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1.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(11): 1085-1097, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611513

RESUMO

The compositional characteristics and oxidative stability of rice bran oil were determined by observing the formation of oxidative products and alteration in chemical composition of oils during microwave or oven heating. The values of oxidative indicators such as free acidity, peroxide, p-anisidine, total oxidation, thiobarbituric acid and color values, increased faster in refined oils compared to crude ones during heating. In gas chromatography analysis, the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the studied oils such as lab extracted crude rice bran oil, lab extracted and refined rice bran oil, crude rice bran oil from commercial mill and refined rice bran oil from commercial mill were: 23.07 to 23.56, 41.15 to 42.38 and 34.38 to 35.88, respectively. The heating caused the reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids content with increasing saturated fatty acids content, and these changes were greater in refined rice bran oil indicating extensive lipid oxidation occurred in refined oil. The change in triacylglycerol species content as determined by High-performance liquid chromatography, was lower in crude oil; the higher stability of these species in crude oil could have contribution to reduce oxidation. During thermal treatment, the generation of hydroperoxides, their degradation and formation of secondary oxidative products evaluated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, were lower in crude oils. However, the rate of formation of oxidative products in lab prepared samples was lower compared to that in the samples collected from commercial mill. Under extreme thermal condition, the order of oxidative stability: lab extracted crude rice bran oil > crude rice bran oil from commercial mill>lab extracted and refined rice bran oil > refined rice bran oil from commercial mill. The present results will be useful to oil seed processing mills in refining of rice bran oil for economic feasibility and better marketability.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Óleo de Farelo de Arroz/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Oxirredução , Óleo de Farelo de Arroz/economia , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(7): 625-635, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178462

RESUMO

The seed of five fruits and vegetables, which are often eaten by Chinese people, were selected as research objects to study the physicochemical properties, nutritional ingredients and antioxidant capacity of their seed oils. The fatty acid results indicated that the oleic acid was the main unsaturated fatty acid in almond oil and celery seed oil (content of 64.10% and 62.96%, respectively), and the wax gourd seed oil, watermelon seed oil and pumpkin seed oil were linoleic acid as the main unsaturated fatty acid (content of 72.45%, 76.77% and 47.35%, respectively). Unsaturated fatty acids are mainly located at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerol (TAG), whereas saturated fatty acids are mainly located at the sn-1, 3 positions for the five seed oils. The pumpkin seed oil had certain advantages in terms of phytosterols and squalene (3716 and 2732 mg/kg, respectively). The high content of polyphenol for celery seed oil exhibits higher medicinal value. Polyphenols, and brassicasterols were have significant correlation with antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05, r = 0.890-0.998). The significant differences in nutrient composition between these fruits and vegetables seed oils indicate their unique value as food.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Frutas/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Verduras/química , Fenômenos Químicos , China , Colestadienóis , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Linoleicos/análise , Ácidos Linoleicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Oleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Esqualeno , Triglicerídeos/química
3.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4199-4209, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250861

RESUMO

The anti-inflammatory profile of DPA was investigated via a dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model, and was also compared with those of EPA and DHA. The results showed that DPA could significantly reduce (stronger than EPA and DHA) the disease activity index score, macroscopic appearance score, colon shortening, histological assessment, and myeloperoxidase accumulation in the colon. In addition, DPA also inhibited the abnormal production and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 and improved the production and expression of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects were also explored through the synthesis pathway of eicosanoids. DPA could inhibit the synthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) more greatly while differences of cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxidase (LOX) contents in these three groups were not significant. We ascribed these effects to the easier incorporation of DPA into inflammatory cells leading to the decrease in the substrate for the synthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids (PGE2 and LTB4). Besides, DPA-derived mediators might also be involved.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Peso Corporal , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Interleucina-1beta , Leucotrieno B4/metabolismo , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216939, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141543

RESUMO

In the present two-year study, an attempt was made to estimate the grain yield, grain nutrient uptake, and oil quality of three commonly grown maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids fertilized with varied levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Results obtained from both the experimental years indicated that application of 125% of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) recorded maximum grain yield (10.37 t ha-1; 124% higher than control). When compared with 100% RDF, grain yield reduction with nutrient omission was 44% for N omission, 17% for P omission, and 27% for K omission. Nitrogen uptake was increased with increasing NPK levels up to 150% RDF that was statistically at par (p ≥ 0.01) with 125% RDF. Increasing trend in P and K uptake was observed with successive increase in NPK levels up to 125% RDF, above which it declined. The protein content was significantly higher in grains of var. P 3396 with 125% RDF. Nutrient management has significant (p ≤ 0.01) role in the grain oil content. Saturated fatty acids (palmitic, stearic and arachidic acid) content decreased, and unsaturated fatty acid (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid) increased with increasing NPK levels. The average oleic acid desaturation and linoleic acid desaturation ratios were increased with increasing NPK levels up to 100 and 125% RDF, respectively. However, average monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA): poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), saturated: unsaturated as well as linoleic: linolenic acid ratios were increased on receiving 75% RDF, and beyond that it showed decreasing trend. The omission of K had the highest inhibitory effect on corn oil quality followed by N and P omission.


Assuntos
Óleo de Milho/química , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Fósforo/farmacologia , Potássio/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quimera/metabolismo , Óleo de Milho/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos/classificação , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Potássio/metabolismo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
Anim Sci J ; 90(6): 769-773, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977236

RESUMO

Polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity. We studied if administration of broth with beef meat enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids influenced glucose-stimulated insulin release in healthy male volunteers. Broth was made either from cattles undergone dietary supplementation with lightly bruised whole linseed in addition to feeding ad libitum on grass silage (test meal) or from those fed grass silage alone (control meal). Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed in patients after a 6-day period of eating 300 ml broth containing 100 g meat once a day in addition to their otherwise normal mixed nourishment. During OGTT, blood samples were taken for blood glucose level and plasma insulin immunoreactivity before and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min after the glucose load. Glucose-stimulated maximum increase in plasma insulin immunoreactivity was 42 ± 6.6 and 81 ± 7.4 mU/ml (p < 0.05) after the test and the control meals, respectively. However, both fasting and postload blood glucose levels were the same after either meal period. The results suggest an insulin-sensitizing effect of food produced from beef cattle maintained on linseed diet in healthy human volunteers.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Linho , Glucose/farmacologia , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne/análise , Silagem , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022860

RESUMO

Carpesium divaricatum Sieb. & Zucc. has a long history of use as both a medicinal and a food plant. However, except for terpenoids, its chemical constituents have remained poorly investigated. The composition of hydroalcoholic extract from aerial parts of C. divaricatum was analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MSn, revealing the presence of numerous caffeic acid derivatives that were formerly unknown constituents of the plant. In all, 17 compounds, including commonly found chlorogenic acids and rarely occurring butyryl and methylbutyryl tricaffeoylhexaric acids, were tentatively identified. Fractionation of lipophilic extract from cultivated shoots led to the isolation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA), which is a newly identified constituent of the plant. The compound, at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 µM, significantly reduced IL-8, IL-1ß, TNFα, and CCL2 excretion by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human neutrophils. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by f-MLP was also significantly diminished in the neutrophils pretreated by 12-OPDA. The newly identified constituents of the plant seem to be partly responsible for its pharmacological activity and elevate the value of C. divaricatum as a potential functional food.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Ácido Clorogênico/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-8/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
7.
Biosci Trends ; 13(1): 86-90, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700653

RESUMO

The current study determined the structure of a hemolytic compound found in an extract from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus when its pH was lowered. The hemolytic compound was purified using the modified Bligh and Dyer method followed by chromatography using reversed phase and silica gel columns. Structural analyses of the purified hemolytic compound were performed using NMR and ESI-MS. The deduced structure indicated a trans,trans-5,8-docosadienoic acid calcium salt. Although numerous proteinous hemolysins from various mushrooms have been described, the current study is the first to report on a low-molecular-weight hemolytic compound derived from an H. marmoreus extract.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Hemolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Carpóforos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular
8.
Trends Biotechnol ; 37(4): 344-346, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376959

RESUMO

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for human health. They are traditionally extracted from animals and plants but can be alternatively derived from oleaginous microbes, and engineering microbial metabolism can improve PUFA accumulation. The next frontier is to engineer more efficient PUFA-producing microbes using systems and synthetic biology tools.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Estramenópilas/genética , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Humanos
9.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(1): 87-94, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542010

RESUMO

Studies on avocado oil have focused on the most common commercial cultivars, Hass, Fuerte, and Bacon, rather than the less common varieties, P. americana var. drymifolia and P. americana var. americana, even though the drymifolia variety has a higher oil content and the americana variety is the most common avocado grown in the tropics. The most abundant storage structures for plant oils are the oleosomes, and the aim of this study was to determine the oleosome size, oil yield, and fatty acid composition of the americana and drymifolia varieties, using the Hass cultivar as a reference. Differences were found between the three avocado types for 1) oil yield, with drymifolia having higher and americana lower oil content (p < 0.05%), 2) oleosome size, with Hass having a larger (41.53 µm) and americana a smaller (11.96 µm) size, and 3) fatty acid composition, with the americana and drymifolia varieties showing less monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic) and more polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic) and saturated fatty acids (palmitic); while Hass had a high level (60%) of monounsaturated fatty acids. Small but significant differences were also found between oleosome and mesocarp oils isolated from the drymifolia and Hass types.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Persea/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Persea/classificação , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Mar Drugs ; 16(12)2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563236

RESUMO

Marine macroalgae (seaweed) are an excellent source of novel bioactive metabolites. The biorefinery concept applied to seaweed facilitates the extraction of many chemical constituents from the same biomass ensuring that the resource is used fully, generating few residues through a succession of extraction steps. In the present study, the biomass of the carragenophyte Solieria filiformis (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) cultured in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system was evaluated to obtain valuable products by a biorefinery approach. Enzymatic-assisted extraction (EAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were the eco-friendly technologies used to ensure an environmentally friendly valorization of the biomass. Three valuable products were successfully recovered: a water-soluble extract rich in proteins and sulfated polysaccharides suitable as a food supplement; a lipid fraction rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with potential to be used in the nutraceutical industry; and a pure ι-carrageenan with a powerful antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus (EC50 = 6.3 µg mL-1) comparable to the commercial antiviral acyclovir (EC50 = 3.2⁻5.4 µg mL-1).


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Reatores Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Rodófitas/química , Alga Marinha/química , Aciclovir/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Biomassa , Carragenina/química , Carragenina/isolamento & purificação , Carragenina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Enzimas/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Micro-Ondas , Perciformes/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Rodófitas/metabolismo , Pepinos-do-Mar/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Simplexvirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/química
11.
Mar Drugs ; 16(10)2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347869

RESUMO

Jellyfish is a compartment in the marine food web that often achieves high increases of biomass and that it is starting to be explored for several human potential uses. In this paper, a recently rediscovered large jellyfish, Rhizostoma luteum, is studied for the first time to describe its organic compounds for the isolation and production of bioactive compounds in several fields of food, cosmetics, or biomedical industries. The biogeochemical composition (Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulfur content), protein and phenols content, together with their antioxidant activity, and the analysis of lipid content (identifying each of the fatty acids presented) was analyzed. The results presented here suggested this jellyfish has the highest antioxidant activity ever measured in a jellyfish, but also with high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including the essential fatty acid linoleic. The large natural biomass of Rhizostoma luteum in nature, the wide geographical spread, the fact that already its life cycle has been completed in captivity, establishes a promising positive association of this giant jellyfish species and the isolation of bioactive compounds for future use in marine biotechnology.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Cifozoários , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Biomassa , Biotecnologia/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos
12.
Steroids ; 139: 18-27, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217788

RESUMO

Ichnocarpus frutescens, a climber plant, is distributed all over India. As its different parts are used as anti-inflammatory agent, so we re-investigated the roots to isolate compounds and evaluate its biological efficacy. Also, in-silico molecular docking was carried out to elucidate the structure activity relationship (SAR) of isolated compounds toward identifies the drug target enzyme with validation, which was further supported by anti-inflammatory in-vitro and in-vivo experimental models. The compounds have been undertaken mainly to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic efficacy along with molecular docking investigation followed by anti-proteinase, anti-denaturation and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition studies. Inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-6 were assayed from lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and Concavallin (CON A) stimulated human PBMC derived macrophages by Enyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The purity index of the lead compound was determined by HPLC. The compounds were illustrated as 2-hydroxy tricosanoic acid (1), stigmasterol glucoside (2), stigmasterol (3), ß-sitosterol (4) and ß-sitosterol glucoside (5). The test molecules showed significant anti-denaturation, anti-proteinase and analgesic effect validated with docking study. Compounds exhibited anti-inflammatory and pain killing action due to dexamethasone like phytosterol property. Promising anti-denaturation and anti-proteinase activity offered by the compound 5, may hold its promise to fight against arthritis by rejuvenating the osteoblast cells and destroying the bone-resorpting complex of hydrated protein, bone minerals by secreting the acid and an enzyme collagenase along with pain management. The lead bioactive compound i.e. ß-sitosterol glucoside (compound 5) demonstrated considerable anti-inflammatory activity showing more than 90% protection against the inflammatory cytokines at 50 µM dose. The anti-denaturation and COX-2 inhibition shown by the compound 5 was also noteworthy with the significant IC50 (ranging from 0.25 to 2.56 µM) that also supporting its future promise for developing as anti-inflammatory agent. Since the most bio-active compound (5) elicit promising acute anti-inflammatory action and peripheral anti-nociceptive pain killing action with a significant ED50 dose of 3.95 & 2.84 mg/kg i.p. respectively in the in-vivo animal model. It could suggest its potentiality as a good in-vivo bio available agent to be an emerging anti-inflammatory drug regimen scaffold in the future. It also establishes significant in-vitro and in-vivo result co-relation. Therefore, the compound 5 could be believed as a potent lead for designing anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic drug or pain killer without showing any untoward effect.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Nociceptiva/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Dor Nociceptiva/patologia , Percepção da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Sitosteroides/química , Sitosteroides/isolamento & purificação , Esteroides/química , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Estigmasterol/análogos & derivados , Estigmasterol/química , Estigmasterol/isolamento & purificação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
13.
ACS Synth Biol ; 7(10): 2340-2347, 2018 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261136

RESUMO

Here we present a Golden Gate assembly system adapted for the rapid genomic engineering of the industrial fungus Ashbya gossypii. This biocatalyst is an excellent biotechnological chassis for synthetic biology applications and is currently used for the industrial production of riboflavin. Other bioprocesses such as the production of folic acid, nucleosides, amino acids and biolipids have been recently reported in A. gossypii. In this work, an efficient assembly system for the expression of heterologous complex pathways has been designed. The expression platform comprises interchangeable DNA modules, which provides flexibility for the use of different loci for integration, selection markers and regulatory sequences. The functionality of the system has been applied to engineer strains able to synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acids (up to 35% of total fatty acids). The production of the industrially relevant arachidonic, eicosapentanoic and docosahexanoic acids remarks the potential of A. gossypii to produce these functional lipids.


Assuntos
Eremothecium/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Biomassa , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Engenharia Metabólica , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Biologia Sintética/métodos
14.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1031: 185-194, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30119738

RESUMO

Lipid mediators play an important role as biological messengers involved in inflammatory processes. Deriving from different polyunsaturated fatty acids, endogenously built mediators featuring both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties as well as pro-resolving lipid mediators and their biological precursors have been investigated. A newly developed method using chiral chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on human plasma has demonstrated its suitability for the simultaneous determination of prostaglandins, lipoxins, D-series derived resolvins as well as protectins, maresin 1, leukotriene B4 and several precursors of them in order to yield information about metabolic pathways. Due to the matrix complexity, a solid phase extraction method using an octadecyl-modified silica gel cartridge was carried out. The developed method allows the determination of 34 analytes in 25 min showing enough selectivity as well as precision and accuracy (≤15% relative standard deviation, ≤15% relative error) in the calibration range of 0.1-10 ng mL-1 or 0.2-20 ng mL-1 depending on the analytes. Stability of the analytes in plasma has been demonstrated for at least 3 h at room temperature, 72 h in the autosampler and 60 days in the freezer at -80 °C. This method has been validated and shown its suitability for the determination of all studied analytes in human plasma samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucotrieno B4/sangue , Limite de Detecção , Prostaglandinas/sangue , Extração em Fase Sólida , Estereoisomerismo
15.
Lipids Health Dis ; 17(1): 138, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Argan oil is traditionally produced by cold pressing in South-western Morocco where rural population uses it as edible oil as well as for its therapeutic properties which give them in counterpart valuable income. Given the economical interest of this oil, several attempts of fraudulency have been registered in the world global market leading to loss of authenticity. Our purpose is to launch a program of Tunisian Argan oil valorization since trees from this species have been introduced sixty years ago in Tunisia. The first step was thus to characterize the physicochemical properties and determine the chemical composition of Tunisian Argan oil in order to assess its quality. METHODS: Physicochemical parameters of oil quality were determined according to the international standard protocols. Fatty acid content analysis of Argan oils was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry. A comparative study was realized among Tunisian, Moroccan and Algerian samples differing also by their extraction procedure. The impact of geographical localisation on the fatty acids composition was studied by statistical and modeling Bayesian analyses. RESULTS: Physicochemical parameters analysis showed interestingly that Tunisian Argan oil could be classified as extra virgin oil. Argan oil is mainly composed by unsaturated fatty acids (80%), mainly oleic and linoleic acid (linoleic acid was positively influenced by the geographical localization (r = 0.899, p = 0.038) and the P/S index (r = 0.987, p = 0.002)) followed by saturated fatty acids (20%) with other beneficial compounds from the unsaponifiable fraction like polyphenols and carotenoids. Together with fatty acid content, these minor components are likely to be responsible for its nutraceutical properties and beneficial effects. CONCLUSION: Tunisian Argan oil displayed valuable qualitative parameters proving its competitiveness in comparison with Moroccan and Algerian oils, and could be therefore considered as extra virgin edible oil for nutraceutical purposes as well as for cosmetic use.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Sapotaceae/química , Argélia , Carotenoides/classificação , Cosmecêuticos/provisão & distribução , Suplementos Nutricionais/provisão & distribução , Ácidos Graxos/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/classificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Marrocos , Polifenóis/classificação , Tunísia
16.
Lipids Health Dis ; 17(1): 140, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to the actual composition of the diet (i.e. nutrient composition, food groups), the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio has been demonstrated to influence the tissue fatty acid profile and subsequently the risk for cardiovascular and other diseases. Likewise, the consumption of green leafy vegetables (GLVs) may favorably reduce the risks associated with disease. Although an ~ 3:1 omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio (ω-6/ω-3 FAR) is recommended, the typical American diet has an ~ 25:1 ω-6/ω-3 FAR. Previous research affirms the ability of collard greens (CG), purslane (PL), and sweet potato greens (SPG) to improve the hepatic profile of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of GLVs, incorporated (4%) into diets with a 25:1 ω-6/ω-3 FAR, on the erythrocyte fatty acid profile of male SHRs. METHODS: SHRs (N = 50) were randomly assigned to one of five dietary groups - standardized control (AIN-76A), Control (25:1 ω-6/ω-3 FAR), CG (25:1 ω-6/ω-3 FAR + 4% CG), PL (25:1 ω-6/ω-3 FAR + 4% PL) or SPG (25:1 ω-6/ω-3 FAR + 4% SPG). Following 6 weeks consumption of diets, SHRs erythrocyte fatty acid profiles were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Significantly lower percentages of total saturated fatty acids (p < 0.05) and greater percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids were present among SHR erythrocytes following the consumption of diets containing CG, PL and SPG. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids were greatest among SHRs consuming diets containing purslane. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates the ability of GLVs to mitigate the potential effects of an elevated ω-6/ω-3 FAR, which may contribute to an atherogenic fatty acid profile, inflammation and disease pathogenesis. Dietary recommendations for disease prevention should consider the inclusion of these GLVs, particularly among those consuming diets with an ω-6/ω-3 FAR that may promote disease.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Eritrócitos/química , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brassica/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/classificação , Ipomoea batatas/química , Masculino , Portulaca/química , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
17.
Food Res Int ; 108: 491-497, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735084

RESUMO

In this study, the protection effect of black carrot extract on the stability of liposomes during storage was evaluated. The physical and chemical stability of the extract (0.4% w/w) including extract-loaded liposomes with various lecithin content (1%, 2%, and 4% w/w) were demonstrated. Z-average particle diameter and zeta potentials of liposomes were evaluated before and after 21 days of storage. The particle diameter of the samples was found to be lower than 50 nm after storage and no statistical change was determined (p < 0.05). The liposomes with and without extract were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after negative staining. The TEM images revealed that unloaded and extract-loaded liposomes are similar in size. The degradation of extract (30%-90%), phenolic content (10%-29%), and antioxidant capacity (4%-33%) of liposomes depending on lecithin content were also determined during storage to evaluate the biochemical stability. A hexanal analysis was performed to investigate the lipid oxidation in liposomes within 60 days. According to the results, the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids may be inhibited with the addition of the extract to liposomes; however, lipid content should be limited according to the extract concentration. The highest protection on oxidation was observed in extract-loaded liposomes containing 1% lecithin. The study provided valuable data on the contribution of an anthocyanin addition to liposomes to overcome oxidation of unsaturated phospholipids.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Daucus carota/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Lecitinas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Lipossomos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 64(5): 91-96, 2018 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729699

RESUMO

Due to the importance of Camelina for low expectation (water and other inputs) and as an oil crop, Soheil cultivar was cultivated in Ardebil, Hamedan, Rasht, Ilam, Kermanshah, Karaj, Mashhad, Ahvaz and Bushehr Provinces. Fatty acids were measured with MG-Mass. Results showed that morphological traits were not very dependent on the climate, but the profile of the fatty acids was dependent. ANOVA of the effects of climate on the saturated fatty acid showed that there were significant differences between climates for all studied SFAs (P<0.01) with the exception of Lauric acid. Mean squares of the effects of climate on the Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA) in showing that there were significant differences between climates for all studied MUFAs (P<0.01). Mean squares of the effects of climate on the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), oil percentage and protein content of seeds indicated that there were significant differences between climates for all these studied traits. Mean squares of the effects of climate on the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), oil percentage and protein content of seeds indicated that there were significant differences between climates for all these studied traits. The statistical analysis for the effects of Climate on the ratio of the Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA) in Camelina sativa showed that there were significant differences (P<0.01) for SFA, MUSFA, PUFA, MP, P:S and MP:S. Briefly, in the cold climates, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids was higher. So it is possible to the cultivation of this plant in cold provinces for nutritional purposes and in tropical provinces for industrial and sanitary purposes.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Adaptação Fisiológica , Cromatografia Gasosa , Clima , Gorduras na Dieta/classificação , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Irã (Geográfico) , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Metaboloma
19.
Fitoterapia ; 128: 258-264, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778575

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of a freshwater sediment-derived fungus, Penicillium sp. (S1a1), led to the isolation of three new tanzawaic acid derivatives, including penitanzchroman (1), tanzawaic acids Y (2) and Z (3), along with six known tanzawaic acid analogues (4-9), three known isochromans (10-12) and two known benzoquinones (13 and 14). The structures of the new compounds were established based on high-resolution mass spectrometry, and detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The relative configuration of the new compounds was assigned on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data including ROESY spectra. The absolute configuration was determined based on the specific optical rotation, in addition to biogenetic considerations in comparison with related co-isolated known metabolites. Penitanzchroman (1) constitutes a hitherto unprecedented skeleton, formed of tanzawaic acid A (5) and (3S)-6-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3,5-dimethylisochroman (10) linked by a CC bond. Moreover, all compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Penicillium/química , Animais , Benzoquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Água Doce/microbiologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Microbiologia da Água
20.
Molecules ; 23(4)2018 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641444

RESUMO

By their autotrophic nature and their molecular richness, microalgae are serious assets in the context of current environmental and societal challenges. Some species produce both omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and xanthophylls, two molecular families widely studied for their bioactivities in the fields of nutrition and cosmetics. Whereas most studies separately deal with the two families, synergies could be exploited with extracts containing both PUFAs and xanthophylls. The purpose of our work was to determine cost effective and eco-friendly parameters for their co-extraction. The effect of several parameters (solvent, solvent/biomass ratio, temperature, duration) were studied, using two microalgal species, the non-calcifying Haptophyta Tisochrysis lutea, and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, that presents a silicified frustule. Analyses of PUFAs and fucoxanthin (Fx), the main xanthophyll, allowed to compare kinetics and extraction yields between experimental protocols. Co-extraction yields achieved using 96% ethanol as solvent were 100% for Fx and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in one hour from T. lutea biomass, and respectively 95% and 89% for Fx and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in eight hours from P. tricornutum. These conditions are compatible with industrial applications.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Microalgas/química , Xantofilas/isolamento & purificação , Biomassa , Diatomáceas/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Haptófitas/química , Solventes , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
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