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1.
Food Chem ; 313: 125956, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923864

RESUMO

Crude enzymes were extracted from beef, pork and chicken and were employed to hydrolyze 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC) and oxidized PLPC, i.e. hydroperoxide of PLPC (PLPC-OOH) and hydroxide of PLPC (PLPC-OH). HPLC-ELSD and ESI-MS were used to characterize and determinate hydrolytic products. After hydrolysis at 37 °C for 180 min, 26.8 ~ 27.4%, 21.6 ~ 22.8% and 17.8 ~ 19.0% of substrates were hydrolyzed by crude enzymes from beef, pork and chicken, respectively. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was the major contributor to hydrolysis, which accounted for 47.8 ~ 49.6%, 45.8 ~ 48.7% and 46.6 ~ 46.8% of hydrolysis of PLPC, PLPC-OOH and PLPC-OH, respectively. Crude enzymes demonstrated almost same specificities towards PLPC, PLPC-OOH and PLPC-OH. Under actions of crude enzymes, hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acids (HpODE) and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODE) were yielded as hydrolytic products of PLPC-OOH and PLPC-OH, respectively. These finding would be helpful to better understand the fate of hydroperoxides of phospholipids and formation of HODE during meat products manufacturing.


Assuntos
Músculos/enzimologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Suínos
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1038-1047, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aquafeed sector has been replacing conventional dietary ingredients with more economic and eco-friendly ingredients. Insects embody a promising alternative as a result of being highly nutritious and showing traits leading to a circular bioeconomy. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at the sea-water stage were fed diets with a partial or complete substitution of fishmeal with meal of Hermetia illucens larvae reared on a media containing Ascophyllum nodosum mixed with organic wastes (60:40). The present study aimed to assess the quality of fillets by characterizing its physico-chemical traits with conventional and innovative methods, such as the proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer technique, allowing the analysis of samples at room temperature. Finally, steamed fillets underwent a consumer test to investigate the liking of consumers and their intention of re-consumption. RESULTS: The main findings showed that a complete dietary substitution of fishmeal with H. illucens larvae meal did not impair the physico-chemical quality of A. salmon fillets. Notably, neutral n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) slightly but significantly increased in the fillets of A. salmon fed H. illucens, also as a result of the additional fish oil present in the diets containing insect. The volatile organic profile was not altered by the different diets. The consumer-liking test revealed that Italian consumers appreciated the tested salmon irrespective of the administered feed. CONCLUSION: Tailoring the insect fatty acid profile by rearing the larvae on a PUFA-rich substrate, coupled with a dietary modulation of the oily source, can successfully maintain or even increase the cardioprotective characteristics of fillets. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Larva/química , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Pesqueiros , Larva/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Salmo salar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simuliidae/química , Simuliidae/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
3.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(11): 1085-1097, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611513

RESUMO

The compositional characteristics and oxidative stability of rice bran oil were determined by observing the formation of oxidative products and alteration in chemical composition of oils during microwave or oven heating. The values of oxidative indicators such as free acidity, peroxide, p-anisidine, total oxidation, thiobarbituric acid and color values, increased faster in refined oils compared to crude ones during heating. In gas chromatography analysis, the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the studied oils such as lab extracted crude rice bran oil, lab extracted and refined rice bran oil, crude rice bran oil from commercial mill and refined rice bran oil from commercial mill were: 23.07 to 23.56, 41.15 to 42.38 and 34.38 to 35.88, respectively. The heating caused the reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids content with increasing saturated fatty acids content, and these changes were greater in refined rice bran oil indicating extensive lipid oxidation occurred in refined oil. The change in triacylglycerol species content as determined by High-performance liquid chromatography, was lower in crude oil; the higher stability of these species in crude oil could have contribution to reduce oxidation. During thermal treatment, the generation of hydroperoxides, their degradation and formation of secondary oxidative products evaluated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, were lower in crude oils. However, the rate of formation of oxidative products in lab prepared samples was lower compared to that in the samples collected from commercial mill. Under extreme thermal condition, the order of oxidative stability: lab extracted crude rice bran oil > crude rice bran oil from commercial mill>lab extracted and refined rice bran oil > refined rice bran oil from commercial mill. The present results will be useful to oil seed processing mills in refining of rice bran oil for economic feasibility and better marketability.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Óleo de Farelo de Arroz/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Oxirredução , Óleo de Farelo de Arroz/economia , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1604: 460470, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492467

RESUMO

Small organic acids are widely used within the pharmaceutical industry but can be difficult to analyse. Ion chromatography is a suitable technique for the analysis of these acids but method development can be hindered as mass spectrometry is not often used as a detector; this means that peak tracking and peak purity cannot be performed. The authors report method development for the analysis of 2-butynoic acid, where by using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry, peak purity was investigated and the presence of co-eluting impurities determined. Optimisation of the additives in the make-up flow to the mass spectrometer was shown to have an impact on the response observed. A standard series of organic acids were analysed spiked in to 2-butynoic acid at levels representative of impurities, the presence of the 2-butynoic acid did not impact the linearity or limit of detection observed for the acids; R2 values greater than 0.98 were obtained for all acids with and without the presence of 2-butynoic acid with a limit of detection at 1 ppb for all but one of the acids.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Compostos Orgânicos/análise
5.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 164, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent technical advances in the extraction of dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) have stimulated interest in using this rather unexploited biofluid as an alternative to blood for detection and prediction of disease. However, knowledge about the presence of useful biomarkers for health monitoring in ISF is still limited. In this study, we characterized the lipidome of human suction blister fluid (SBF) as a surrogate for pure ISF and compared it to that of plasma. METHODS: Plasma and SBF samples were obtained from 18 healthy human volunteers after an overnight fast. Total lipids were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred ninety-three lipid species covering 10 complex lipid classes were detected and quantified in both plasma and SBF using multiple reaction monitoring. A fraction of the lipid extract was subjected to alkaline transesterification and fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The total concentration of lipids in SBF was 17% of the plasma lipid concentration. The molar fraction of lipid species within lipid classes, as well as total fatty acids, showed a generally high correlation between plasma and SBF. However, SBF had larger fractions of lysophospholipids and diglycerides relative to plasma, and consequently less diacylphospholipids and triglycerides. Principal component analysis revealed that the interindividual variation in SBF lipid profiles was considerably larger than the within-subject variation between plasma and SBF. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma and SBF lipid profiles show high correlation and SBF could be used interchangeably with blood for the analysis of major lipids used in health monitoring.


Assuntos
Diglicerídeos/análise , Líquido Extracelular/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Lisofosfolipídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida , Derme/química , Derme/metabolismo , Líquido Extracelular/metabolismo , Jejum , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1605: 460365, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402108

RESUMO

The analysis of triacylglycerols and phospholipids - phosphatidylcholines allowed the use of shotgun lipidomics to identify very long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in microalgae. These fatty acids were determined in triacylglycerols by positive electrospray ionization of neutral loss scans of different fatty acids, e.g. 24:0, 24:1ω9, 24:6ω3, 26:0, 26:1ω9, 28:0, 28:1ω9, 28:2ω6, and 28:8ω3. Likewise, very long-chain fatty acids in phosphatidylcholines were identified by negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the selected ion-monitoring of the two most important ions (R1COO- and R2COO-). The limit of detection was determined at 10 nmol/L (∼11 pg/µL) in triacylglycerols and 8.6 nmoles/L (∼8 pg/µL) in phosphatidylcholines. The use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is suitable for very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with up to 8 double bonds due to the time of analysis as well as for reasons of lower thermal stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids towards saturated fatty acids, but gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is better suited for the analysis of saturated very long-chain fatty acids.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Fosfatidilcolinas/análise , Padrões de Referência , Triglicerídeos/análise
7.
Meat Sci ; 158: 107921, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465948

RESUMO

The present research studied the effect of liquorice extract (in feed and/or directly in burgers) on the shelf-life of rabbit meat. Before weaning, 28 individually caged rabbit does with their litters were divided in two dietary groups: Control, receiving a commercial diet, and Liquorice, receiving the Control diet supplemented with 6 g liquorice extract/kg (L). At 12 weeks of age, 15 fattened rabbits/treatment (one rabbit/cage) were slaughtered and their hindlegs dissected. Hindleg meat was trimmed, individually minced and divided into two parts: one of them was mixed with 0.25% (w/w) L. Storage time significantly reduced the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the burger, to a different magnitude depending on the unsaturation level, experimental group and storage time. The α-tocopherol content showed higher levels during storage in the burgers from the Liquorice group. Also TBARs values showed a significant positive effect of dietary liquorice and a progressive increase at days 3 and 6 of storage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Glycyrrhiza/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Coelhos
8.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54(9): 1251-1257, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287595

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nicotinic acid on plasma membrane integrity and fatty acid composition in frozen-thawed boar sperm. Boar semen was cryopreserved using freezing extender containing nicotinic acid (NA), then plasma membrane integrity, osmotic equilibration, lipid peroxidation and fatty acid were analysed. The plasma membrane integrity of frozen-thawed sperm was significantly higher in the 10 mM NA than in the 0 and 20 mM NA treatment groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, the osmotic equilibration ability was not different in treatment groups, but lipid peroxidation was significantly decreased in the 10 mM NA treatment group (p < 0.05). The saturated fatty acids were significantly decreased in the 10 mM NA treatment group, and C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6, C22:5n-6 and C22:6n-3, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were significantly increased in the 10 mM NA treatment groups (p < 0.05). In summary, 10 mM NA improved plasma membrane integrity, inhibited lipid peroxidation and increased PUFAs in frozen-thawed boar sperm. These results suggest that NA may be useful to protect the plasma membrane and inhibit the loss of PUFAs for sperm cryopreservation in pigs.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/veterinária , Niacina/farmacologia , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Criopreservação/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Congelamento , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
9.
Anim Sci J ; 90(9): 1303-1312, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317611

RESUMO

Yield, chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and sensory acceptability of Panela cheese produced from cows grazing in an intensive silvopastoral system (ISS) with Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodon nlemfuensis were evaluated and compared with Panela cheese from cows grazing a monoculture system (MS) of C. nlemfuensis only. The experiment lasted for 9 weeks in a tropical area in Mexico using ten crossbred cows (30-90 days of milking) assigned homogenously as five cows in each experimental group. No significant differences were found between the two systems for milk and cheese gross composition. Panela cheese from ISS showed lower content of the hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, accompanied with higher content of omega-3, omega-6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, Panela cheese from ISS showed higher preference for the attributes of appearance, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability. It is concluded that Panela cheese from cows grazing in ISS has better acceptability and nutritional properties than that produced from MS with grass only.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , Fabaceae , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Herbivoria , Valor Nutritivo , Poaceae
10.
J Dairy Res ; 86(3): 279-282, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327320

RESUMO

This research communication addresses the hypothesis that the association of dietary vitamin E and Yerba Mate could help to prevent or decrease oxidation of milk enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). Four multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were: (1) control diet with no Yerba Mate or vitamin E; (2) diet containing 375 IU/kg vitamin E; (3) diet containing 30 g/kg Yerba Mate; and (4) diet containing 375 IU/kg vitamin E and 30 g/kg Yerba Mate. To increase unsaturated fatty acids in milk, cows were fed 172 g/kg soybean seeds (on a dry matter basis). There was no interaction between vitamin E and Yerba Mate supplementation for milk antioxidant-related (polyphenols, reducing power, conjugated dienes, and TBARS) analyses. Milk reducing power was increased when cows were supplemented with Yerba Mate. Our results suggest that the association of dietary vitamin E and Yerba Mate does not help to prevent or decrease oxidation of milk in UFA.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ilex paraguariensis , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Lactação , Sementes , Soja
11.
Food Chem ; 297: 124749, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253289

RESUMO

Argan oil is precious oil with food and cosmetic uses. In recent years, this oil has been subject to an increasing national and international demand. The present work aims at studying the effect of clones and age, year of harvest and geographical origin on Argan oil quality and chemical composition. The results indicate that age does not affect Argan oil quality and fatty acids content. However, clones had a significant effect on fatty acids and tocopherol levels. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were highly influenced by the year of harvest and geographical origin, presumably due to climatic conditions. Unsaturated fatty acids varied from 78.28% to 81.77%. Depending on clones, total tocopherols varied from 687.40 mg/kg to 1068 mg/kg. This study is useful for the choice of clones with the aim of developing Argan trees orchards destined to oil production.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/química , Sapotaceae/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Clima , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Sapotaceae/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Tocoferóis/análise
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 6842-6852, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178185

RESUMO

In the present study, we aimed to investigate the changes in triacylglycerol (TAG) composition as affected by alterations in the cows' diet due to seasonal variations and genetic factors. For this study, 50 milk fat samples in winter and 50 in summer were used from 25 cows with the DGAT1 KK genotype and 25 cows with the DGAT1 AA genotype. The samples were analyzed for milk fat content (%), fat composition, and TAG composition. We found that the content of TAG species CN54 was higher and that of CN34 and CN36 lower in summer than in winter. This seasonal variation in TAG profile was related to seasonal changes in the fatty acids C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 cis-9, total unsaturated fatty acids, and total long-chain fatty acids, most likely resulting from dietary differences between seasons. Furthermore, we quantified the effect of DGAT1 K232A polymorphism on TAG profile and detected a significant effect on TAG species CN36, with higher values for the DGAT1 KK genotype. When adjusting for differences in fat content, we found no significant effects of the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism on TAG profile. We detected a significant interaction between DGAT1 K232A polymorphism and season for TAG species CN42 and CN52; in summer, the KK genotype was associated with higher levels for CN42 than the AA genotype, whereas in winter, the difference between the genotypes was small. For CN52, in summer the AA genotype was associated with higher levels than the KK genotype. In winter, the difference between the genotypes was also small. We show that, regardless of preference for DGAT1 genotype (AA or KK) and depending on the availability of FA according to season, UFA (C18:1 cis-9), short-chain FA (C6:0 and C10:0), and medium-chain FA might be esterified on the glycerol backbone of the TAG, keeping the structure characteristics of each TAG species. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the interaction effect of DGAT1 K232A polymorphism and season on the TAG composition in milk fat.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Genótipo , Leite/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Estações do Ano
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(24): e15855, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192916

RESUMO

To investigate the relationship between dietary fatty acid (FA) intake and the lactate FA levels in Chinese women.A total of 2007 samples from 5 regions of China were collected, including 431 in Shandong, 402 in Changchun, 419 in Chongqing, 398 in Guangzhou, and 357 women in Hohhot. All participants were mothers of healthy full-term newborns, collecting the foremilk from day 1 to day 7 and the mature breast milk on day 42 after delivery. The FA composition of the breast milk was analyzed by high resolution capillary gas chromatography.The total FA content of mature breast milk in Shandong was the highest (34.95 g/L), and that was the lowest in Guangzhou (29.72 g/L). The saturated FA content of breast milk was increased from 1 to 7 days after delivery and decreased in mature breast milk. The saturated FA content of breast milk in Hohhot was the highest (37.43%), but that was the lowest in Changchun (32.80%). Maternal dietary FA composition was positively correlated with saturated FAs (SFA), polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (P < .001), and negatively with monounsaturated FAs (MUFA) (P > .05) in breast milk.The FA content of breast milk is different in different regions of China, which was affected by maternal dietary FA composition. Lactating women in China should consume more foods rich in polyunsaturated FAs to ensure the growth of infant.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , China , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Leite Humano/química , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(2): 121-127, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148180

RESUMO

In this study, a total of 172 putative omega-3 producers were isolated from 28 sediment samples from the Arabian Gulf employing a selective isolation procedure using marine agar containing 0·1% triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC). Out of these 172 isolates, 19 isolates produced eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as confirmed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The EPA content of the isolated bacterial strain varied from 1·76 to 6·52% of total fatty acids. Among the 19 isolates of EPA producers, while 17 isolates harboured both pfaA gene and Δ6 desaturase gene, only five isolates harboured Δ5 desaturase gene. Two of the EPA positive strains harbour none of the three genes tested. The 16s RNA identification of these isolates revealed that except one, all the EPA producers were Gram-positive marine bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, family Bacillacea, genera Bacillus and Oceanobacillus. Halomonas pacifica was the only Gram-negative Gamma-Proteobacteria detected to produce EPA from this region. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Recently, marine bacteria are considered as a promising source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) over marine fishes and microalgae. PUFA producers reported from polar and deep-sea sources were restricted to five well-known marine genera under two distinct domains of bacteria such as proteobacteria (Shewanella, Colwellia, and Moritella) and cytophaga group (Flexibacter, Psychroflexus). This study revealed that subtropical marine environment could also be the source of PUFA producing bacteria, and they predominantly belonged to the class of Firmibacteria. This finding opens up new avenue for research to study the inherent mechanism and physiology of such organisms from this unique environment.


Assuntos
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Firmicutes/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Halomonas/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Firmicutes/química , Firmicutes/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/química , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Halomonas/química , Halomonas/genética , Halomonas/isolamento & purificação
15.
Food Chem ; 295: 423-431, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174778

RESUMO

Effects of natural phenolics on the shelf life of dried scallop adductor muscle predicted by accelerated shelf life testing (ALST) combined with Arrhenius model were investigated. This allows the food industries to reliably and rapidly determine the shelf life of dried shellfish species treated with antioxidants. The shelf life of dried scallop adductor muscle treated with antioxidants of bamboo leaves (AOB) and tea polyphenols (TP) was more than 1.70-fold that of dried control scallop adductor muscle. Thus, the highly nutritional value of dried scallop adductor muscle, based on its lipid constituents, is maintained during storage. OXITEST method further confirmed the improvement of lipid stability of antioxidant treated dried scallop adductor muscle by protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, against autoxidation. Moreover, the natural phenolics employed effectively limited lipid oxidation by breaking the autoxidative chain reaction and/or inhibiting free radical formation in dried scallop adductor muscle during storage.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/química , Pectinidae/química , Polifenóis/química , Frutos do Mar , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Liofilização , Músculo Esquelético/química , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta/química , Carbamilação de Proteínas , Sasa/química
16.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(7): 625-635, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178462

RESUMO

The seed of five fruits and vegetables, which are often eaten by Chinese people, were selected as research objects to study the physicochemical properties, nutritional ingredients and antioxidant capacity of their seed oils. The fatty acid results indicated that the oleic acid was the main unsaturated fatty acid in almond oil and celery seed oil (content of 64.10% and 62.96%, respectively), and the wax gourd seed oil, watermelon seed oil and pumpkin seed oil were linoleic acid as the main unsaturated fatty acid (content of 72.45%, 76.77% and 47.35%, respectively). Unsaturated fatty acids are mainly located at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerol (TAG), whereas saturated fatty acids are mainly located at the sn-1, 3 positions for the five seed oils. The pumpkin seed oil had certain advantages in terms of phytosterols and squalene (3716 and 2732 mg/kg, respectively). The high content of polyphenol for celery seed oil exhibits higher medicinal value. Polyphenols, and brassicasterols were have significant correlation with antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05, r = 0.890-0.998). The significant differences in nutrient composition between these fruits and vegetables seed oils indicate their unique value as food.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Frutas/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Verduras/química , Fenômenos Químicos , China , Colestadienóis , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Linoleicos/análise , Ácidos Linoleicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Oleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Esqualeno , Triglicerídeos/química
17.
Animal ; 13(12): 2802-2810, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113503

RESUMO

The majority of New Zealand dairy goat farmers utilise cultivated green-fed fodder dominated by perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.), but evidence from other ruminant species suggests that milk production may be improved when using a more diverse array of species within the green fodder. The aim of this experiment was to determine whether feeding lactating dairy goats a mixed-species green fodder (MF, consisting of perennial ryegrass, timothy (Phleum pratense L.), prairie grass (Bromus willdenowii Kunth), white clover, red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) improves dietary intake, milk yield and composition compared with a standard ryegrass and white clover green fodder (SF). Thirty-six mid-lactation goats were housed indoors in pairs and split into two groups (A and B). The trial was split into three periods - firstly a uniformity period of 6 days, in which all goats were fed a combination of both green fodder types, followed by two treatment periods (P1 and P2) of 12 days, respectively. For P1, group A was fed MF and group B was fed SF, and then the group diets were switched for P2. Goats fed MF had 13% greater dry matter intake and 7% greater milk yield than goats fed SF. In addition, the milk protein and fat concentration of goats fed MF were 4% greater than for those fed SF, whereas there was no effect on milk lactose concentration. There was no treatment effect on the levels of protein, glucose, urea or non-esterified fatty acids in the blood of the goats. An effect of green fodder type on milk fat profile was demonstrated, with proportions of pentadecylic acid (C15:0), cis-vaccenic acid (C18:1 c11), linoleic acid (C18:2 n6) and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n3) being increased in response to MF consumption. In contrast, iso-C15 and iso-C17 proportions were lesser. In summary, this study demonstrated that goats fed MF increased green fodder intake and milk production compared with goats fed SF. The green fodder type affected the fatty acid profile of goat's milk, with MF increasing the levels of beneficial polyunsaturated omega fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic acids).


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Cabras/fisiologia , Leite/química , Animais , Chicória , Dieta/veterinária , Fabaceae , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactose/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Nova Zelândia , Poaceae
18.
Food Funct ; 10(6): 3068-3089, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086922

RESUMO

Currently, in order to ensure adequate intake of nutrients to complement the normal diet, the consumption of seeds such as Salvia hispanica L. (commonly known as chia seeds) is increasing. For this reason, investigations concerning the composition and potential health effects of chia seeds are being carried out. Moreover, the recent approval of chia seeds as a Novel Food by the European Parliament allows its consumption and incorporation in a wide range of foods; thus, they have become widely available. Concerning their nutritional aspects, chia seeds are an excellent source of fat (20% to 34%), particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids such as α-linolenic (60%) and linoleic (20%) acids. Moreover, high levels of protein (16% to 26%), mainly prolamins, and dietary fibre contents (23% to 41%) have been reported. Vitamins (mostly B complex) and minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and potassium, among others) have also been described in appreciable amounts. Additionally, due to the absence of gluten, these seeds are appropriate for coeliac patients. Regarding other bioactive compounds, chia seeds are also a source of antioxidants, such as chlorogenic and caffeic acids, quercetin and kaempferol. Due to their described composition, chia seeds have been related to different medicinal effects, particularly anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities and positive effects on cardiovascular disease and hypertension. The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic review of chia seeds to provide an update of the knowledge about their morphology, nutritional and chemical composition, possible human health benefits and role as a functional food.


Assuntos
Salvia/química , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Humanos , Minerais/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Salvia/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
19.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091649

RESUMO

The impact of dietary fat on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied in recent decades. Solid evidence indicates that replacing saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decreases blood cholesterol levels and prevents CVD and CVD mortality. Studies indicate that fat quality also may affect insulin sensitivity and hence, the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A high intake of SFAs has shown to increase the risk of T2D in prospective studies, while a high intake of PUFAs reduces the risk. Whether PUFAs from marine or vegetable sources affect glycemic regulation differently in T2D remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present review was therefore to summarize research on human randomized, controlled intervention studies investigating the effect of dietary PUFAs on glycemic regulation in T2D. About half of the studies investigating the effect of fish, fish oils, vegetable oils, or nuts found changes related to glycemic control in people with T2D, while the other half found no effects. Even though some of the studies used SFA as controls, the majority of the included studies compared PUFAs of different quality. Considering that both marine and vegetable oils are high in PUFAs and hence both oils may affect glycemic regulation, the lack of effect in several of the included studies may be explained by the use of an inappropriate control group. It is therefore not possible to draw a firm conclusion, and more studies are needed.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Humanos
20.
Animal ; 13(10): 2397-2405, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062675

RESUMO

Finding insect meals as alternative sources of poultry feedstuffs is a recent research topic; therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., HI) larvae meal in broiler chicken diets on the carcass characteristics and meat quality parameters, proximate composition, fatty acid profile and the heavy metal content of the breast meat. Four dietary treatments were designed: a control diet (HI0) and three experimental diets (HI5, HI10 and HI15), corresponding to 50, 100 and 150 g/kg HI inclusion levels, respectively. The inclusion of 50, 100 and 150 g HI meal per kg feed supply 16.56%, 33.01% and 49.63% of required crude protein. The broilers were slaughtered at day 35, the carcasses were weighed and the breast muscles were excised from 16 birds per each feeding group (two birds per replicate pens) and used for meat quality evaluation. Linear and quadratic responses were observed, for increasing HI meal levels, in the live and carcass weights (maximum for HI10). As far as the colour of the breast meat is concerned, redness (a*) showed a linear response, while yellowness (b*) linearly decreased with increasing HI meal levels (minimum for HI15). As the HI larvae meal increased in the diets, the moisture content linearly decreased and the protein content increased. The total saturated fatty acid and total monounsaturated fatty acid proportions rose to the detriment of the polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction. The HI larvae meal, used in the current study, represents a valuable protein source for broiler chickens when included by up to 100 g/kg in their diets, as an improved slaughtering performance was observed without any detrimental effects on meat quality parameters or heavy metal residues in the meat.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/análise , Simuliidae , Animais , Cor , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Larva , Masculino , Carne/normas , Segurança
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