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1.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(5): e12481, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275804

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread to many countries around the world, but the infection and death rates vary widely. One country that appeared to have kept the infection under control despite limited societal restrictions is Japan. This commentary explores why Japan may have, up to now, been spared an escalation of the SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Cultura , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Variação Genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Distância Social
2.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168329

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is an ecologically and economically important species. Here, we assessed the diversity of 78 accessions cultivated in northern China using 8 agronomic characteristics, oil traits (including oil content and fatty acid composition) in seeds and fruit pulp, and SSR markers at 23 loci. The 78 accessions included 52 from ssp. mongolica, 6 from ssp. sinensis, and 20 hybrids. To assess the phenotypic diversity of these accessions, 8 agronomic fruit traits were recorded and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The first two PCs accounted for approximately 78% of the variation among accessions. The oil contents were higher in pulp (3.46-38.56%) than in seeds (3.88-8.82%), especially in ssp. mongolica accessions. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio was slightly lower in the seed oil of hybrids (76.06%) than that of in ssp. mongolica (77.66%) and higher than that of in ssp. sinensis (72.22%). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) ratio in the pulp oil of ssp. sinensis (57.00%) was highest, and that in ssp. mongolica (51.00%) was equal to the ratio in the hybrids (51.20%). Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), we examined the correlation between agronomic traits and oil characteristics in pulp and seeds. Oil traits in pulp from different origins were correlated with morphological groupings (r = 0.8725, p = 0.0000). To assess the genotypic diversity, 23 SSR markers (including 17 loci previously reported) were used among the 78 accessions with 59 polymorphic amplified fragments obtained and an average PIC value of 0.2845. All accessions were classified into two groups based on the UPGMA method. The accessions of ssp. sinensis and ssp. mongolica were genetically distant. The hybrid accessions were close to ssp. mongolica accessions. The 8 agronomic traits, oil characteristics in seed and pulp oils, and 23 SSR markers successfully distinguished the 78 accessions. These results will be valuable for cultivar identification and genetic diversity analysis in cultivated sea buckthorn.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Hippophae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , China , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hippophae/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
3.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(2): 133-138, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185752

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN) is a common medical condition associated with many adverse health outcomes. Diet plays a crucial role in the pathology, prevention, and management of HTN. AIM: To identify nutrient patterns (NPs) and to investigate their association with the risk of HTN among adults in the United States (US). METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the US community-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants with data on dietary intake and blood pressure were analyzed. NPs were determined by principal components analysis (PCA). In all the analyses (analysis of covariance and multivariate logistic regression), we accounted for the survey design and sample weights. RESULTS: Overall, 22,184 (4002 hypertensive and 18,182 normotensive) individuals were included. We identified three NPs which explained 50.8% of the variance of the dietary nutrient consumption. There was a graded decrease in the odds of association with HTN by quartiles of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary pattern where the 4th quartile was associated with a 28% (odds ratio [OR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-0.82; p < 0.001) lower odds of HTN compared with the first quartile. The second NP "high in micronutrients and vitamins" presented a decreasing trend in the odds of association with HTN with the 4th quartile having a 20% [OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.63-0.97; p < 0.001] lower odds of HTN compared with the 1st quartile. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide further evidence on the inverse association between a high intake of minerals, vitamins, and MUFA and the risk of HTN. Further observational studies and clinical trials are needed to better understand the influence of MUFA, vitamins, and mineral consumption on HTN.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(2): 20, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058563

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the association between dietary fat intake and the presence of AMD. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study with cohorts prospectively recruited from the United States and Portugal. AMD was diagnosed based on color fundus photographs with the AREDS classification. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to calculate the percent energy intake of trans fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for quintile of amount of FA were calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the OR. Results: We included 483 participants, 386 patients with AMD and 97 controls. Higher intake of trans fat was associated with a 2.3-fold higher odds of presence of AMD (P for trend = 0.0156), whereas a higher intake of PUFA (OR, 0.25; P for trend = 0.006) and MUFA (OR, 0.24; P for trend < 0.0001) presented an inverse association. Subgroup analysis showed that higher quintile of trans fat was associated with increased odds of having intermediate AMD (OR, 2.26; P for trend = 0.02); and higher quintile of PUFA and MUFA were inversely associated with intermediate AMD (OR, 0.2 [P for trend = 0.0013]; OR, 0.17 [P for trend < 0.0001]) and advanced AMD (OR, 0.13 [P for trend = 0.02]; OR, 0.26 [P for trend = 0.004]). Additionally, a statistically significant effect modification by country was noted with inverse association between MUFA and AMD being significant (OR, 0.04; P for trend < 0.0001) for the Portugal population only. Conclusions: Our study shows that higher dietary intake of trans fat is associated with the presence of AMD, and a higher intake of PUFA and MUFA is inversely associated with AMD.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/efeitos adversos , Degeneração Macular/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227891, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978077

RESUMO

For the induction of antigen-specific T-cell responses by vaccination, an appropriate immune adjuvant is required. Vaccine adjuvants generally provide two functions, namely, immune potentiator and delivery, and many adjuvants that can efficiently induce T-cell responses are known to have the combination of these two functions. In this study, we explored a cationic lipid DOTAP-based adjuvant. We found that the microfluidic preparation of DOTAP nanoparticles induced stronger CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses than liposomal DOTAP. The further addition of Type-A CpG D35 in DOTAP nanoparticles increased the induction of T-cell responses, particularly in CD4+ T cells. Further investigations revealed that the size of DOTAP nanoparticles, prepared buffer conditions, and physicochemical interaction with vaccine antigen are important factors for the efficient induction of T-cell responses with a relatively small antigen dose. These results suggested that microfluidic-prepared DOTAP nanoparticles plus D35 are a promising adjuvant for a vaccine that induces therapeutic T-cell responses for treating cancer and infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Vacinas/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Lipossomos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Microfluídica , Nanopartículas/química , Vacinas/química
6.
Food Chem ; 313: 125822, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931419

RESUMO

Concentrated pomegranate peel extract (CPE) was supplemented to ewes, and milk yield and fat content-fatty acid (FA) and phospholipid (PL) composition-were monitored. CPE-fed ewes had higher milk yield, and fat, protein and lactose contents than controls. Milk PL content-20% higher in the CPE-supplemented group-was regulated by treatment and not by total fat content; milk phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine increased by 22 and 26%, respectively, in CPE-supplemented vs. control ewes. Milk saturated FA concentration was higher, and total polyunsaturated and monounsaturated FA content lower in the CPE vs. control group, regardless of milk total fat content. CPE supplementation increased milk antioxidant capacity, suggesting antioxidant transfer from dietary source to milk, increasing stability and nutritive value. Our study provides first evidence for milk quality improvement in terms of antioxidants and PL enrichment without compromising total milk fat, suggesting strategies to improve dairy animals' milk composition without compromising total production.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta , Leite/química , Romã (Fruta)/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Feminino , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Fosfatidilcolinas/análise , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/análise , Romã (Fruta)/metabolismo , Ovinos
7.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(1): 110-125, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease associated with a variety of mutations affecting the CFTR gene. A deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508) affects more than 70% of patients and results in unfolded proteins accumulation, originating a proteinopathy responsible for inflammation, impaired trafficking, altered metabolism, cholesterol and lipids accumulation, impaired autophagy at the cellular level. Lung inflammation has been extensively related to the accumulation of the lipotoxin ceramide. We recently proved that inhibition of ceramide synthesis by Myriocin reduces inflammation and ameliorates the defence response against pathogens infection, which is downregulated in CF. Here, we aim at demonstrating the mechanisms of Myriocin therapeutic effects in Cystic Fibrosis broncho-epithelial cells. METHODS: The effect of Myriocin treatment, on F508-CFTR bronchial epithelial cell line IB3-1 cells, was studied by evaluating the expression of key proteins and genes involved in autophagy and lipid metabolism, by western blotting and real time PCR. Moreover, the amount of glycerol-phospholipids, triglycerides, and cholesterols, sphingomyelins and ceramides were measured in treated and untreated cells by LC-MS. Finally, Sptlc1 was transiently silenced and the effect on ceramide content, autophagy and transcriptional activities was evaluated as above mentioned. RESULTS: We demonstrate that Myriocin tightly regulates metabolic function and cell resilience to stress. Myriocin moves a transcriptional program that activates TFEB, major lipid metabolism and autophagy regulator, and FOXOs, central lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant regulators. The activity of these transcriptional factors is associated with the induction of PPARs nuclear receptors activity, whose targets are genes involved in lipid transport compartmentalization and oxidation. Transient silencing of SPTCL1 recapitulates the effects induced by Myriocin. CONCLUSION: Cystic Fibrosis bronchial epithelia accumulate lipids, exacerbating inflammation. Myriocin administration: i) activates the transcriptions of genes involved in enhancing autophagy-mediated stress clearance; ii) reduces the content of several lipid species and, at the same time, iii) enhances mitochondrial lipid oxidation. Silencing the expression of Sptlc1 reproduces Myriocin induced autophagy and transcriptional activities, demonstrating that the inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis drives a transcriptional program aimed at addressing cell metabolism towards lipid oxidation and at exploiting autophagy mediated clearance of stress. We speculate that regulating sphingolipid de novo synthesis can relieve from chronic inflammation, improving energy supply and anti-oxidant responses, indicating an innovative therapeutic strategy for CF.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Colesterol/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/patologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Serina C-Palmitoiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina C-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Serina C-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/análise , Esfingomielinas/análise
8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110914, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672515

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to clarify whether oxidative stress and inflammatory responses are related to impaired insulin signaling and fat accumulation induced by the dietary fatty acids and fructose. C57BL/6 type 8 week-old male mice (n = 10/per group) were fed with standard chow or three isocaloric diets consisting fructose, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), or saturated fatty acid (SFA) for 15 weeks. After the dietary manipulation, the mice were sacrificed, tissues and blood were collected. Consequently, body weight gains, liver weights, and plasma homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values in were at higher levels in SFA and fructose groups (p < 0.05). The plasma concentrations of the non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglyceride (TG), and liver steatosis were found to be at higher levels in SFA and fructose groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, the expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in the liver were affected by the intake of SFA and fructose. Furthermore, the plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the liver were elevated in SFA and fructose group (p < 0.05). The plasma level of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL -10) was found to be lower in the SFA group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the inflammation and oxidation are related with the fatty acid- and fructose-induced impaired insulin signaling and fat accumulation in liver. Hence, in order to decrease the oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response, it is substantial to reduce the saturated fat and added sugar or to replace with the unsaturated fat and complex carbohydrates in diet.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124605, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450107

RESUMO

A Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) methodology followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis was developed to extract thirteen synthetic musk compounds (SMCs: cashmeran, celestolide, phantolide, traseolide, galaxolide, tonalide, musk ambrette, musk xylene, musk ketone, musk tibetene, musk moskene, ethylene brassylate and exaltolide) and six ultraviolet-filters (UVFs: 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene) camphor, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, 2-ethylhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylate, benzophenone and drometrizole trisiloxane) from tomatoes. The proposed methodology was optimized: 2 g of freeze-dried tomato was extracted with 4 mL of water and 10 mL of ethyl acetate, adding 6 g of MgSO4 and 1.5 g of NaCl, then a dispersive solid-phase extraction was performed using 3 g of MgSO4, 300 mg of primary-secondary amino adsorbent (PSA) and 300 mg of octadecyl-silica (C18). Validation delivered recoveries between 81 (celestolide) and 119% (musk tibetene), with relative standard deviations <10%. The instrumental limit of detection varied from 0.02 (2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate) to 3.00 pg (exaltolide and musk xylene). Regarding the method quantification limits, it ranged between 0.4 (celestolide) and 47.9 ng g-1 dw (exaltolide). The method was applied to different varieties of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), revealing UVFs and SMCs between 1 and 210 ng g-1 dw. Higher concentrations were found for benzophenone (29-210 ng g-1 dw) and galaxolide (9-53 ng g-1 dw). The risk associated to the ingestion of contaminated tomatoes has also been estimated, showing that a potential health risk is unlikely.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Benzofenonas/análise , Benzopiranos/análise , Dinitrobenzenos/análise , Indanos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/análise , Xilenos/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124576, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421462

RESUMO

This study assesses and compares the influence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) on the fatty acid composition, pigments, and growth indices of Chlorella vulgaris. Toxicity testing was carried at the estimated and/or above predicted environmental concentrations of AgNPs and AgNO3. AgNO3 treatments impaired the population growth of C. vulgaris about 2-183 times more than the respective AgNPs ones. The pigments displayed a concentration-dependent decrease in response to both forms of silver; however, AgNO3 displayed higher severity to the pigments than AgNPs. In exposure to 10 µg L-1 AgNO3, the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid, respectively, demonstrated a reduction of about 5, 3, 4, and 4 times when compared with the same respective concentration of AgNPs. Total amounts of saturated (∑SFA), monounsaturated (∑MUFA), and polyunsaturated (∑PUFA) fatty acids as well as the ratio of unsaturated to saturated ones (Unsat./Sat.) displayed somewhat similar-concentration responses. ∑SFA exhibited a hormesis response, and ∑MUFA, ∑PUFA, and Unsat./Sat. did a decreasing trend with increasing concentration of AgNPs and AgNO3. Myristoleic acid, nervonic acid, and eicosadienoic acid revealed the highest sensitivity. Pearson analysis illustrated the highest correlation among myristoleic acid, eicosenoic acid, and nervonic acid as well as among palmitic acid, stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, and oleic acid. Taken together, AgNPs and the released ions could disrupt physiological health state of microalgae through perturbation in the fatty acid composition (especially MUFAs and PUFAs) and other macromolecules. These types of bioperturbations could change the good health state of aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nitrato de Prata/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225806, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830058

RESUMO

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) and their production of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) are believed to play an important role in human immunodeficiency virus, type I (HIV-1) pathogenesis. PDCs produce IFN-α and other proinflammatory cytokines through stimulation of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR9 present in endosomal compartments. TLR7 recognizes single-stranded viral RNA, while TLR9 recognizes unmethylated DNA. In this study, we examined the mechanisms that may underlie variations in IFN-α production in response to HIV, and the impact of these variations on HIV pathogenesis. In four distinct cohorts, we examined PDC production of IFN-α upon stimulation with inactivated HIV-1 particles and unmethylated DNA. The signaling cascade of TLR7 bifurcates at the myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) adaptor protein to induce expression of either IFN-α or TNF-α. To determine whether variations in IFN-α production are modulated at the level of the receptor complex or downstream of it, we correlated production of IFN-α and TNF-α following stimulation of TLR7 or TLR9 receptors. Flow cytometry detection of intracellular cytokines showed strong, direct correlations between IFN-α and TNF-α expression in all four cohorts, suggesting that variations in IFN-α production are not due to variations downstream of the receptor complex. We then investigated the events upstream of TLR binding by using lipid-like vesicles to deliver TLR ligands directly to the TLR receptors, bypassing the need for CD4 binding and endocytosis. Similar tight correlations were found in IFN-α and TNF-α production in response to the TLR ligands. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that differences in IFN-α production depend on the regulatory processes at the level of the TLR7 receptor complex. Additionally, we found no association between IFN-α production before HIV infection and disease progression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/virologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Interferon-alfa/biossíntese , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Masculino , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Toll-Like 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 209, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of a Western-styled diet enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFA) relative to polyunsaturated fatty acids is positively associated with risk for Alzheimer's disease. Whilst potential causal mechanism are unclear, there is increasing evidence that chronic ingestion of SFA enriched diets promote increase the plasma levels of lipoprotein-associated amyloid-ß (Aß). However, the effects of dietary mono- and poly-unsaturated fats (MUFA/PUFA) on nascent lipoprotein Aß abundance have not been previously reported. METHODS: Wild-type C57BL/6 J mice were maintained on low-fat control chow (LF) or diets enriched in either SFA, MUFA, or PUFA for 9 months. Enterocytic abundance of Aß was determined with quantitative immunofluorescent microscopy and plasma Aß was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The chronic ingestion of SFA-enriched diet increased the enterocytic abundance and plasma concentration of Aß compared to LF control mice. The mice maintained on MUFA or PUFA diet showed comparable enterocytic and plasma Aß levels to the LF control mice. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicates that a diet enriched in SFA significantly increases the enterocytic Aß production and secretion into the circulation, whilst MUFA and PUFA enriched diet do not exert such effects.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Enterócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Animais , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Enterócitos/patologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(4): 817-825, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057126

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: to determine the fatty acid composition of mature milk of nursing mothers and its distribution according to some maternal variables. Methods: this is a cross-sectional observational epidemiological study based on the eva-luation of the fatty acid profile of mature human milk. Samples of mature breast milk were taken from 106 nursing mothers, by manual milking and who were after the 5th postpartum week. The milk fat extraction was carried out by using the Bligh and Dyer method and methy-lated with 0.25 mol/L sodium methoxide in methanol diethyl ether. The fatty acid of the milk profile was determined by a Gas Chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. Results: among the saturated fatty acids, the highest values were observed for palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) fatty acids, respectively. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, there was a higher contribution of oleic (C18:1) and palmi-toleic (C16:1) fatty acids, respectively. The total essential fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic) was 14.94%. Conclusions: a low content of essential fatty acids in the breast milk of the nursing mothers was observed in the present study, which are important for infant growth and deve-lopment. We suggest the need to implement nutrition education strategies aimed for pregnant women and nursing mothers who should be advised to eat healthier foods.


Resumo Objetivos: determinar a composição em ácidos graxos do leite maduro de nutrizes e sua distribuição segundo algumas variáveis maternas. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico observacional, transversal realizado a partir da avaliação do perfil de ácidos graxos do leite humano maduro. Amostras de leite materno maduro foram obtidas de 106 nutrizes, a partir da 5ª semana pós-parto, por meio de ordenha manual. A extração da gordura do leite foi realizada através do método de Bligh e Dyer, e metiladas com metóxido de sódio 0,25 mol/L em metanol dietil - éter. O perfil de ácidos graxos do leite foi determinado por um Cromatógrafo a Gás equipado com detector por ionização de chamas. Resultados: dentre os ácidos graxos saturados, foram observados valores mais elevados para os ácidos graxos palmítico (C16:0), esteárico (C18:0), mirístico (C14:0) e láurico (C12:0), respectivamente. Entre os ácidos graxos mono-insaturados, verificou-se maior contribuição dos ácidos graxos oleico (C18:1) e palmitoleico (C16:1), respectivamente. O total de ácidos graxos essenciais (linoleico e α- linolênico) foi de 14,94%. Conclusões: foi observado baixo teor de ácidos graxos essenciais no leite materno das nutrizes do presente estudo, que são importantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento do lactente, sugerindo-se a necessidade de implementação de estratégias de educação nutricional direcionadas a gestantes e nutrizes que devem ser orientadas a consumir alimentos mais saudáveis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Educação Alimentar e Nutricional , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/análise , Nutrição do Lactente , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite Humano/química , Lactação , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Saúde Materno-Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Estudo Observacional , Ionização de Chama/métodos
15.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 4195-4205, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849451

RESUMO

Background: Cancer is one of the chronic health conditions worldwide. Various therapeutically active compounds from medicinal plants were the current focus of this research in order to uncover a treatment regimen for cancer. Anchusa arvensis (A. anchusa) (L.) M.Bieb. contains many biologically active compounds. Methods: In the current study, new ester 3-hydroxyoctyl -5- trans-docosenoate (compound-1) was isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of A. anchusa using column chromatography. Using MTT assay, the anticancer effect of the compound was determined in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG-2) compared with normal epithelial cell line (Vero). DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays were performed to assess the antioxidant potential. The Molecular Operating Environment (MOE-2016) tool was used against tyrosine kinase. Results: The structure of the compound was elucidated based on IR, EI, and NMR spectroscopy technique. It exhibited a considerable cytotoxic effect against HepG-2 cell lines with IC50 value of 6.50 ± 0.70 µg/mL in comparison to positive control (doxorubicin) which showed IC50 value of 1.3±0.21 µg/mL. The compound did not show a cytotoxic effect against normal epithelial cell line (Vero). The compound also exhibited significant DPHH scavenging ability with IC50 value of 12 ± 0.80 µg/mL, whereas ascorbic acid, used as positive control, demonstrated activity with IC50 = 05 ± 0.15 µg/mL. Similarly, it showed ABTS radical scavenging ability (IC50 = 130 ± 0.20 µg/mL) compared with the value obtained for ascorbic acid (06 ± 0.85 µg/mL). In docking studies using MOE-2016 tool, it was observed that compound-1 was highly bound to tyrosine kinase by having two hydrogen bonds at the hinge region. This good bonding network by the compound might be one of the reasons for showing significant activity against this enzyme. Conclusion: Our findings led to the isolation of a new compound from A. anchusa which has significant cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 cell lines with marked antioxidant potential.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Boraginaceae/química , Ésteres/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Ésteres/química , Ésteres/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Plantas Medicinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Vero
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(20): 4448-4453, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872631

RESUMO

Musk,with unique and intense perfume,was a kind of deep brown precious medicinal material in traditional Chinese medicine. However,the immature musk in musk pot was white and stench. Given the fact that bacterial diversity generated odorous metabolites in animal hosts,in this study,musk samples at three different mature stages,including MJ( the end of June),MA( the end of August) and MO( the end of October) were harvested from three male forest musk deer,and then next-generation sequencing was used to intensively survey the bacterial communities in musk harvested at different mature stages. RESULTS: indicated that the average OTUs per sample at the end of June,August and October were 47 116. 00 ± 1 567. 24( SE),52 009. 00 ± 8 958. 75( SE) and50 004. 67±4 135. 57( SE),respectively. Feature of the musk 16 S rRNA gene showed a total of 418 genera belonging to 52 phyla were observed in all samples. The main microbiota was bacteria,which accounted for 98. 82%,99. 95% and 99. 58% in MJ,MA and MO,respectively. At phylum level,Firmicutes was the most abundant bacterial of MA( 32. 75%) and MO( 39. 19%). While,the major bacterial in MJ was Proteobacteria( 49. 14%). PICRUSt analysis revealed the functions of bacterial in MJ were mainly involved in secretion,while bacterial functions of MA and MO were mainly involved in amino acid or other substance metabolism,which was in accord with the musk secretion physiological process of forest musk deer. This is the first study involved in the bacterial diversity in musk of forest musk deer across the maturation process,while may provide a new insight into the musk generation mechanism.


Assuntos
Cervos/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Animais , Florestas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7417239, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886246

RESUMO

Acer truncatum, which is a new woody oil tree species, is an important ornamental and medicinal plant in China. To assess the genetic diversity and relationships of A. truncatum, we analyzed its complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence. The A. truncatum cp genome comprises 156,492 bp, with the large single-copy, small single-copy, and inverted repeat (IR) regions consisting of 86,010, 18,050, and 26,216 bp, respectively. The A. truncatum cp genome contains 112 unique functional genes (i.e., 4 rRNA, 30 tRNA, and 78 protein-coding genes) as well as 78 simple sequence repeats, 9 forward repeats, 1 reverse repeat, 5 palindromic repeats, and 7 tandem repeats. We analyzed the expansion/contraction of the IR regions in the cp genomes of six Acer species. A comparison of these cp genomes indicated the noncoding regions were more diverse than the coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. truncatum is closely related to A. miaotaiense. Moreover, a novel ycf4-cemA indel marker was developed for distinguishing several Acer species (i.e., A. buergerianum, A. truncatum, A. henryi, A. negundo, A. ginnala, and A. tonkinense). The results of the current study provide valuable information for future evolutionary studies and the molecular barcoding of Acer species.


Assuntos
Acer/genética , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Árvores/genética , Madeira/genética , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9291216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886268

RESUMO

Animal gut microbiota begins to colonize after birth and is functionally indispensable for maintaining the health of the host. It has been reported that gender and age influence the composition of the intestinal microbiome. However, the effects of gender and age on the intestinal microorganism of forest musk deer (FMD) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the structure and composition of fecal microbiota of male and female forest musk deer with age. Here, Illumina Miseq 300PE sequencing platform targeting 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable region applied to define the fecal microbiota of male and female FMD with two age groups, juvenile (age 1-2 years) and adult (age 4-10 years). Alpha diversity index did not show significant difference in bacterial diversity between the males and females or among age groups. The intestinal microbiota of FMD was dominated by three phyla, the Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes regardless of gender and different ages. Higher proportions of Proteobacteria were found in adult male and juvenile female individuals. The composition of Bacteroidetes was stable with the gender and age of FMD. Interestingly, the relative abundance of genera Clostridiales and Bacteroidales were higher in the juvenile FMD. Conversely, proportions of Pseudomonas and Lachnospiraceae were abundant in the adult FMD. Higher proportions of Ruminococcaceae, Dore, and 5-7N15 were found in the juvenile male groups. They may reflect the different immune resistance of male and female individuals at different stages of development. This study explored the fecal microbiota composition of forest musk deer in relation to gender and age, which may provide an effective strategy for developing intestinal microecological preparations and potential musk deer breeding.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia
19.
Curr Diab Rep ; 19(11): 109, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686257

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent evidence of the relationship between dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), the role of epigenetic alterations as a mediator of this relationship, and the impact of gene-dietary fat interactions in the development of the disease. Based on the observations made, we will discuss whether there is evidence to support genetic personalization of fat intake recommendations in T2D prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Strong evidence suggests that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a protective effect on T2D risk, whereas the roles of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA and MUFA) remain unclear. Diets enriched with PUFA vs SFA lead to distinct epigenetic alterations that may mediate their effects on T2D risk by changing gene function. However, it is not currently known which of the epigenetic alterations, if any, are causal for T2D. The current literature shows no replicated evidence of genetic variants modifying the effect of dietary fat intake on T2D risk. There is consistent evidence of a protective role of PUFA in T2D prevention. No evidence supports genetic personalization of dietary recommendations in T2D prevention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gorduras na Dieta , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Humanos
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