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1.
Animal ; 15(3): 100136, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785184

RESUMO

Intramuscular fat (IMF) content affects eating and nutritional quality of lamb meat. Muscle density measured by computer tomography is an in vivo proxy measure of IMF content that affects eating and nutritional quality of lamb meat. Lambs sired by high muscle density (HMD) or low muscle density (LMD) rams, selected for slaughter on commercial criteria were measured for meat quality and nutritional traits. A restricted maximum likelihood model was used to compare lamb traits. Additionally, regression analysis of sire estimated breeding value (EBV) for muscle density was performed for each meat quality trait. Muscle density EBV had a negative regression with IMF content (P < 0.001). For each unit increase in muscle density EBV, there was a significant decrease in loin (-1.69 mg/100 g fresh weight) and topside IMF (-0.03 mg/100 g fresh weight). Muscle density EBV had a negative regression with grouped saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids concentration (and monounsaturated proportion P < 0.001). Muscle density EBV had a negative regression with loin sensory traits tenderness, juiciness and overall liking and many novel tenderness sensory traits measured (P < 0.05). Selecting for LMD EBV increased IMF content and favourable meat eating quality traits. In contrast, sire muscle density EBV had a positive regression with loin polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio and grouped polyunsaturated proportion traits (including total polyunsaturated proportion, total omega-6 (n-6) and total omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (P < 0.001). This is explained by the fact that as sire muscle density EBV increases, polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion increases and the proportion of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content decreases. Muscle density EBV had a positive regression with shear force and the novel toughness sensory traits (P < 0.05). Selection for HMD EBV's increased shear force and toughness traits, which is unfavourable for the consumer. Low muscle density sired meat had higher meat colour traits chroma/saturation (+0.64, SD 2.30, P = 0.012), redness (+0.52, SD 1.91, P = 0.012) and yellowness (+0.31, SD 1.49, P = 0.08) compared to HMD sired meat. Selection for LMD could be used within a breeding programme to increase IMF content and enhance both meat colour and improve eating quality parameters.


Assuntos
Carne , Músculo Esquelético , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Masculino , Carne/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
2.
Food Chem ; 351: 129291, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639427

RESUMO

Bitterness is a common aversive flavor attribute of foods associated with low consumer acceptance. Untargeted LC-MS flavoromic profiling was utilized to identify endogenous compounds that influence the generation of the bitter compound 9,12,13-trihydroxy-trans-10-octadecenoic acid (pinellic acid) during bread making. A diverse sample set of wheat germplasm was chemically profiled. The corresponding pinellic acid concentrations after dough formation were modeled by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) with good fit (R2Y = 0.8) and predictive ability (Q2 = 0.6). The most predictive feature (negatively correlated), postulated to interfere with the biosynthetic pathway, was identified as schaftoside, an apigenin di-C-glycoside. Recombination experiments involving the addition of schaftoside to flour prior to breadmaking resulted in a 26% decrease in pinellic acid formation and significantly lower perceived bitterness intensity in whole wheat bread. This work provides novel understanding of bitter generation pathways in wheat products and new strategies to improve flavor profiles and consumer acceptability.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triticum/química , Agentes Aversivos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Farinha/análise , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal , Limiar Gustativo , Triticum/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540695

RESUMO

Lipidomics is a lipid-targeted metabolomics approach that aims to the comprehensive analysis of lipids in biological systems in order to highlight the specific functions of lipid species in health and disease. Lipids play pivotal roles as they are major structural components of the cellular membranes and energy storage molecules but also, as most recently shown, they act as functional and regulatory components of intra- and intercellular signaling. Herein, emphasis is given to the recently highlighted roles of specific bioactive lipids species, as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-derived mediators (generally known as eicosanoids), endocannabinoids (eCBs), and lysophospholipids (LPLs), and their involvement in the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-related inflammatory scenario. Indeed, MSCs are a heterogenous population of multipotent cells that have attracted much attention for their potential in regulating inflammation, immunomodulatory capabilities, and reparative roles. The lipidomics of the inflammatory disease osteoarthritis (OA) and the influence of MSCs-derived lipids have also been addressed.


Assuntos
Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Eicosanoides/fisiologia , Endocanabinoides/fisiologia , Vesículas Extracelulares , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação/imunologia , Lipídeos/classificação , Lisofosfolipídeos/fisiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/terapia
4.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573256

RESUMO

The aim of this study, focused on the nutritional value of wild berries, was to determine the contents of macronutrients, profiles of fatty (FAs) and amino acids (AAs), and the contents of selected elements in red arils (RA) of Taxus baccata L., grown in diverse locations in Poland. Protein (1.79-3.80 g/100 g) and carbohydrate (18.43-19.30 g/100 g) contents of RAs were higher than in many cultivated berries. RAs proved to be a source of lipids (1.39-3.55 g/100 g). Ten out of 18 AAs detected in RAs, mostly branched-chain AAs, were essential AAs (EAAs). The EAAs/total AAs ratio approximating were found in animal foods. Lipids of RA contained seven PUFAs, including those from n-3 family (19.20-28.20 g/100 g FA). Polymethylene-interrupted FAs (PMI-FAs), pinolenic 18:3Δ5,9,12; sciadonic 20:3Δ5,11,14, and juniperonic 20:4Δ5,11,14,17, known as unique for seeds of gymnosperms, were found in RAs. RAs may represent a novel dietary source of valuable n-3 PUFAs and the unique PMI-FAs. The established composition of RAs suggests it to become a new source of functional foods, dietary supplements, and valuable ingredients. Because of the tendency to accumulate toxic metals, RAs may be regarded as a valuable indicator of environmental contamination. Thus, the levels of toxic trace elements (Al, Ni, Cd) have to be determined before collecting fruits from natural habitats.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Taxus/química , Aminoácidos/química , Animais , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Valor Nutritivo , Polônia , Sementes/química
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24359, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546071

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: High polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake is recommended for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association of PUFAs with blood pressure (BP) is still controversial. In the present study, two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was performed to investigate the causal relationship of PUFAs with BP, including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP).Genetic instruments and summary statistics for two-sample MR analysis were obtained from 3 large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly (P < 5 × 10-8) related to 6 PUFAs were used as instrumental variables. Conventional inverse-variance weighted method was adopted to evaluate the causality of PUFAs with BP; the Weighted Median, MR-egger, and Leave-one-out method were used for sensitivity analyses.As a result, there was no evidence of a causal association between all PUFAs and SBP. In addition, arachidonic acid (AA, ß = -0.04, P < .001) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, ß = -0.47, P = .02) were negatively associated with DBP, while linoleic acid (LA, ß = 0.03, P = .005) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, ß = 3.83, P < .001) were positively associated with DBP. There was no evidence of a causal relationship between either docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with DBP.In conclusion, a genetic predisposition to plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) had a divergent effect on DBP, independent of SBP. It suggested that it is helpful for lower DBP level to supplemental intake of AA and EPA or promote the conversion of LA and ALA to AA and EPA respectively, which need to be further validated with randomized controlled studies.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácido Araquidônico/análise , Ácido Araquidônico/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fatores de Risco
6.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573088

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infects host cells by interacting its spike protein with surface angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, expressed in lung and other cell types. Although several risk factors could explain why some countries have lower incidence and fatality rates than others, environmental factors such as diet should be considered. It has been described that countries with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake have a lower number of COVID-19 victims and a higher rate of recovery from the disease. Moreover, it was found that linoleic acid, an omega-6 PUFA, could stabilize the spike protein in a closed conformation, blocking its interaction with ACE2. These facts prompted us to perform in silico simulations to determine if other PUFA could also stabilize the closed conformation of spike protein and potentially lead to a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that: (a) countries whose source of omega-3 is from marine origin have lower fatality rates; and (b) like linoleic acid, omega-3 PUFA could also bind to the closed conformation of spike protein and therefore, could help reduce COVID-19 complications by reducing viral entrance to cells, in addition to their known anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Alimentos Marinhos , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(2): 265-276, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524118

RESUMO

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical for brain development and have been linked with neurodevelopmental outcomes. We conducted a population-based case-control study in California to examine the association between PUFAs measured in midpregnancy serum samples and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring. ASD cases (n = 499) were identified through the California Department of Developmental Services and matched to live-birth population controls (n = 502) on birth month, year (2010 or 2011), and sex. Logistic regression models were used to examine crude and adjusted associations. In secondary analyses, we examined ASD with and without co-occurring intellectual disability (ID; n = 67 and n = 432, respectively) and effect modification by sex and ethnicity. No clear patterns emerged, though there was a modest inverse association with the top quartile of linoleic acid level (highest quartile vs. lowest: adjusted odds ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.49, 1.11; P for trend = 0.10). Lower levels of total and ω-3 PUFAs were associated with ASD with ID (lowest decile of total PUFAs vs. deciles 4-7: adjusted odds ratio = 2.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 6.82) but not ASD without ID. We did not observe evidence of effect modification by the factors examined. These findings do not suggest a strong association between midpregnancy PUFA levels and ASD. In further work, researchers should consider associations with ASD with ID and in other time windows.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Peso ao Nascer , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/etnologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(3): 932-944, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430591

RESUMO

Salinity has been demonstrated to influence the biosynthesis of long-chain (C20-24) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in teleost fish. Since LC-PUFAs are essential nutrients for vertebrates, it is central to understand how fish cope with an acute change in salinity associated with natural events. We herein report on the cloning and functional characterization of two elongation of very-long-chain fatty acid (Elovl)4 proteins, namely, Elovl4a and Elovl4b, and study the roles that these enzymes play in the biosynthesis of LC-PUFAs and very-long-chain (>C24) polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) in marine teleost Pampus argenteus. The P. argenteus Elovl4 displayed all of the typical features of Elovl-like enzymes and have eyes and brain as major sites through which they exert their functions. Moreover, functional studies showed that the P. argenteus Elovl4 can effectively elongate C18-22 substrates to C36 VLC-PUFA. Because both P. argenteus Elovl4 are able to produce 24:5n - 3 from shorter precursors, we tested whether the previously reported Δ6 Fads2 from P. argenteus was able to desaturate 24:5n - 3 to 24:6n - 3, a key step for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) synthesis. Our results showed that P. argenteus can indeed bioconvert 24:5n - 3 into 24:6n - 3, suggesting that P. argenteus has the enzymatic capacity required for DHA biosynthesis through the coordinated action of both Elovl4 and Fads2. Furthermore, an acute salinity test indicated that low-salinity stress (12 ppt) upregulated genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis, with 12 ppt salinity treatment showing the highest hepatic LC-PUFA content. Overall, our results unveiled that the newly characterized Elovl4 enzymes have indispensable functions in LC- and VLC-PUFA biosynthesis. Moreover, acute salinity change influenced the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in P. argenteus. This study provided new insight into the biosynthesis of LC- and VLC-PUFAs in vertebrates and the physiological responses that teleosts have under acute salinity stress.


Assuntos
Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/química , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/genética , Filogenia , Salinidade , Alinhamento de Sequência
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(2): 750-755, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403856

RESUMO

As consumers increasingly demand "cleaner" labels, one available strategy is diluting oils high in unsaturated fatty acids into more stable, more saturated oils, thus delaying lipid oxidation by decreasing free-radical propagation reactions between oxidized fatty acids and unsaturated lipids. The effect of diluting fish oil into medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) on oxidative stability was investigated using lipid hydroperoxides and gas chromatography headspace analysis. Dilutions up to 1 in 20 of fish oil in MCT extended propanal formation from 1 to 6 days in Tween-80-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. This protective effect was not observed in emulsions wherein the two oils were in separate droplets. Fish oil blended with high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) also demonstrated a protective effect when the oils were in the same emulsion droplets but not in separate emulsion droplets. The present study indicates that dilution can be used to increase the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids in oil-in-water emulsions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Emulsões/química , Cinética , Oxirredução , Triglicerídeos/química , Água/química
10.
Animal ; 15(1): 100039, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516004

RESUMO

Increasing the content of polyunsaturated fat in the human diet is a priority for reducing cardiovascular disease and cancer risks. Beef has the potential to contribute to the polyunsaturated fat content in the human diet; however, ruminants cannot synthesise many long-chain fatty acids de novo; they require dietary supplementation. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate (i) the effect of a partially rumen protected n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) dietary supplement on the fatty acid composition of muscle (Longissimus dorsi), adipose and liver tissues of beef heifers and (ii) the usefulness of blood plasma as a predictor of tissue concentrations of specific fatty acids. Charolais crossbred heifers (n = 20) were assigned to one of two isolipid dietary treatments namely palmitic acid (control) or an n-3 LC-PUFA supplement for a 91-day period. Blood plasma and adipose tissue samples were taken to determine the temporal effect of these diets on fatty acid composition (days 0, 10, 35 and 91), while liver and muscle samples were taken following slaughter. Dietary lipid source did not influence animal growth rate or body condition score. At day 91, the percentage differences between control and n-3 LC-PUFA heifers in concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid were +61, +176 and +133 % in liver, muscle and adipose, respectively. For docosahexaenoic acid, at the same time point, the percentage differences were +57, +73 and +138 % for liver, muscle and adipose, respectively. Medium-to-strong positive correlation coefficients were evident for liver and plasma fatty acids, in particular, there were positive relationships with concentrations of total saturated fatty acid (SFA), total n-6 PUFA and total n-3 PUFA. This trend also extended to both the ratio of PUFA to SFA (slope (ß1) = 0.56 ±â€¯0.167, intercept (ß0) = 0.56, R2 = 0.61, P < 0.05) and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA (ß1 = 0.15 ±â€¯0.054, ß0 = 0.24, R2 = 0.52, P < 0.05). A strong correlation was also detected in the ratio of n-6 to n-3 in plasma and muscle tissue of heifers fed the n-3 LC-PUFA diet (ß1 = 0.53 ±â€¯0.089, ß0 = -0.31, R2 = 0.83, P < 0.001). The results of this study show that the n-3 LC-PUFA can be readily increased through targeted supplementation and that plasma concentrations of n-3 LC-PUFA are useful predictors of their concentrations in a number of economically important tissues.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Ácidos Graxos , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Feminino , Fígado , Músculos , Plasma
11.
Arch Pharm Res ; 44(1): 84-98, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398691

RESUMO

Unexpected viral infections outbreaks, significantly affect human health, leading to increased mortality and life disruption. Among them is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which emerged as a deadly pandemic, calling for intense research efforts on its pathogenicity mechanism and development of therapeutic strategies. In the SARS-CoV-2 cytokine storm, systemic inflammation has been associated with severe illness and mortality. Recent studies have demonstrated special pro-resolving lipids mediators (SPMs) lipoxins, resolvins, maresins, and protectins as potential therapeutic options for abnormal viral-triggered inflammation. Pro-resolving lipids mediators have shown great promise for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and hepatitis C virus. Based on this, studies are being conducted on their therapeutic effects in SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we discussed SPMs and reviewed evidence from recent studies on SPMs as therapeutic options for viral infections, including SARS-CoV2. Based on our analysis of the previous study, we argue that SPMs are a potential treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection and other viral infections. We expect further research on how SPMs modulate viral-triggered inflammation through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and chemical stability and druggability of SPMs.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Lipoxinas/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoxinas/administração & dosagem , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(2): 277-289, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471045

RESUMO

SFAs play the leading role in 1 of the greatest controversies in nutrition science. Relative to PUFAs, SFAs generally increase circulating concentrations of LDL cholesterol, a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, the purpose of regulatory mechanisms that control the diet-induced lipoprotein cholesterol dynamics is rarely discussed in the context of human adaptive biology. We argue that better mechanistic explanations can help resolve lingering controversies, with the potential to redefine aspects of research, clinical practice, dietary advice, public health management, and food policy. In this paper we propose a novel model, the homeoviscous adaptation to dietary lipids (HADL) model, which explains changes in lipoprotein cholesterol as adaptive homeostatic adjustments that serve to maintain cell membrane fluidity and hence optimal cell function. Due to the highly variable intake of fatty acids in humans and other omnivore species, we propose that circulating lipoproteins serve as a buffer to enable the rapid redistribution of cholesterol molecules between specific cells and tissues that is necessary with changes in dietary fatty acid supply. Hence, circulating levels of LDL cholesterol may change for nonpathological reasons. Accordingly, an SFA-induced raise in LDL cholesterol in healthy individuals could represent a normal rather than a pathologic response. These regulatory mechanisms may become disrupted secondarily to pathogenic processes in association with insulin resistance and the presence of other ASCVD risk factors, as supported by evidence showing diverging lipoprotein responses in healthy individuals as opposed to those with metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and obesity. Corresponding with the model, we suggest alternative contributing factors to the association between elevated LDL cholesterol concentrations and ASCVD, involving dietary factors beyond SFAs, such as an increased endotoxin load from diet-gut microbiome interactions and subsequent chronic low-grade inflammation that interferes with fine-tuned signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Biológicos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Food Chem ; 334: 127584, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711274

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds, including propyl gallate, 1-o-galloylglycerol, ferulic, gallic, caffeic, rosmarinic, and carnosic acids, tocopherols, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), were investigated as antioxidants to improve the oxidative stability of a structured lipid (SL) produced by the enzymatic acidolysis of menhaden oil with caprylic and stearic acids. SL had similar physical properties to butterfat but was more susceptible to oxidation. The above phenolic compounds were each added to SL as antioxidants. SL with 1-o-galloylglycerol, rosmarinic acid, or BHT showed the highest oxidative stability during an accelerated oxidation test with the total oxidation (TOTOX) value around 250 after 18 days. Oxidation induction time (OIT) using differential scanning calorimetry showed a good correlation with the accelerated oxidation test. A mixture of 1-o-galloylglycerol and tocopherols at 50:50 ppm had the strongest protective effect on SL (OIT = 115.1 min) compared to the other tested compounds or combinations at the same concentration (OIT < 100 min).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , Conservação de Alimentos , Fenóis/química , Abietanos/química , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Cinamatos/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Depsídeos/química , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Gálico/química , Glicerol/análogos & derivados , Glicerol/química , Oxirredução , Galato de Propila/química , Tocoferóis/química
14.
Food Chem ; 334: 127612, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731121

RESUMO

The study objective was to assess the impact of soybean (SO) and linseed oil (LO) added to feed mixture for laying hens upon the quality characteristics of table eggs, their fatty acid (FA) profile and cholesterol level. The material consisted of eggs from hens fed with a mixture without oil and with the addition of LO or SO in a dose of 2.5%. Eggs were subjected to quality assessment. FA profile and cholesterol content in yolks were determined. The results indicate no negative changes in eggs' quality caused by supplementation. An increase was observed in the n3 FA content in egg yolk in experimental groups, as well as all PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) proportions. No negative impact of these oils on the level of cholesterol was noted. As a consequence, the analysed feed additives can be safely applied as an appropriate material in poultry nutrition to enrich eggs with PUFA.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ovos/análise , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Óleo de Soja/farmacologia , Animais , Colesterol/análise , Gema de Ovo/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino
15.
Gene ; 766: 145144, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916248

RESUMO

The elongases of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovls) are involved in the rate-limiting of the carbon chain elongation reaction in fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis in vertebrates. One member of the Elovls family, Elovl4, has been regarded as a critical enzyme involved in the biosynthesis pathway of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). To explore the role of Elovl4 in PUFA synthesis in Trachinotus ovatus, the cDNA of the Elovl4b gene is cloned from T. ovatus (ToElovl4b). The ORF of ToElovl4b was 918 bp and encoded 305 amino acid (aa) protein sequences. Sequence alignment showed that the deduced amino acids contained significant structural features of the Elovl4 family, such as a histidine box motif (HXXHH), multiple transmembrane domains and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed that ToElovl4b was highly conserved with that of Rachycentron canadum Elovl4b. Moreover, heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that ToElovl4b could efficiently elongate 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6 and 20:5n-3 FAs up to 20:2n-6, 20:3n-6 and 22:5n-3, respectively. Furthermore, the tissue expression profile indicated that mRNA expression of ToElovl4b was higher in the gonads and brain than in other tissues. Additionally, nutritional regulation suggested the highest mRNA levels of ToElovl4b in liver and brain were under feeding with 1:1 FO-SO (fish oil, FO; soybean oil, SO) and 1:1 FO-CO (corn oil, CO)), respectively. These new insights were useful for understanding the molecular basis and regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in fish.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/genética , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
16.
Food Chem ; 338: 128067, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950871

RESUMO

Kainth fruit, as traditional medicine, has been used in the Himalayan region for its health-promoting properties. However, the phytochemicals and lipidomes of Kainth Seed Oil (KSO) are still scarce. Here, we investigated the physicochemical characterization of KSO and its nutraceuticals, antioxidant potentials. Kainth seeds contain 19-20% oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 82.22%), particularly linoleic acid (C18:2). Lipidome analysis of KSO using high-resolution mass spectrometry showed that trilinoleate (C54:6) was the dominant triacylglycerol (TAG) species. Further, the characteristics of PUFA-rich oil were validated by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC). The nutraceuticals profiling of KSO depicted the presence of tocopherols (86.72 mg) and phytosterols (32.25 mg) in 100 g oil with significant antioxidant activity. The oil cake contained 19.09% protein and minerals and can be a source for dietary protein. Collectively these results suggest that KSO will be a suitable source for PUFA and nutraceuticals potential.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Pyrus/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Lipidômica , Espectrometria de Massas , Fitosteróis/análise , Pyrus/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Tocoferóis/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/química
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2223: 79-86, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226588

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease characterized by chronic inflammation and itchiness. Although skin barrier dysfunction and immune abnormalities are thought to contribute to the development of AD, the precise pathogenic mechanism remains to be elucidated. We have developed a unique, diet-induced AD mouse model based on the findings that deficiencies of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids and starches cause AD-like symptoms in hairless mice. Here, we present a protocol and tips for establishing an AD mouse model using a custom diet modified from a widely used standard diet (AIN-76A Rodent Diet). We also describe methods for evaluating skin barrier dysfunction and analyzing itch-related scratching behavior. This model can be used not only to investigate the complex pathogenic mechanism of human AD but also to study the puzzling relationship between nutrition and AD development.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Alimentos Formulados , Prurido/imunologia , Amido/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Óleo de Milho/química , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Dermatite Atópica/fisiopatologia , Etanol/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/deficiência , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Permeabilidade , Prurido/etiologia , Prurido/fisiopatologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Amido/deficiência , Amido/imunologia
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1591-1603, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309372

RESUMO

The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of increased diet fermentability and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) with or without supplemental 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMTBa), isoacids (IA; isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, isovalerate, and valerate) or the combination of these on milk fat depression (MFD). Ten Holstein cows (194 ± 58 DIM, 691 ± 69 kg BW, 28 ± 5 kg milk yield) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design. Treatments included a high-forage control diet (HF-C), a low-forage control diet (LF-C) causing MFD by increasing starch and decreasing neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the LF-C diet supplemented with HMTBa at 0.11% (28 g/d), the LF-C diet supplemented with IA at 0.24% of dietary dry matter (60 g/d), and the LF-C diet supplemented with HMTBa and IA. Preplanned contrasts were used to compare HF-C versus LF-C and to examine the main effects of HMTBa or IA and their interactions within the LF diets. Dry matter intake was greater for LF-C versus HF-C, but milk yield remained unchanged. The LF-C diet decreased milk fat yield (0.87 vs. 0.98 kg/d) but increased protein yield compared with HF-C. As a result, energy-corrected milk was lower (28.5 vs. 29.6 kg/d) for LF-C versus HF-C. Although the concentration of total de novo synthesized FA in milk fat was not affected, some short- and medium-chain FA were lower for LF-C versus HF-C, but the concentrations of C18 trans-10 isomers were not different. Total-tract NDF apparent digestibility was numerically lower (42.4 vs. 45.6%) for LF-C versus HF-C. As the main effects, the decrease in milk fat yield observed in LF-C was alleviated by supplementation of HMTBa through increasing milk yield without altering milk fat content and by IA through increasing milk fat content without altering milk yield so that HMTBa or IA, as the main effects, increased milk fat yield within the LF diets. However, interactions for milk fat yield and ECM were observed between HMTBa and IA, suggesting no additive effect when used in combination. Minimal changes were found on milk FA profile when HMTBa was provided. However, de novo synthesized FA increased for IA supplementation. We detected no main effect of HMTBa, IA, and interaction between those on total-tract NDF digestibility. In conclusion, the addition of HMTBa and IA to a low-forage and high-starch diet alleviated moderate MFD. Although the mechanism by which MFD was alleviated was different between HMTBa and IA, no additive effects of the combination were observed on milk fat yield and ECM.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Glicoproteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação , Gotículas Lipídicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Leite/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Amido/administração & dosagem
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(1): 377-396, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373225

RESUMO

Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a widely cultivated woody oilseed tree species, and its embryo is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus far, the pathways and essential genes involved in oil biosynthesis in developing walnut embryos remain largely unclear. Our analyses revealed that a mature walnut embryo accumulated 69% oil, in which 71% were polyunsaturated fatty acids with 64% linoleic acid and 7% linolenic acid. RNA sequencing generated 39 384 unigenes in 24 cDNA libraries prepared from walnut embryos collected at 49, 63, 77, 91, 105, 119, 133, and 147 days after pollination (DAP). The principal components analysis (PCA) of samples and cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that the total samples were divided into three main groups: 49 DAP, 63-119 DAP, and 133-147 DAP. We identified 108 unigenes associated with lipid biosynthesis, including 60 unigenes for fatty acid biosynthesis, 33 for triacylglycerol biosynthesis, 7 for oil bodies, and 8 for transcription factors. The expression levels of the genes encoding WRI1, ACCase, ACP, KASII, SAD, FAD2, FAD3, and PDAT were upregulated at 63-119 DAP relative to the levels at 49 DAP. Additionally, the lipid biosynthesis in walnut embryos began to increase while oil contents increased from 15 to 69%. We identified eight SAD, three FAD2, one FAD3, one FAD5, one FAD6, and three FAD7/8 genes. In addition, SAD, FAD2, and FAD3 were highly abundantly expressed in the walnut embryo, and their FPKM values achieved were 834, 2205, and 9038, respectively. High expression levels of FAD2 and FAD3 may be the reason why walnuts are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Subcellular localization confirmed that the JrFAD3 protein played a role in the endoplasmic reticulum rather than the plastid, suggesting that linolenic acid was mainly synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) showed that ACP, ENO, VAMP727, and IDD14 were coexpressed with WRI1. Our study provides large-scale and comprehensive transcriptome data of walnut embryo development. These data lay the foundation for the metabolic engineering of walnuts to increase oil contents and modify fatty acid compositions.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Juglans/embriologia , Juglans/genética , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Juglans/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2308-2317, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309342

RESUMO

An increase in bovine pyruvate carboxylase (PC; EC 6.4.1.1) at calving and during feed restriction corresponds with increased circulating nonesterified fatty acids as a consequence of negative energy balance. Regulation of PC mRNA and effect of specific combinations of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid profiles has yet to be explored. Our objective was to determine the effects of chain length, degree of saturation, and copresence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on activity of bovine PC promoter 1 (PCP1). For these experiments, Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells were transfected with a full-length bovine PCP1 construct from -1002 to +3 bp relative to the bovine PC gene transcription start site (bovine PCP1(-1002_+3)) ligated to a Firefly luciferase reporter, or with one of a series of nested 5' serial truncations (bovine PCP1(-773_+3), bovine PCP1(-494_+3), or bovine PCP1(-222_+3)). Cells were exposed for 23 h to either individual fatty acids (C16:0, C18:0, or C18:3n-3 cis) bound to BSA or to fatty acid mixtures in ratios of 90:10, 75:25, 50:50, or 25:75, corresponding to combinations of C16:0: C18:3n-3 cis or C18:0: C18:3n-3 cis. Total fatty acid concentration was 1.00 mM. Exposure to either C16:0 or C18:3n-3 cis alone elicited a significant increase in capacity to drive bovine PCP1(-1002_+3) activity compared with 1% BSA in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium control treatment (2.29, 2.89, and 1.00 ± 0.26 fold of promoter induction for C16:0, C18:3n-3 cis, and control, respectively). Treatment with C18:3n-3 cis alone caused a greater increase in promoter activity compared with C16:0 alone, indicating a lesser response to C16:0 alone for bovine PCP1(-1002_+3). Interestingly, inclusion of C18:3n-3 cis, at any level of fatty acid ratios examined, in combination with C16:0 increased promoter activity of bovine PCP1(-773_+3) or bovine PCP1(-222_+3) compared with treatment with C16:0 alone or control. Data from the bovine PCP1 truncation and fatty acid copresence experiments reveal the potential for response elements of unsaturated fatty acids or fatty acid ligands in several bovine PCP1 promoter regions. In silico analysis of bovine PCP1 identified putative peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and sterol regulatory element binding protein binding sites which may be implicated in fatty acid signaling to alter bovine PCP1 activity. Pyruvate carboxylase promoter 1 activity that is mediated by unsaturated fatty acids acting through elements within -1002 and -222 bp of bovine PCPI may determine PC response during periods of negative energy balance in dairy cows.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Piruvato Carboxilase/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Rim , PPAR alfa/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Piruvato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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