

RESUMO

The effects of coextruded full-fat flaxseed and pulses (FFF; 1:1 wt/wt) mixture on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) enrichment in egg yolk, hepatic attributes, apparent retention (AR) of components, and ceca metabolites were evaluated in broiler breeder hens. The diets were as follows: 1) corn-soybean control, 2) control diet plus 18% FFF (FFF-), and 3) FFF plus enzyme supplement (FFF+) containing galactanase, protease, mannanase, glucanase, xylanase, amylase, and cellulase activities. Twenty-six-week-old Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens were allocated to 30 identical cages (2 hens/cage) and given 1-week adaptation period. The 3 diets were assigned to 10 replicate cages based on postadaptation BW and fed based on breeder curve for 30 D. Excreta samples were collected from day 24 to 27 for determination of AR of components, and eggs were collected from day 28 to 30 for yolk polyunsaturated fatty acids analyses. On day 30, birds were weighed, killed via cervical dislocation, liver weighed, and stored for fat analyses. Ceca digesta samples were taken for concentration of short-chain fatty acids. Liver and yolk weights as well as total yolk FA were not influenced by diets (P > 0.05). Control birds had lower yolk concentration of α-linolenic acid than birds fed either FFF- or FFF+ (P < 0.01) corresponding to 7.5, 36.8, and 37.3 mg/g for the control, FFF-, and FFF+, respectively. Control birds also exhibited lower yolk concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (P < 0.01). Control birds had higher hepatic concentration of crude fat and apparent retention of dry matter and crude protein compared with either the FFF- or FFF+ birds (P < 0.05). Birds fed FFF- diet had lower ceca digesta concentration of lactic acid than control and FFF+ (P < 0.05) birds. Results showed broiler breeder hens enriched egg yolk with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids without effects on the liver while the supplemental enzyme did not improve the utilization of FFF.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzimas/metabolismo , Fabaceae/química , Linho/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Gema de Ovo/fisiologia , Enzimas/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7843, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398692

RESUMO

The Western diet contains a high ratio of omega-6 (ω6) to omega-3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The prototypical aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligand, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), induces CYP1 family enzymes, which can metabolize PUFA to epoxides. Mice fed ω3-rich or ω6-rich diets were treated with TCDD and injected subcutaneously with AHR-competent Hepa1-GFP hepatoma cells or AHR-deficient LLC lung cancer cells. TCDD reduced the growth rates of the resulting tumors in ω3-fed mice and inhibited their metastasis to the liver and/or lung, but had the opposite effects in mice fed ω6 PUFA. These responses were likely attributable to the corresponding PUFA epoxides generated in tumor cells and/or host, since many depended upon co-administration of a soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) inhibitor in males, and/or were associated with increases in epoxide levels in tumors and sites of metastasis. Equivalent effects occurred in females in the absence of EPHX2 inhibition, probably because this sex expressed reduced levels of EPHX2. The responses elicited by TCDD were associated with effects on tumor vascularity, tumor cell proliferation and/or apoptosis. Thus environmental AHR agonists, and potentially also endogenous, nutritional, and microbiome-derived agonists, may reduce or enhance cancer progression depending on the composition of dietary PUFA, particularly in females.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
12.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 2087-2099, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241494

RESUMO

Impact of feeding n-3 fatty acids (FA) to ISA brown and Shaver white breeders and their progeny on bone development in pullets was investigated. Breeders were fed Control (CON); CON + 1% microalgae (DMA: Aurantiochytrium limacinum) as the source of docosahexaenoic acid; and CON + 2.6% of a co-extruded mixture of full-fat flaxseed (FFF) and pulses mixture as source of α-linolenic acid. Test diets (DMA and FFF) were balanced for total n-3 FA and n-6: n-3 FA ratio. Samples of day-old progeny were euthanized for bone mineral content (BMC) and tibia collagen type II. The remaining pullets were fed posthatch treatments as follows: from breeder CON: CON (CON-CON), DMA (CON-DMA), and FFF (CON-FFF), from breeder DMA: CON (DMA-CON) and DMA (DMA-DMA) and from breeder FFF: CON (FFF-CON) and FFF (FFF-FFF). A total of 60 pullets per posthatch diets were reared in cages (12 pullets/cage, n = 5) with free access to feed and water, bled at 6, 12, and 18 wk of age (WOA) for bone turnover markers and necropsied at 18 WOA for tibia and femur samples. Day-old pullets from breeder fed CON had greater BMC (P < 0.001) relative to those from breeders fed other diets. There was strain and diet interaction (P ≤ 0.024) on tibia breaking strength (TBS) and tibia cortical ash concentration at 18 WOA such that diet responses were only observed in Shaver white pullets. In this context, TBS of DMA-DMA and FFF-FFF was greater than for pullets originating from CON breeder, and the cortical ash weight of DMA-DMA and FFF-FFF pullets was 23.8 and 20.2%, respectively, higher than for CON-CON pullets. In conclusions, the strain effects were strong on tibia attributes on 18-week-old pullets. Breeder feeding of n-3 FA was more effective when concomitant with posthatch feeding of n-3 FA in supporting the skeletal strength and cortical bone development in Shaver white pullets. Further investigations are warranted to establish the impact these strategies on skeletal health during laying cycle.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Linho/química , Microalgas/química , Esqueleto/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estramenópilas/química , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Esqueleto/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 2108-2119, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241496

RESUMO

The wooden breast (WB) myopathy is identified by the palpation of a rigid pectoralis major (P. major) muscle and is characterized as a fibrotic, necrotic P. major muscle disorder in broilers resulting in reduced breast meat quality. Breast muscle affected with WB is under severe oxidative stress and inflammation. The objectives were to identify the effects of dietary vitamin E (VE) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids independently or in combination when fed during the starter phase (0-10 D) or grower phase (11-24 D) on growth performance, meat yield, meat quality, and severity of WB myopathy and to determine the most beneficial dietary supplementation period. A total of 210 Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 7 experimental groups with 10 replicates of 3 birds each. The control group was fed with corn-soybean meal basal diet with VE (10 IU/kg) and n-3 fatty acids (n-6/n-3 ratio of 30:1) at a standard level during the entire study (0-58 D). Supplementation of VE (200 IU/kg), n-3 fatty acids (n-6/n-3 ratio of 3:1), or combination of both was performed during the starter phase or grower phase. Growth performance, meat yield, meat quality, and WB scores were obtained. There was no significant difference in final body weight and meat yield when VE was increased (P > 0.05). In contrast, n-3 fatty acids supplementation in starter diets significantly decreased final body weight, hot carcass weight, and chilled carcass weight of broilers (P ≤ 0.05). The P. major muscle from broilers supplemented with VE in starter diets had lower shear force than in grower diets (P ≤ 0.05). Supplemental VE reduced the severity of WB and in starter diets showed a more beneficial effect than those fed VE in the grower diets. These data are suggestive that additional supplementation of dietary VE may reduce the severity of WB and promote breast meat quality without adversely affecting growth performance and meat yield.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Músculos Peitorais/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
14.
J Plant Physiol ; 248: 153159, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276152

RESUMO

Due to the rapid decline in oceanic fish stock, ω-3 fatty acid (C18:3) has attracted serious attention and, hence, the identification of genotypes with high ω-3 content has become the main objective of Brassica napus (rapeseed) breeding. A candidate genes association study permitted us to delineate a genomic region linked to ω-3 content, offering a detailed understanding of the complex genetic mechanism of fatty acid biosynthesis in B. napus. Herein, the candidate genes association study, conducted on 324 genetically diverse rapeseed accessions, detected 114 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with ω-3 fatty acid. Furthermore, these loci were functionally characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These associated loci were selected based on their contribution to a high C18:3 ratio, and the selected candidate loci were validated using allele-specific SNPs markers in an inbred population through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These findings may contribute to improving the fatty acid composition by marker-based breeding and will facilitate the development of rapeseed varieties with high ω-3 content.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Marcadores Genéticos , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231177, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271820

RESUMO

Enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids (É·-3 FAs) in natural oils is important to realize their health benefits. Lipases are promising catalysts to perform this enrichment, however, fatty acid specificity of lipases is poor. We attempted to improve the fatty acid selectivity of a lipase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans (GTL) by two approaches. In a semi-rational approach, amino acid positions critical for binding were identified by docking the substrate to the GTL and best substitutes at these positions were identified by site saturation mutagenesis followed by screening to obtain a variant of GTL (CM-GTL). In the second approach based on rational design, a variant of GTL was designed (DM-GTL) wherein the active site was narrowed by incorporating two heavier amino acids in the lining of acyl-binding pocket to hinder access to bulky É·-3 FAs. The affinities DM-GTL with designed substrates were evaluated in silico. Both, CM-GTL and DM-GTL have shown excellent ability to discriminate against the É·-3 FAs during hydrolysis of oils. Engineering the binding pocket of an enzyme of a complex substrate, such as a triglyceride, by incorporating the information on substrate structure and computationally derived binding modes, has resulted in designing two efficient lipase variants with improved substrate selectivity.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Geobacillus/enzimologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Simulação por Computador , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Lipase/química , Lipase/isolamento & purificação , Metilação , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Mutantes/análise , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Mutação/genética , Dobramento de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura
16.
Biochemistry ; 59(14): 1398-1409, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208646

RESUMO

Marine algae are a major source of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-LCPUFAs), which are conditionally essential nutrients in humans and a target for industrial production. The biosynthesis of these molecules in marine algae requires the desaturation of fatty acids by Δ6-desaturases, and enzymes from different species display a range of specificities toward ω3- and ω6-LCPUFA precursors. In the absence of a molecular structure, the structural basis for the variable substrate specificity of Δ6-desaturases is poorly understood. Here we have conducted a consensus mutagenesis and ancestral protein reconstruction-based analysis of the Δ6-desaturase family, focusing on the ω3-specific Δ6-desaturase from Micromonas pusilla (MpΔ6des) and the bispecific (ω3/ω6) Δ6-desaturase from Ostreococcus tauri (OtΔ6des). Our characterization of consensus amino acid substitutions in MpΔ6des revealed that residues in diverse regions of the protein, such as the N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain, can make important contributions to determining substrate specificity. Ancestral protein reconstruction also suggests that some extant Δ6-desaturases, such as OtΔ6des, could have adapted to different environmental conditions by losing specificity for ω3-LCPUFAs. This data set provides a map of regions within Δ6-desaturases that contribute to substrate specificity and could facilitate future attempts to engineer these proteins for use in biotechnology.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/enzimologia , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/química , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/genética , Clorófitas/química , Clorófitas/classificação , Clorófitas/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Mutagênese , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Especificidade por Substrato
17.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185374

RESUMO

A 120-d feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) feeding on growth and chemical composition, fatty acid content, and nutritional and lipid indices of the meat of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Two experimental diets were used: alfalfa pellet (AP) diet and artificial grain diet (GD). Final weight, feed conversion rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly greater in the GD group (P < 0.05). However, no differences in the length and condition factor were observed. The composition of the meat differed between treatments. The protein content was significantly greater in the AP group (P < 0.05), while the lipid and cholesterol contents were significantly greater in the GD group (P < 0.05). A greater proportion of saturated, n-6 polyunsaturated, and n-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids was obtained in the GD group. The AP group accumulated a greater concentration of eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids (P < 0.05). The fatty acid composition of the meat determined a significant decrease in the thrombogenicity index and saturation index (S/P) in the AP group (P < 0.05). The Elongase index was greater in the GD group (P < 0.05). In contrast, the AP group had a greater index of Δ9 Desaturase and Δ5 + Δ6 Desaturase for n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (P < 0.05). These results suggest that alfalfa feeding decreases the growth of C. idella but improves the quality of meat by increasing the protein, EPA, and DHA contents. It also reduces cholesterol content and improves nutritional indices.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/química , Carne/análise , Medicago sativa , Avaliação Nutricional , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Carpas , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo
18.
Life Sci ; 250: 117556, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184122

RESUMO

Increased levels of endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) have a pathophysiological role in the setting of cardiometabolic diseases. This systematic review was carried out to appraise the effect of omega-3 on cardiometabolic risk factors by highlighting the mediating effect of endocannabinoids. SCOPUS, PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and ProQuest databases were searched until January 2020. All published English-language animal studies and clinical trials that evaluated the effects of omega-3 on cardiometabolic diseases with a focus on endocannabinoids were included. Of 1407 studies, 16 animal studies and three clinical trials were included for analysis. Eleven animal studies and two human studies showed a marked reduction in 2-AG and AEA levels following intake of omega-3 which correlated with decreased adiposity, weight gain and improved glucose homeostasis. Moreover, endocannabinoids were elevated in three studies that replaced omega-3 with omega-6. Omega-3 showed anti-inflammatory properties due to reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines, regulation of T-cells function and increased levels of eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide, docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide and oxylipins; however, a limited number of studies examined a correlation between inflammatory cytokines and endocannabinoids following omega-3 administration. In conclusion, omega-3 modulates endocannabinoid tone, which subsequently attenuates inflammation and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, further randomized clinical trials are needed before any recommendations are made to target the ECS using omega-3 as an alternative therapy to drugs for cardiometabolic disease improvement.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Araquidônicos/sangue , Endocanabinoides/sangue , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicerídeos/sangue , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação , Oxilipinas/sangue , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 708-718, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029156

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) sources and rosemary leaves powder (RLP) on the semen quality, fatty acid analysis, and some reproductive hormones of senescent broiler breeder roosters. Thirty-five 45-wk-old Ross breeder roosters were randomly divided into 7 groups (5 birds/group), and received following treatments including control group (basal diet), fish oil (2%), corn oil (2%), an equal (50:50%) proportion of fish oil and corn oil (50:50%), fish oil (2%) with 5 g/kg capsulated RLP, corn oil (2%) with 5 g/kg capsulated RLP, and an equal (50:50) proportion of fish oil and corn oil (50:50%) with 5 g/kg capsulated RLP of diet for 60 D, during which time their seminal characteristics were evaluated every 20 D. At the end of the trial (on day 60), semen samples were tested for determination of sperm fatty acid analysis, lipid peroxidation, and some reproductive hormones. Results showed that feeding fish oil and fish/corn oil with RLP was associated with an increase in docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) and docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4n-6) in sperm. The fish oil diet increased the proportion of n-3 fatty acids in sperm, and as a consequence, the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio also decreased (P < 0.05). RLP (5 g/kg) to the fish and fish/corn-oil (50:50%)-based diet resulted in improvement in sperm concentration, total motility (%), sperm progressive motility (%), membrane integrity, and viability in terms 0 to 60 day trial (P < 0.05). Diets and age interacted to positively affect sperm concentration and sperm membrane integrity. Also this herbal antioxidant decreased the seminal content of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly (P < 0.05). Testosterone and LH serum levels of reproductive hormones were significantly higher in fish and fish/corn-oil with RPL (50:50%)-based diet than other groups (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that RLP as an antioxidant could remarkably improve the effects of n-3 and n-3/n-6 PUFA on sperm characteristics, seminal MDA, and hormones levels in aged breeder roosters. The susceptibility of semen to lipid peroxidation was increased in chickens fed without RLP. Future studies are needed to disclose the causal mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Rosmarinus/química , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Luteinizante/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química , Pós/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Testosterona/metabolismo
20.
Fertil Steril ; 113(1): 53-61, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether the oocytes of women who are obese or overweight have a different fatty acid (FA) profile than women with normal weight. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Two IVF centers. PATIENT(S): A total of 205 women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were included in the study, totaling 922 oocytes. INTERVENTION(S): The unfertilized and the immature oocytes from the women who underwent IVF/ICSI were subjected to FA analysis with capillary gas chromatography. Women were classified according their body mass index (BMI) as normal, overweight, or obese. Germinal vesicle oocytes, metaphase I oocytes, and unfertilized metaphase II oocytes were analyzed separately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Fatty acid profile. RESULT(S): A very different oocyte FA pattern was observed for each BMI. Women with normal weight had higher levels of saturated FAs, and lower levels of monosaturated FAs. Women who were obese had lower levels of n-3 polyunsaturated FA, and the lowest n-6:n-3 ratios. Regarding specific FAs, docosahexaenoic acid levels were lower in women with normal weight than in those who are overweight, and in women who are overweight than in those who are obese. The opposite occurred with eicosapentaenoic acid, with the highest levels in women who have normal weight followed by those who are overweight and lower levels in those women who were obese. When FA analysis was restricted to a subset of oocytes, many of these differences persisted. CONCLUSION(S): Our study shows that oocytes from women who are obese or overweight have a different FA composition. This difference in levels could be related to the IVF poor outcome in these women. Therefore, this different composition could suggest that offspring of women who are obese or overweight have an unfavorable milieu even before conception.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Peso Corporal Ideal/fisiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos
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