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1.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(12): 1319-1327, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Confusion reigns about omega­3 fatty acids and their effects. Scientific investigations did not appear to clarify the issue. Guidelines and regulatory authorities contradict each other. OBJECTIVE: This article provides clarity by considering not intake but levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes as a percentage of all fatty acids measured (omega­3 index). CURRENT DATA: The largest database of all methods of fatty acid analyses has been generated with the standardized HS-Omega­3 Index® (Omegametrix, Martinsried, Deutschland). The omega­3 index assesses the in EPA+DHA status of a person, has a minimum of 2%, a maximum of 20%, and is optimal between 8% and 11%. In many western countries but not in Japan or South Korea, mean levels are suboptimal. Suboptimal levels correlate with increased total mortality, sudden cardiac death, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, other cardiovascular diseases, cognitive impairment, major depression, premature birth and other health issues. Interventional studies on surrogate and intermediary parameters demonstrated many positive effects, correlating with the omega­3 index when measured. Due to issues in methodology that became apparent from the perspective of the omega­3 index many, even large interventional trials with clinical endpoints were not positive, which is reflected in pertinent meta-analyses. In contrast, interventional trials without issues in methodology the clinical endpoints mentioned were reduced. CONCLUSION: All humans have levels of EPA+DHA that if methodologically correctly assessed in erythrocytes, are optimal between 8% and 11%. Deficits can cause serious health issues that can be prevented by optimal levels.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio
2.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(10): 2622-2628, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403576

RESUMO

Walker, AJ, McFadden, BA, Sanders, DJ, Rabideau, MM, Hofacker, ML, and Arent, SM. Biomarker response to a competitive season in Division I female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2622-2628, 2019-The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of training load (TL) on performance and biomarkers of health, performance, and recovery in Division I female soccer players throughout a competitive season. Subjects (N = 25, Mage = 20 ± 1.1 years) were monitored before the start of preseason and every 4-weeks thereafter (T1-T5). A battery of performance tests was administered before the start of preseason (P1) and end-of-season (P2), including body composition (percent body fat [%BF], fat free mass [FFM], and fat mass), vertical jump (VJ), and VO2max. Blood draws were conducted at every time point (T1-T5) to assess free and total cortisol (CORTF and CORTT), prolactin (PRL), T3, IL-6, creatine kinase (CK), sex-hormone binding globulin, omega-3 (n-3FA), vitamin-D (Vit-D), iron (Fe), hematocrit (HcT), ferritin (Fer), percent saturation (%Sat), and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). Daily exercise energy expenditure (EEE) and TL were determined. There were significant declines in VO2max, VJ, weight, and %BF from P1-P2 (p < 0.05) with no significant differences in FFM. Training load and EEE significantly decreased from T1-T3 (p < 0.05). Significant increases were seen in CORTT, CORTF, PRL, T3, IL-6, CK, and TIBC throughout the season (p < 0.05). Significant decreases were seen in n-3FA, Fe, Fer, %Sat, and Hct throughout the season (p < 0.05). Female athletes experience significant physiological changes following high TL and EEE associated with preseason and appear to be further exacerbated by the cumulative effects of the season. Unique insights provided by biomarkers enable athletes and coaches to be cognizant of the physiological changes that are occurring throughout the season.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Teste de Esforço , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Hematócrito , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Ferro/sangue , Oxigênio/sangue , Consumo de Oxigênio , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Prolactina/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1126-1127: 121762, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), play critical roles in numerous biochemical reactions. Our aim is to develop a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of ALA, EPA, DHA and DPA in the plasma of hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic subjects. METHODS: An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method of ALA, EPA, DHA, and DPA was developed with chlorzoxazone as the internal standard (IS). The analytes were separated on an Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 µm) with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 0.1% ammonia water. ALA, EPA, DHA, DPA, and IS were determined by negative electrospray ionization (ESI-) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) at m/z 277.42/259.05, 301.20/257.00, 327.30/283.40, 329.24/285.32, and 168.03/132.02. A total of 80 normolipidemic subjects and 83 hyperlipidemic subjects, who underwent testing for plasma lipids, liver and kidney functions, and blood routine blood test (BRT), were enrolled. RESULTS: There was good linearity for ALA within 1-10 µg/mL, and EPA, DHA and DPA were within 0.125-10 µg/mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of precision was below 15%. The concentrations of ALA, EPA, DHA and DPA were 3.47 ±â€¯2.58, 0.41 ±â€¯0.26, 2.93 ±â€¯1.39 and 0.25 ±â€¯0.21 µg/mL, respectively, in normolipidemic subjects, increasing to 4.14 ±â€¯3.71, 0.57 ±â€¯0.46, 3.43 ±â€¯2.13, 0.27 ±â€¯0.25 µg/mL, respectively in hyperlipidemic subjects. Among them, only the EPA concentration was significantly different between two groups. There was a high correlation between ALA, EPA, DHA and DPA. CONCLUSION: We developed a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneously determination of ALA, EPA, DHA and DPA in hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic subjects. In hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic subjects, concentrations of ALA were highest, followed by DHA, EPA and DPA; there were high degrees of correlation between each value.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 167(3): 343-346, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346865

RESUMO

We studied the effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus on the level of glycemia and some other indices of lipid metabolism, including fatty acid metabolism and LPO intensity, during the development of diabetes mellitus in rats. Even at the early terms of diabetes development, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were accompanied by changes in the blood content of fatty acid (at the expense of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids) that persisted throughout the observation period. Intensification of LPO against the background of suppressed activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced level of ω3 fatty acids attested to the development of oxidative stress. These data attest to antioxidant property of ω3 fatty acids, which is seen from positive correlations between these fatty acids and activity of antioxidant enzymes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Dislipidemias/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
5.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331006

RESUMO

Available evidence on the associations of dietary and circulating levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, which have potential antiarrhythmic properties, and other fatty acids with atrial fibrillation is conflicting and limited. We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to assess the associations between plasma phospholipid fatty acid levels and atrial fibrillation. Summary-level data of atrial fibrillation were available from 65,446 cases and 522,744 non-cases included in the Atrial Fibrillation Consortium. Sixteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with ten fatty acids at significance level of p < 5 × 10-8 were identified as instrumental variables from the hitherto largest genome-wide association studies for plasma fatty acids. The fixed-effects inverse-variance weighted method was used to assess the association of individual plasma fatty acids and atrial fibrillation risk. The random-effects inverse-variance weighted method, weighted median method, and Mendelian randomization (MR)-Egger method were employed as the sensitivity analyses. Genetic predisposition to higher levels of any of the ten individual fatty acids was not associated with atrial fibrillation risk.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Ácido Linoleico/sangue , Ácido Linoleico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
6.
Dig Dis Sci ; 64(7): 1878-1892, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related liver disease is one of the most prevalent chronic liver diseases worldwide. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related liver disease are not well understood. Oxylipins play a crucial role in numerous biological processes and pathological conditions. Nevertheless, oxylipins are not well studied in alcohol-related liver disease. AIMS: (1) To characterize the patterns of bioactive ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites in alcohol use disorder and alcoholic hepatitis patients and (2) to identify associations of serum oxylipins with clinical parameters in patients with alcohol-related liver disease. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of serum and fecal oxylipins derived from ω-6 arachidonic acid, ω-3 eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in a patient cohort with alcohol-related liver disease. RESULTS: Our results show profound alterations in the serum oxylipin profile of patients with alcohol use disorder and alcoholic hepatitis compared to nonalcoholic controls. Spearman correlation of the oxylipins with clinical parameters shows a link between different serum oxylipins and intestinal permeability, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, albumin, international normalized ratio, platelet count, steatosis, fibrosis and model for end-stage liver disease score. Especially, higher level of serum 20-HETE was significantly associated with decreased albumin, increased hepatic steatosis, polymorphonuclear infiltration, and 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with alcohol-related liver disease have different oxylipin profiles. Future studies are required to confirm oxylipins as disease biomarker or to connect oxylipins to disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Fezes/química , Hepatite Alcoólica/sangue , Oxilipinas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Feminino , Hepatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(6): 503-510, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092799

RESUMO

Assessing dietary intake is critical for understanding the relationship between diet and health. Fatty acid blood biomarkers have been particularly useful in determining dietary intakes and assessing the risk of chronic disease. However, fatty acid analysis involves the removal of fatty acids from their complex lipid structures resulting in a loss of potentially useful biological information. "Lipidomics" involves the use of mass spectrometry to identify lipids in their native form. Lipidomic approaches present challenges as an alternative to fatty acid analysis. This includes different types of lipidomic approaches and a lack of consensus on the lipids reported in different studies. Distinguishing between macrolipidomic approaches to characterize highly abundant lipids and microlipidomic approaches examining low abundant bioactive lipids and the use of brutto, medio, genio, and infinio to describe the level of information of lipidomic data can provide clarity to the field. Using lipidomic measurements for understanding docosahexaenoic acid metabolism during pregnancy will also be examined.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Saúde , Lipídeos/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Gravidez , Risco
8.
Adv Nutr ; 10(suppl_2): S251-S271, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089744

RESUMO

There is insufficient evidence on the role of functional fortified dairy products in improving health and in preventing risk factors associated with noncommunicable chronic diseases. This systematic review was conducted to summarize effects of the consumption of fortified dairy products on biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk. MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases were used to perform searches to include studies published up to 30 April 2018. Randomized clinical trials with human subjects consuming dairy products fortified with phytosterols, FAs, vitamins or minerals and relating this consumption with cardiometabolic health were included in this review. Risk of bias assessment according to Cochrane guidelines was performed to determine the quality of the trials. Forty-one studies were finally selected for this synthesis; the selected studies tested dairy products fortified with the following nutrients and bioactive components: phytosterols (n = 31), FAs (n = 8), and vitamin D (n = 2). We found that the consumption of phytosterol-fortified dairy, led to an overall LDL cholesterol reduction of -0.36 (-0.41, -0.31) mmol/L, P < 0.001; this decrease was mainly related to the dosage. Likewise, consumption of ω-3 FA-fortified dairy products resulted in a plasma LDL cholesterol reduction of -0.18 (-0.27, -0.09) mmol/L as well as a decrease of -0.18 (-0.32, -0.05) mmol/L in triacylglycerols (TG). Performing meta-analyses of the consumption of dairy products fortified with vitamin D or FAs other than ω-3 FAs and biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk was not possible because of the few available publications. Our results indicate that consumption of dairy products fortified with phytosterols and ω-3 FAs can lead to a reduction of LDL cholesterol and consumption of fortified dairy products fortified with ω-3 FAs can reduce TG concentration. However, more studies with homogeneous designs are needed to determine the advantages of using dairy products as fortification vehicles to prevent cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Laticínios , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Alimentos Fortificados , Fitosteróis/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Fitosteróis/sangue , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
9.
Lipids ; 54(5): 321-328, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087416

RESUMO

While there is considerable evidence supporting health benefits of consuming diets high in omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, there is no quick and effective tool to measure n-3 intake. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a rapid assessment questionnaire (the Omega-3 Checklist) used to quantify intake of n-3 fatty acids. This was done by comparing n-3 intakes to blood biomarkers of n-3 exposure in a population of healthy men and women. In addition, a separate analysis was run including covariates age, sex, and weight, which have been shown to affect n-3 biomarker levels. Reported intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docoshexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA + DHA was correlated with erythrocyte EPA (Spearman's rank correlation rs = 0.51, p < 0.001), DHA (rs = 0.54, p < 0.001), and the Omega-3 Index (rs = 0.57, p < 0.001). These associations remained significant when controlling for age, sex, and weight. Therefore, the Omega-3 Checklist can be a useful, rapid assessment tool to estimate individuals' EPA and DHA intake.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Envelhecimento/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso Corporal , Lista de Checagem , Eritrócitos/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
10.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003520

RESUMO

While studies revealed that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and their mediators would be able to regulate several biological processes involved into the development of postpartum depression (PPD), evidence from observational studies remains mixed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal erythrocyte n-3 PUFA, measured in early pregnancy, and the risk of PPD. A Belgian cohort of 72 healthy women was screened. Erythrocyte fatty acids were analysed using gas chromatography. PPD was assessed using the Bromley Postnatal Depression Scale by phone interview one year after delivery. We observed a significant negative association between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and the risk of postpartum depression in the adjusted model (p = 0.034). Higher n-6/n-3 and arachidonic acid (AA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratios were significantly associated with an increased odds of PPD (p = 0.013 and p = 0.043, respectively). Women with an omega-3 index <5% had a 5-fold increased risk of depressive episode than did those with an omega-3 index ≥5% (OR 5.22 (95%CI 1.24-21.88)). A low n-3 PUFA status, alone and combined with high n-6 PUFA status, in early pregnancy was associated with a greater risk of PPD. Management of maternal n-3 PUFA deficiency can be a simple, safe and cost-effective strategy for the prevention of this major public health issue.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/sangue , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978959

RESUMO

Clinical recommendations relating to dietary omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) should consider an individual's baseline intake. The time, cost, and practicality constraints of current techniques for quantifying omega-3 levels limit the feasibility of applying these methods in some settings, such as eye care practice. This preliminary validation study, involving 40 adults, sought to assess the validity of a novel questionnaire, the Clinical Omega-3 Dietary Survey (CODS), for rapidly assessing long-chain omega-3 intake. Estimated dietary intakes of long-chain omega-3s from CODS correlated with the validated Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiology Studies (DQES), Version 3.2, (Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia) and quantitative assays from dried blood spot (DBS) testing. The 'method of triads' model was used to estimate a validity coefficient (ρ) for the relationship between the CODS and an estimated "true" intake of long-chain omega-3 EFAs. The CODS had high validity for estimating the ρ (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) for total long-chain omega-3 EFAs 0.77 (0.31-0.98), docosahexaenoic acid 0.86 (0.54-0.99) and docosapentaenoic acid 0.72 (0.14-0.97), and it had moderate validity for estimating eicosapentaenoic acid 0.57 (0.21-0.93). The total long-chain omega-3 EFAs estimated using the CODS correlated with the Omega-3 index (r = 0.37, p = 0.018) quantified using the DBS biomarker. The CODS is a novel tool that can be administered rapidly and easily, to estimate long-chain omega-3 sufficiency in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Dieta , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Optometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vitória/epidemiologia
12.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 77, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and due to various physiological and psychological factors the patients are at risk of nutritional insufficiencies. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary fatty acid intake and its effect on plasma fatty acids in elderly Saudi women and to compare the differences in their food and plasma fatty acid profile on the basis of their residence. METHODS: A total of 76 elderly women (50-100 years) were recruited through a random sampling method. A structured proforma was designed to gather information related to their age, income, dietary habits, and presence of any disease and awareness of AD. A 24-h dietary recall method for 3 days and food frequency questionnaire, concentrating on fish consumption and consumption of foods rich in ω-3 fatty acids, which was planned by dietitians, was used for dietary assessment. The gathered data were then analyzed using food processor software. The blood samples were collected to determine plasma fatty acids. RESULTS: The mean age of women diagnosed with AD was more than 75 years, and the prevalence of illiteracy was higher among AD subjects. As compared to the AD group, the concentration of LA and total ω-6 was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in the control group from both recruitment sites [National Guard Health Affairs, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh (NGH) and Social Welfare Homes for the Elderly (SWH)]. Similarly, the concentrations of EPA, DHA, and ω-3 were also slightly higher in the control group at both sites, but the difference between the control and AD subjects was only significant (p ≤ 0.05) in subjects from NGH. We found no significant difference in the ω-6/ ω-3 ratio between groups. Also, no significant difference was found in the mean level of the plasma fatty acid when comparing the control and AD groups. The concentration of DHA in controls only and AA, EPA and ω-6 in both control and AD were significant (although weakly) correlated with their respective dietary intakes. No correlations were found between the intake of 18 C precursors (LA and ALA) and plasma levels of their long chain derivatives (AA, EPA, and DHA). Education, income, overall health status and the concentration of various fatty acids from food was higher and better in subjects from SWH than NGH. The lower plasma level indicates lower impaired systemic availability of several nutrients. CONCLUSION: We found that dietary intervention might play a role in the prevention of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Neurology ; 92(16): e1899-e1911, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify a plasma metabolomic biomarker signature for migraine. METHODS: Plasma samples from 8 Dutch cohorts (n = 10,153: 2,800 migraine patients and 7,353 controls) were profiled on a 1H-NMR-based metabolomics platform, to quantify 146 individual metabolites (e.g., lipids, fatty acids, and lipoproteins) and 79 metabolite ratios. Metabolite measures associated with migraine were obtained after single-metabolite logistic regression combined with a random-effects meta-analysis performed in a nonstratified and sex-stratified manner. Next, a global test analysis was performed to identify sets of related metabolites associated with migraine. The Holm procedure was applied to control the family-wise error rate at 5% in single-metabolite and global test analyses. RESULTS: Decreases in the level of apolipoprotein A1 (ß -0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.16, -0.05; adjusted p = 0.029) and free cholesterol to total lipid ratio present in small high-density lipoprotein subspecies (HDL) (ß -0.10; 95% CI -0.15, -0.05; adjusted p = 0.029) were associated with migraine status. In addition, only in male participants, a decreased level of omega-3 fatty acids (ß -0.24; 95% CI -0.36, -0.12; adjusted p = 0.033) was associated with migraine. Global test analysis further supported that HDL traits (but not other lipoproteins) were associated with migraine status. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic profiling of plasma yielded alterations in HDL metabolism in migraine patients and decreased omega-3 fatty acids only in male migraineurs.


Assuntos
Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(1): 1-5, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896407

RESUMO

There is conclusive evidence to demonstrate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in human development and growth, vision, and cell membrane fluidity (membrane order). N-3 PUFA also contribute to human health maintenance through correction of arrhythmias, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prolongation of clotting time, lowering blood pressure, lowering serum triglycerides and plasma homocysteine, being antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory, being cardio-protective, increasing insulin sensitivity in Asians, and decreasing the risk of breast and colorectal cancers. This understanding of a wide spectrum of biological effects attributable to n-3 PUFA has been unsettled by a systematic review of randomized clinical intervention trials (RCTs) which has reported that n-3 PUFA have negligible or no effect on all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Here, possible reasons for the inconsistencies in regard to n-3 PUFA and cardiovascular diseases, along with the implications for their broader biology, are considered.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Nutricional
15.
J Affect Disord ; 249: 385-393, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress are commonly observed in persons with depression or depressive symptoms. We explored the degree of depressive symptoms under psychological stress in relation to serum LDL oxidation, inflammatory markers, and fatty acid (FA) distribution among female population. The purpose of this study was to identify peripheral factors that are related to depressive symptoms, and to assess how each factor is related to depressive symptoms. METHODS: 133 female workers in a hospital and nursing homes were recruited in Japan. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and perceived stress was assessed using the visual analogue scale. Cytokine levels and oxidation rate of LDL cholesterol (ox-LDL/LDL) were measured as indices of inflammation and oxidation. Omega-3 FA distribution was also measured. Path analysis and hierarchical regression analysis were used to determine if each factor was predictive of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: It was identified that serum ox-LDL/LDL was positively connected with depressive symptoms, but was more strongly related to perceived psychological stress. Elevated serum IL-6 was positively correlated with depressive symptoms, though the effect was partly transmitted via ox-LDL/LDL. Additionally, serum ω3 PUFAs were inversely associated with depressive symptoms independently of IL-6 or ox-LDL/LDL. CONCLUSION: Although this study is unlikely to fully explain the causes of depressive symptoms, it suggests that psychological stress and somatic factors such as inflammation, oxidation and nutrition are related to depressive symptoms. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of lifestyle targets to alleviate the identified depression risk factors, anti-oxidative therapies, anti-inflammatory therapies and nutritional interventions to prevent depression.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Depressão/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Casas de Saúde , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico
16.
Osteoporos Int ; 30(5): 1071-1078, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719549

RESUMO

The plasma n-3 fatty acid level was 26.2% lower in patients with osteoporotic hip fracture than in those with osteoarthritis. In all patients, n-3 fatty acid was positively associated with bone mineral density and inversely associated with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b level in bone marrow aspirates, reflecting the bone microenvironment. INTRODUCTION: Despite the potential beneficial role of n-3 fatty acid (FA) on bone metabolism, the specific mechanisms underlying these effects in humans remain unclear. Here, we assessed whether the plasma n-3 level, as an objective indicator of its status, is associated with osteoporosis-related phenotypes and bone-related markers in human bone marrow (BM) samples. METHODS: This was a case-control and cross-sectional study conducted in a clinical unit. n-3 FA in the blood and bone biochemical markers in the BM aspirates were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassay, respectively. BM fluids were collected from 72 patients who underwent hip surgery because of either osteoporotic hip fracture (HF; n = 28) or osteoarthritis (n = 44). RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, patients with HF had 26.2% lower plasma n-3 levels than those with osteoarthritis (P = 0.006), and each standard deviation increment in plasma n-3 was associated with a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of 0.40 for osteoporotic HF (P = 0.010). In multivariate analyses including all patients, a higher plasma n-3 level was associated with higher bone mass at the lumbar spine (ß = 0.615, P = 0.002) and total femur (ß = 0.244, P = 0.045). Interestingly, the plasma n-3 level was inversely associated with the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b level (ß = - 0.633, P = 0.023), but not with the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase level, in BM aspirates. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide clinical evidence that n-3 FA is a potential inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis that favors human bone health.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Fraturas do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Feminino , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Fraturas do Quadril/sangue , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fraturas por Osteoporose/sangue
17.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744123

RESUMO

Lipoprotein apheresis reliably reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in patients with atherosclerotic disease and therapy-refractory hypercholesterolemia or elevated lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Besides lowering lipoproteins and triglycerides, apheresis also decreases levels of essential omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 PUFAs) in blood plasma. In contrast, heparin-induced extracorporeal low-density lipoprotein precipitation (HELP) lipid apheresis might increase the formation of potentially pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic lipid mediators derived from n-6 and n-3 PUFAs. The study presented here analyzed lipid mediator profiles in the plasma of patients with hyperlipidemia treated by one of three different apheresis methods, either HELP, direct absorption (DA), or membrane filtration (MDF), in a direct pre- and post-apheresis comparison. Using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) we were able to analyze fatty acid composition and the formation of lipid mediators called oxylipins. Our data illustrate-particularly in HELP-treated patients-significant decreases of essential omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in blood plasma but significant increases of PUFA-derived lipoxygenase-, as well as cyclooxygenase- and cytochrome P450-derived lipid mediators. Given that n-3 PUFAs in particular are presumed to be cardioprotective and n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators might limit inflammatory reactions, these data indicate that n-3 PUFA supplementation in the context of lipid apheresis treatment might have additional benefits through apheresis-triggered protective n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators.


Assuntos
Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/isolamento & purificação , Lipoproteínas LDL/isolamento & purificação , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Heparina , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211537, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is associated with profound immunodysfunction, i.e. a parallel presence of chronic systemic inflammation and immunosuppression, which can result in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Omega-3 fatty acids are precursors of pro-resolving mediators and support the resolution of inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with liver cirrhosis and ACLF. METHODS: Patients with liver cirrhosis with and without ACLF were enrolled in a prospective cohort study and analyzed post-hoc for the present sub-study. Clinical data and biomaterials were collected at baseline and at day 7, 28 and after 3 months of follow-up. Plasma concentrations of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which represent key omega-6 and -3 fatty acids, respectively, were quantified and associated with markers of systemic inflammation and severity of liver cirrhosis. RESULTS: A total of 117 patients were included in the present analyses. Of those, 26 (22.2%), 51 (43.6%) and 40 (34.2%) patients had compensated or decompensated liver cirrhosis, and ACLF. Plasma levels of ARA and DHA were similar in patients with compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, and ACLF. Furthermore, no significant association between plasma ARA or DHA and C-reactive protein or peripheral blood leukocytes were observed (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: In our study plasma levels of key omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid are neither associated with the severity of liver cirrhosis nor with liver-cirrhosis-associated systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/sangue , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Molecules ; 24(2)2019 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669503

RESUMO

Few high-performance liquid chromatography⁻tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods have been developed for the full quantitation of fatty acids from human plasma without derivatization. Therefore, we propose a method that requires fewer sample preparation steps, which can be used for the quantitation of several polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma. The method offers rapid, accurate, sensitive, and simultaneous quantification of omega 3 (α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) and omega 6 fatty acids (arachidonic and linoleic acids) using high-performance LC-MS/MS. The selected fatty acids were analysed in lipid extracts from both free and total forms. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a reversed phase C18 column with isocratic flow using ammonium acetate for improving negative electrospray ionization (ESI) response. Mass detection was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and deuterated internal standards were used for each target compound. The limits of quantification were situated in the low nanomolar range, excepting linoleic acid, for which the limit was in the high nanomolar range. The method was validated according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines, and offers a fast, sensitive, and reliable quantification of selected omega 3 and 6 fatty acids in human plasma.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(2): 152-158, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diet is known to play a decisive role in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). One factor believed to decrease lifetime risk of CHD is the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids. Yet, conclusive evidence regarding the potential cardioprotective effects of fatty acids is far from being reached. The present study aimed to provide further evidence on the association of serum fatty acid profiles with CHD risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: The CARdio-vascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle study (CARLA study) is an observational cohort study comprising an older adult's general population with a high level of cardiovascular risk factors. In a matched case-control design the serum fatty acid concentrations of 73 subjects with an incident fatal or nonfatal CHD event were compared to 146 controls matched for sex and age. Our data show that the participants of the CARLA study are underserved in unsaturated fatty acids with respect to current dietary recommendations. In addition, the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids was determined to be 8:1 which underlines the consumption of a Western-style diet enriched in omega-6 fatty acids. There were no significant differences in fatty acid patterns between cases and controls. Thus, no clear association of particular serum fatty acid levels with cardiovascular risk was found. CONCLUSION: Our results support the conclusion that in populations with a homogenous low level of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids consumption, serum fatty acid levels are not associated with CHD risk.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
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