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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127612, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731121

RESUMO

The study objective was to assess the impact of soybean (SO) and linseed oil (LO) added to feed mixture for laying hens upon the quality characteristics of table eggs, their fatty acid (FA) profile and cholesterol level. The material consisted of eggs from hens fed with a mixture without oil and with the addition of LO or SO in a dose of 2.5%. Eggs were subjected to quality assessment. FA profile and cholesterol content in yolks were determined. The results indicate no negative changes in eggs' quality caused by supplementation. An increase was observed in the n3 FA content in egg yolk in experimental groups, as well as all PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) proportions. No negative impact of these oils on the level of cholesterol was noted. As a consequence, the analysed feed additives can be safely applied as an appropriate material in poultry nutrition to enrich eggs with PUFA.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ovos/análise , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Óleo de Soja/farmacologia , Animais , Colesterol/análise , Gema de Ovo/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13461, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020974

RESUMO

The effects of heat stress on lipid oxidation and volatile compounds in duck meat were investigated. To simulate heat stress on ducks, room-temperature was controlled at 25°C, except that a raised temperature of 32°C for 8 hr each day was conducted. After stress for 1 and 3 weeks, respectively, the birds were euthanized and the breast meat was separated to evaluate the changes of lipid oxidation and volatile flavor compounds. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the lipoxygenase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and reduced the contents of free unsaturated fatty acids in duck meat. A total of 85 volatile flavor compounds were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Interestingly, when exposed to heat stress, the volatiles generation in raw duck meat was promoted, which was then inhibited after cooking. These data reveal meat oxidative changes and flavor loss caused by heat stress and provide useful information for potential labels and meat flavor preservation against the negative effects of heat stress.


Assuntos
Patos/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Carne/análise , Odorantes/análise , Animais , Culinária , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Lipoxigenase/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
3.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(10): 1199-1208, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908092

RESUMO

The fatty acids in seven species of fish roes were determined by GC-MS in combination with principal component and cluster analyses in order to derive their fatty-acid profiles and fingerprints. Twenty-three common chromatography peaks were identified in the fatty-acid fingerprints of the seven fish roes. A total of 19 typical fatty acids were identified in the fish roes studied. The fatty acid contents of the roes were significantly different, with saturated-fatty-acid contents in the seven roes ranging from 26.69% to 41.81%, and the unsaturated-fatty-acid contents ranging from 57.65% to 72.21%, the total EPA and DHA content (37.20%) is high in E. cypselurus roe, especially. The seven roe species were clearly distinguished according to fatty-acid composition and content by principal component analysis (PCA) and divided into two groups by cluster analysis (CA). PCA of the fatty acid data yielded three significant PCs , which together account for 94% of the total variance; with PC1 contributing 54% of the total.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal/métodos , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise
4.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 973-984, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788511

RESUMO

China has taken olive cultivation as a significant part of its agricultural development. Longnan city of Gansu province was marked into the world olive distribution map by International Olive Oil Council in 1998. However, so far, little research has been done on the growth and development stages of Chinese olives. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics changes of several quality characteristics of olive oil at different sampling times. Olive fruit of 'Chenggu-32' grown in Longnan were harvested at twenty-four time periods and used for determination of phenotypic traits and oil quality characteristics: total polyphenols and flavonoids contents, as well as fatty acid composition by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and analysed by using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Towards maturation, fruit moisture content decreased while oil content increased. Levels of both total flavonoids and total polyphenols contents slightly decreased first then increased. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids was close to three. The ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)/ polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was from 2.28 to 4.05. The oleic acid (C18:1)/linoleic acid (C18:2) ratio was varied between 5.23 and 10.67 according to different sampling dates. The olive oil had lower oleic acid (C18:1) levels, higher linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), and palmitic acid (C16:0) levels compared to Codex values (2017) in some periods, which is the characteristics fatty acid composition of 'Chenggu-32' variety in Longnan, China.


Assuntos
Olea/química , Olea/genética , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Fenótipo , China , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Olea/classificação , Ácido Oleico/análise , Ácido Palmítico/análise , Polifenóis/análise
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 993-1000, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788518

RESUMO

In this study, seed oils of Thladiantha nudiflora and Thladiantha dubia were found to contain 55.5 and 44.4% mole of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acids, respectively. The presence of moieties of conjugated fatty acids was confirmed by a series from physical methods: UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The triacylglycerols (TAGs) isolated of the seed oils were studied by RP-HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detections. It was shown that all 15 TAGs of Thladiantha dubia contain moieties of conjugated fatty acids - punicic, (9Z,11E,13Z)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid (35.6% mole) and 8.9% mole α-eleostearic, (9Z,11E,13E)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid. Meanwhile, 24 TAGs of Thladiantha nudiflora seed oil contain both acids in approximately equal proportions (27.4:28.2 % mole). The enrichment for polyunsaturated fatty acids of the hydrolysis product of the seed oils due to urea inclusion complex formation was discussed.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas
6.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1001-1009, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788519

RESUMO

To determine the food potential of Paeonia ludlowii D.Y.Hong (P. ludlowii) kernel oil, in this study, we analysed the fatty acid composition and volatile components of this oil, compared the antioxidant effects of two natural antioxidants on it, and then predicted its shelf life at room temperature (25°C). The results showed that P. ludlowii kernel oil mainly contained 20 fatty acids, of which linoleic acid, oleic acid and other unsaturated fatty acid contents together made up 86.99%. The aromatic composition of the crude P. ludlowii kernel oil was analysed, and 34 aromatic compounds were obtained, including 5 lipids (2.30%), 9 alcohols (12.64%), 6 aldehydes (14.67%), 2 alkanes (1.30%), 5 acids (2.70%), 1 ketone (0.41), 2 alkenes (39.12%) and 4 other substances (26.85%). The effects of the antioxidants were ranked as follows: 0.04% tea polyphenols + crude oil > 0.04% bamboo flavonoids + crude oil > crude oil. In addition, the shelf lives at room temperature (25℃) of each kernel oil-antioxidant mixture were 200.73 d, 134.90 d and 131.61 d, respectively. Overall, these results reveal that P. ludlowii kernel oil is a potential candidate for a new high-grade edible oil, and its development has broad application prospects.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Paeonia/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/análise , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682282

RESUMO

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are closely related to various physiological conditions. In several age-related diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD) altered PUFAs metabolism has been reported. However, the mechanism behind PUFAs impairment and AD developpement remains unclear. In humans, PUFAs biosynthesis requires delta-5 desaturase (D5D), delta-6 desaturase (D6D) and elongase 2 activities; which are encoded by fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), and elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids-like 2 (ELOVL2) genes, respectively. In the present work, we aim to assess whether genetic variants in FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL2 genes influence plasma and erythrocyte PUFA composition and AD risk. A case-control study was carried out in 113 AD patients and 161 healthy controls.Rs174556, rs174617, and rs3756963 of FADS1, FADS2, and ELOVL2 genes, respectively were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. PUFA levels were quantified using Gas Chromatography. Genotype distributions of rs174556 (FADS1) and rs3756963 (ELOVL2) were different between case and control groups. The genotype TT of rs174556 and rs3756963 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) increases significantly the risk of AD in our population. PUFA analysis showed higher plasma and erythrocyte arachidonic acid (AA) level in patients with AD, whereas only plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was significantly decreased in AD patients. The indexes AA/Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and C24:4n-6/Adrenic acid (AdA) were both higher in the AD group. Interestingly, patients with TT genotype of rs174556 presented higher AA level and AA/DGLA index in both plasma and erythrocyte. In addition, higher AA and AA/DGLA index were observed in erythrocyte of TT genotype ofrs3756963 carrier's patients. Along with, positive correlation between AA/DGLA index, age or Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)/ Linoleic acid (LA) index was seen in erythrocyte and /or plasma of AD patients. After adjustment for confounding factors, the genotype TT of rs174556, erythrocyte AA and AA/DGLA index were found to be predictive risk factors for AD while plasma DHA was found associated with lower AD risk. Both rs174556 and rs3756963 influence AD risk in the Tunisian population and they are likely associated with high AA level. The combination of the two variants increases further the susceptibility to AD. We suggest that FADS1 and ELOVL2 variants could likely regulate the efficiency of AA biosynthesis which could be at the origin of inflammatory derivate.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Ácido Araquidônico/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/análise , Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/sangue , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Ácido Araquidônico/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Genótipo , Humanos , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Ácido gama-Linolênico/análise
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7238-7248, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534926

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic correlations among milk fatty acid (FA) concentrations in New Zealand dairy cattle. Concentrations of each of the most common FA, expressed as a percentage of the total FA, were determined by gas chromatography on a specific cohort of animals. Using this data set, prediction equations were derived using mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy data collected from the same samples. These prediction equations were applied to a large data set of MIR measurements in 34,141 milk samples from 3,445 Holstein-Friesian, 2,935 Jersey, and 3,609 crossbred Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows, sampled an average of 3.42 times during the 2007-2008 season. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate repeatability animal models. Heritability of predicted FA concentration in milk fat ranged from 0.21 to 0.42, indicating that genetic selection could be used to change the FA composition of milk. The de novo synthesized FA (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0) showed strong positive genetic correlations with each other, ranging from 0.24 to 0.99. Saturated FA were negatively correlated with unsaturated (-0.93) and polyunsaturated (-0.84) FA. The saturated FA were positively correlated with milk fat yield and fat percentage, whereas the unsaturated FA were negatively associated with fat yield and fat percentage. Our results indicate that bovine milk FA composition can be changed through genetic selection using MIR as a phenotypic proxy.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Lactação , Nova Zelândia , Fenótipo , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1624: 461206, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540064

RESUMO

Oxylipins, the oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids, are important signaling molecules in living organisms. Some of them have pro-inflammatory properties, while others act as pro-resolving agents. Oxylipins also play a major role in platelet biology and the progression of thrombo-inflammation. Depending on their structure, they may be pro-thrombotic or anti-thrombotic. For an unbiased biological interpretation, a detailed analysis of a broad spectrum of oxylipins including their stereoisomers is necessary. In our work, we developed for the first time an enantioselective UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS assay which allows quantifying individual oxylipin enantiomers. The assay made use of a sub-2µm particle-based amylose-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phase (Chiralpak IA-U) under MS-compatible reversed-phase conditions. It covered 19 enantiomeric pairs of oxylipins and one diasteromeric pair of a lipid mediator: 2 pairs of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODE), 6 pairs of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE), 5 pairs of hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (HEPE), 3 pairs of hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (HDoHE) and one pair of each: resolvins D1, hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid (HOTrE) and dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (DiHETE). The new method is fast and showed outstanding peak resolution for most of the isomeric pairs. Excellent method sensitivity (average LOD was equal to 2.7 pg on column) was obtained by using a triple quadrupole instrument as a detector in a targeted, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The applicability of the method was verified by preliminary validation. It was then applied to analyze oxylipins produced by autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in air. Multiple oxylipins were found in each of the samples as racemic mixtures and served as reference substances for identification. Finally, the new enantioselective UHPLC method was applied to analyze releasates from platelets in resting state, and following activation with thrombin. The highest abundant oxylipin in the platelet releasate was 12(S)-HETE, but many other oxylipins were found in the thrombin activated samples, usually as single enantiomers (e.g. 12(S)-HEPE, 11(R)-HETE, 9(R)-HODE, 13-(S)-HODE, 14(S)-HDoHE). The latter was detected at about similar concentration in resting platelet releasates as well. 15-HETE showed elevated levels for both R-and S-enantiomers in releasates of thrombin-activated platelets. 12-HETrE was found presumably as both enantiomers, however, retention time inconsistencies indicate that the R-enantiomer is actually a different compound, maybe another constitutional isomer with different double-bond configuration.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Oxilipinas/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Oxirredução , Estereoisomerismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 13-18, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491173

RESUMO

Based on decades of research, there is strong evidence that supports ongoing dietary recommendations to decrease intakes of SFAs and, more recently, to replace SFAs with unsaturated fat, including PUFAs and MUFAs. Epidemiologic research has shown that replacement of SFAs with unsaturated fat, but not refined carbohydrate and added sugars, is associated with a reduction in coronary heart disease events and death. There is much evidence from controlled clinical studies demonstrating that SFAs increase LDL cholesterol, a major causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. When each (nonprotein) dietary macronutrient isocalorically replaces SFA, the greatest LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect is seen with PUFA, followed by MUFA, and then total carbohydrate. New research on full-fat dairy products high in saturated fat, particularly fermented dairy foods, demonstrates some benefits for cardiometabolic diseases. However, compared with food sources of unsaturated fats, full-fat dairy products increase LDL cholesterol. Thus, current dietary recommendations to decrease SFA and replace it with unsaturated fat should continue to the basis for healthy food-based dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Saúde Pública/história , Saúde Pública/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recomendações Nutricionais/história
11.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(6): 573-584, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404548

RESUMO

For the controversy still existed about the oxidation stability of the high oleic oils compared with palm oil (PO), this study was aimed to explore the possible reason causing the controversies. Total polar compounds (TPC) was used to evaluate the oxidation stability of oils. Results showed there exist two kinds of lineal changes about the content of total polar compounds (TPC) in each oil, which were closely linked with the fatty acid composition and the tocochromanols content. The possible influence of the initial quality of oils also should be considered. The TPC of high oleic peanut oil (HOPO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), high oleic rapeseed oil (HORO) and PO increased slowly at the initial period mainly owing to the antioxidation of tocochromanols, then sharply after 24, 48, 36 and 72 h respectively, when tocochromanols in each oil almost reduced below the detection limit. After that, the major factor would be fatty acids, particularly PUFA. It showed that the major tocochromanols in different oils (e.g. α, γ-tocotrienols in PO, α, γ-tocopherols in HORO and HOPO, and α-tocopherols in HOSO), could impose the main effects of inhibiting the TPC generation in the initial thermal treatment. The TPC in HORO significantly increased after 84 hours of heat process, which might be caused by the higher content of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (i.e. C18:2 and C18:3). However, the content of the saturated fatty acid (SFA) did not show statistically significant change during the thermal treatment.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Óleo de Amendoim/química , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Óleo de Girassol/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Oxirredução , Fatores de Tempo , Tocoferóis/análise , Tocotrienóis/análise
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 653, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to assess the relation between nutrient patterns and changes in adult anthropometric and cardiometabolic factors. METHODS: This study was conducted on 1637 adults participating in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2005-2008), who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and had completed dietary data. They were followed to the next survey (2008-2011). Dietary intakes were collected and nutrient patterns were obtained. Three year changes in anthropometric and cardiometabolic factors were measured. RESULTS: Five nutrient patterns were extracted. The first pattern was characterized by "plant protein, thiamine, niacin, and minerals including phosphorus, zinc, copper, magnesium, manganese, and selenium". Animal protein, lactose, vitamin D, riboflavine, pantothenic acid, vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus, and zinc" were loaded in the second pattern. The third and fourth patterns were characterized by "vitamin K, fiber, calcium, iron, manganese, and potassium", and "high correlation with starch, thiamine and folate, and negative correlation with mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E", respectively. The fifth pattern was high in Fructose, vitamins A, C, pyridoxine, and potassium. There was no association between nutrient patterns and 3-year changes in blood pressure and fasting blood glucose; whereas, per each quartile increment of the fifth pattern adjusted for potential confounders, triglyceride change was decreased [ß = - 3.66, 95% CI (- 6.57, - 0.57); P for trend = 0.014]. CONCLUSION: Present study indicates that nutrient patterns may have an association with cardiometabolic factors, particularly a pattern rich in fructose, vitamins A, C, pyridoxine, and potassium which decreases triglyceride level.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Nutrientes/análise , Adulto , Antropometria , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/análise , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Vitaminas/análise
13.
J Nutr ; 150(6): 1425-1433, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemp seeds are rich in PUFAs and other bioactives that can attenuate the development of obesity-related disorders; however, the extent to which their lipid fraction is responsible for this effect is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that hemp seed or hemp oil supplementation can attenuate genetically determined disorders and that the former are more effective in doing so. METHODS: Lean and obese male Zucker rats, aged 8 wk, weighing 174 ± 4.2 g and 223 ± 3.8 g, respectively, were allocated to 4 groups. The lean (LC) and obese controls (OC) were fed a standard diet, whereas the other 2 obese groups were fed a modified diet in which hemp oil (4% diet; O + HO) or hemp seeds (12% diet; O + HS) were included. All diets had the same proportions of protein (18%), fat (8%), and fiber (5%) and a similar carbohydrate proportion (∼52%). Diets fed to O + HO and O + HS had similar fatty acid profiles. After 4 wk, markers of gut and liver function, antioxidant status, and lipid metabolism were measured. RESULTS: The total SCFA concentration in the cecal digesta was lower in OC (64.8 ± 4.21 µmol/g) compared with LC (78.1 ± 2.83 µmol/g) (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it was greater in O + HS (89 ± 4.41 µmol/g) compared with LC, OC, and O + HO (69.7 ± 2.68 µmol/g) (P ≤ 0.05). Plasma total cholesterol was greater in OC (6.20 ± 0.198 mmol/L) and O + HO (5.60 ± 0.084 mmol/L) compared with LC (2.71 ± 0.094 mmol/L) (P ≤ 0.05); in O + HS, the concentration did not differ from the other groups (5.16 ± 0.278 mmol/L). The liver cholesterol concentration was greater in OC (1.79 ± 0.379 mg/g) compared with the other groups (1.28-1.43 mg/g) (P ≤ 0.05). Hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ was lower in OC (11.9 ± 0.93 units) compared with LC (17.3 ± 1.3 units) (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it was greater in O + HS (19.2 ± 1.04 units) compared with OC and O + HO (14.0 ± 1.33 units) (P ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary hemp seeds more effectively attenuate metabolic disorders in genetically obese rats than the oil extracted from them, which suggests that the lipid fraction is only partly responsible for these effects.


Assuntos
Cannabis/enzimologia , Dieta , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sementes , Animais , Composição Corporal , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Expressão Gênica , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Sementes/química
14.
Food Chem ; 321: 126695, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247889

RESUMO

Freezing, heating, and pickling are common processes for pork meats. Unsaturated fatty acids including monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids are indispensable nutrition beneficial to human's health and growth. However, Unsaturated fatty acids are affected by processing methods. Hyperspectral imaging is a novel technique widely used for food quality and safety evaluation. In the current study, the contents of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were assessed by Hyperspectral imaging. Optimal wavelengths were selected by the regression coefficients curves of partial least squares regression models. The least-squares support vector machine models established achieved a better coefficient of determination in the Monte Carlo validation set than the partial least squares regression models developed and the R2MV values for the least squares - support vector machine models based on selected optimal wavelengths were higher than 0.81. Finally, colour maps of the contents of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were developed.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Carne de Porco/análise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Calefação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
15.
Food Chem ; 321: 126724, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276145

RESUMO

Seafood could be a promising way to supplement healthy fatty acids and trace elements to the Peruvian diet. Seafood from northern Peru was characterized with the highest relative concentrations of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), while in the center region marine species had the lowest As and Pb contents. Peruvian marine species are rich in LC-PUFAs and micro-nutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn), including species considered as potentially edible (e.g. Cycloxanthops sexdecimdentatus), but also non-edible species (e.g. Caulerpa filiformis). Nevertheless, it is crucial to consider toxic metals, e.g. As and Cd, which could pose a risk for consumers. High levels of beneficial LC-PUFAs and micro-nutrients would be taken up (up to 80% of the recommended values) when the Peruvian population would consume the estimated safe amount of seafood. Scoring species for fatty acid and metal content resulted in gastropods (e.g. Bursa ventricosa) as being the least beneficial species.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Metais/análise , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Peru , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/análise
16.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219928

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to perform comparison studies of the chemical, physical, technological, and microbiological characteristics, including biogenic amines (BAs) and volatile compounds (VC), of the European roe deer (RDM), boar (BoM), red deer (ReDM), and beaver (BM) hunted wild game meat (HWGM). The outcome of this study showed a significant effect (p < .05) of animal species on protein content, pH, drip loss, shear force, cooking loss, color coordinates, total count of enterobacteria, and most of the VC. ReDM had the highest protein content (23.15%), cooking loss, L* and b* values. The lowest protein and cholesterol content and L* value and the highest pH, shear force, drip loss, and fat content were established in BM having the highest content of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (64.12% from total FA). The total UFA content in ReDM and BM was almost twofold higher, compared with saturated FA. Small amounts of main BAs (<7.8 mg/kg) were found in ReDM and BM, while a higher content of putrescine in RDM and BoM was established. The main VCs in HWGM were acetoin, pelargonic, and acetic acid. These findings provide a valuable data about the HWGM quality characteristics and might aid food manufacturers to improve and enhance the processing of the HWGM.


Assuntos
Cervos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Roedores , Sus scrofa , Aminas/análise , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Colesterol/análise , Combinação de Medicamentos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Carne/análise , Carne/microbiologia , Óleos , Fenóis , Proteínas/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
17.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069847

RESUMO

The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions heavily affected by jellyfish bloom phenomena, mainly due to the presence of scyphozoans, such as Rhizostoma pulmo. The jellyfish have few natural predators, and their bodies represent an organic-rich substrate that can support rapid bacterial growth with great impact on the structure of marine food webs. In Asiatic countries, jellyfish are widely studied for their health benefits, but their nutritional and nutraceutical values still remain poorly characterized. In this study, the differences in the 1H NMR spectroscopy metabolic profiles of R. pulmo female gonads and body fractions (including umbrella and oral arms), in different sampling periods, were studied. For each body compartment both lipid and aqueous extracts were characterized and their 1H NMR metabolic profiles subjected to multivariate analysis. From a statistical analysis of the extracts, a higher contents of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), amino acid and osmolytes (homarine, betaine, taurine) with important roles in marine invertebrates were observed in female gonads, whereas umbrella and oral arms showed similar metabolic profiles. These results support a sustainable exploitation of the jellyfish for the extraction of bioactive compounds useful in nutraceutical, nutricosmetics, and functional food fields.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Animais , Betaína/análise , Cnidários/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Gônadas/química , Análise Multivariada , Ácidos Picolínicos/análise , Cifozoários/química , Taurina/análise
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101561

RESUMO

There is increased consumer interest in grass-finished beef (GFB) with retail sales reaching $272 million in 2016. GFB contains higher omega-3 fatty acid levels compared to grain-finished beef, but variations in fatty acid (FA), mineral, and antioxidant content by producers and season is poorly documented. Hence, GFB samples from cattle finished in both fall and spring were obtained from four producers representing several US sub-regions. FAs were extracted using microwave-assisted extraction, derivatized to methyl-esters, and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mineral content was quantified using coupled plasma mass-spectrometry and antioxidants were quantified via UV-absorption. Overall, total omega-3 FA content was greater in beef from cattle finished in the spring (13.4 mg/100g beef) than the fall (10.3; P<0.001). Additionally, α-tocopherol was present in greater amounts in spring-finished beef (259 vs. 223 ug/100g beef, P<0.001) as was the micromineral selenium (18.2 vs. 17.3ug/100g beef, P = 0.008). Despite using the same feed in fall and spring, cattle from producer 4 had higher total omega-3, omega-6, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in spring compared to fall (P<0.010). These results suggest there are seasonal differences in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, minerals and antioxidants in grass-finished beef independent of finishing diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Carne/análise , Minerais/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Poaceae/química , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0223031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084137

RESUMO

Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L. 1758) are important components of coastal ecosystems and in the economy of rural and coastal areas. The understanding of their physiological processes at key life stages is important both within food production systems and in the management of wild populations. Lipids are crucial molecules for bivalve growth, but their diversity and roles have not been fully characterised. In this study, traditional lipid profiling techniques, such as fatty acid (FA) and lipid class analysis, are combined to untargeted lipidomics to elucidate the lipid metabolism in newly settled spat fed on a range of diets. The evaluated diets included single strains treatments (Cylindrotheca fusiformis CCAP 1017/2 -CYL, Isochrysis galbana CCAP 927/1- ISO, Monodopsis subterranean CCAP 848/1 -MONO, Nannochloropsis oceanica CCAP 849/10- NANNO) and a commercial algae paste (SP). Spat growth was influenced by the diets, which, according to their efficacy were ranked as follows: ISO>NANNO/CYL>SP>MONO. A higher triacylglycerols (TG) content, ranging from 4.23±0.82 µg mgashfree Dry weight (DW)-1 at the beginning of the trial (T0) to 51±15.3 µg mgashfreeDW-1 in ISO, characterised significant growth in the spat, whereas, a reduction of TG (0.3±0.08 µg mgashfreeDW-1 in MONO), mono unsaturated FA-MUFA (from 8.52±1.02 µg mgFAashfreeDW-1 at T0 to 2.81±1.02 µg mgFAashfreeDW-1 in MONO) and polyunsaturated FA-PUFA (from 17.57±2.24 µg mgFAashfreeDW-1 at T0 to 6.19±2.49 µg mgFAashfreeDW-1 in MONO) content characterised poor performing groups. Untargeted lipidomics evidenced how the availability of dietary essential PUFA did not influence only neutral lipids but also the membrane lipids, with changes in lipid molecular species in relation to the essential PUFA provided via the diet. Such changes have the potential to affect spat production cycle and their ability to respond to the surrounding environment. This study evidenced the advantages of coupling different lipid analysis techniques, as each technique disclosed relevant information on nutritional requirements of M. edulis juveniles, expanding the existing knowledge on the physiology of this important species.


Assuntos
Ecologia/economia , Lipidômica/métodos , Mytilus edulis/química , Necessidades Nutricionais , Animais , Dieta/métodos , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
20.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(3): 207-217, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051354

RESUMO

Analyses of fatty acids were carried out in oil samples derived from white mustard. Two cultivars of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) were evaluated: 'Borowska', and 'Bamberka'. The oil content in the seeds of the tested cultivars was 276 and 290 g/kg, respectively. The oils obtained differed significantly in the composition of fatty acids. The oil from 'Borowska' contained less saturated fatty acids (4.86%) in comparison to 'Bamberka' (10.36%). The content of erucic acid was 22.2% in the 'Borowska' oil, while the oil from 'Bamberka' contained only 3.8% of this component. The research shows that the oil pressed from 'Borowska' can be used for technical purposes, and the oil derived from the cultivar 'Bamberka' can be used for food purposes due to the low content of erucic acid in the fatty acid composition and the beneficial fatty acid composition. As a component of diet, the low-erucic acid oil from the cultivar 'Bamberka' can be a source of unsaturated fatty acids (total 67.25%). The lower levels of linoleic (9.46 %) and linolenic (8.35%) acid, compared with 'Borowska' (respectively: 12.5 and 10.5%), may contribute to increased oil oxidative stability during storage.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Mostardeira/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Mostardeira/classificação
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