Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 927
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168329

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is an ecologically and economically important species. Here, we assessed the diversity of 78 accessions cultivated in northern China using 8 agronomic characteristics, oil traits (including oil content and fatty acid composition) in seeds and fruit pulp, and SSR markers at 23 loci. The 78 accessions included 52 from ssp. mongolica, 6 from ssp. sinensis, and 20 hybrids. To assess the phenotypic diversity of these accessions, 8 agronomic fruit traits were recorded and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The first two PCs accounted for approximately 78% of the variation among accessions. The oil contents were higher in pulp (3.46-38.56%) than in seeds (3.88-8.82%), especially in ssp. mongolica accessions. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio was slightly lower in the seed oil of hybrids (76.06%) than that of in ssp. mongolica (77.66%) and higher than that of in ssp. sinensis (72.22%). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) ratio in the pulp oil of ssp. sinensis (57.00%) was highest, and that in ssp. mongolica (51.00%) was equal to the ratio in the hybrids (51.20%). Using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), we examined the correlation between agronomic traits and oil characteristics in pulp and seeds. Oil traits in pulp from different origins were correlated with morphological groupings (r = 0.8725, p = 0.0000). To assess the genotypic diversity, 23 SSR markers (including 17 loci previously reported) were used among the 78 accessions with 59 polymorphic amplified fragments obtained and an average PIC value of 0.2845. All accessions were classified into two groups based on the UPGMA method. The accessions of ssp. sinensis and ssp. mongolica were genetically distant. The hybrid accessions were close to ssp. mongolica accessions. The 8 agronomic traits, oil characteristics in seed and pulp oils, and 23 SSR markers successfully distinguished the 78 accessions. These results will be valuable for cultivar identification and genetic diversity analysis in cultivated sea buckthorn.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Hippophae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , China , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hippophae/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124576, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421462

RESUMO

This study assesses and compares the influence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) on the fatty acid composition, pigments, and growth indices of Chlorella vulgaris. Toxicity testing was carried at the estimated and/or above predicted environmental concentrations of AgNPs and AgNO3. AgNO3 treatments impaired the population growth of C. vulgaris about 2-183 times more than the respective AgNPs ones. The pigments displayed a concentration-dependent decrease in response to both forms of silver; however, AgNO3 displayed higher severity to the pigments than AgNPs. In exposure to 10 µg L-1 AgNO3, the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid, respectively, demonstrated a reduction of about 5, 3, 4, and 4 times when compared with the same respective concentration of AgNPs. Total amounts of saturated (∑SFA), monounsaturated (∑MUFA), and polyunsaturated (∑PUFA) fatty acids as well as the ratio of unsaturated to saturated ones (Unsat./Sat.) displayed somewhat similar-concentration responses. ∑SFA exhibited a hormesis response, and ∑MUFA, ∑PUFA, and Unsat./Sat. did a decreasing trend with increasing concentration of AgNPs and AgNO3. Myristoleic acid, nervonic acid, and eicosadienoic acid revealed the highest sensitivity. Pearson analysis illustrated the highest correlation among myristoleic acid, eicosenoic acid, and nervonic acid as well as among palmitic acid, stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, and oleic acid. Taken together, AgNPs and the released ions could disrupt physiological health state of microalgae through perturbation in the fatty acid composition (especially MUFAs and PUFAs) and other macromolecules. These types of bioperturbations could change the good health state of aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nitrato de Prata/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7417239, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886246

RESUMO

Acer truncatum, which is a new woody oil tree species, is an important ornamental and medicinal plant in China. To assess the genetic diversity and relationships of A. truncatum, we analyzed its complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence. The A. truncatum cp genome comprises 156,492 bp, with the large single-copy, small single-copy, and inverted repeat (IR) regions consisting of 86,010, 18,050, and 26,216 bp, respectively. The A. truncatum cp genome contains 112 unique functional genes (i.e., 4 rRNA, 30 tRNA, and 78 protein-coding genes) as well as 78 simple sequence repeats, 9 forward repeats, 1 reverse repeat, 5 palindromic repeats, and 7 tandem repeats. We analyzed the expansion/contraction of the IR regions in the cp genomes of six Acer species. A comparison of these cp genomes indicated the noncoding regions were more diverse than the coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. truncatum is closely related to A. miaotaiense. Moreover, a novel ycf4-cemA indel marker was developed for distinguishing several Acer species (i.e., A. buergerianum, A. truncatum, A. henryi, A. negundo, A. ginnala, and A. tonkinense). The results of the current study provide valuable information for future evolutionary studies and the molecular barcoding of Acer species.


Assuntos
Acer/genética , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Árvores/genética , Madeira/genética , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(11): 164, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637528

RESUMO

Odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) have been reported to possess pharmacological activity and have been used in the manufacture of agricultural and industrial chemicals. We here provided a new method to increase the OCFAs content in oil produced by Rhodococcus opacus PD630 through addition of 1-propanol to the fermentation media. The OCFAs in oil of R. opacus PD630 are primarily pentadecanoic acid (C15:0), heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) and heptadecenoic acid (C17:1). After adding 0.5-1.5% (v/v) 1-propanol, the production of oil increased from 1.27 g/L to 1.31-1.61 g/L, and the OCFAs content in oil increased by 46.7-55.1%. Metabolic intermediates determination and transcriptome analysis revealed that R. opacus assimilated 1-propanol through methylmalonyl-CoA pathway. When the nitrogen source was limited, propionyl-CoA was converted to propionyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) which could be used as primer during the elongation of fatty acid synthesis. Then OCFAs were produced when odd number of propionyl-ACP was incorporated in the cycles of fatty acid synthesis.


Assuntos
1-Propanol/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Rhodococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhodococcus/metabolismo , 1-Propanol/metabolismo , Acil Coenzima A , Álcoois/farmacologia , Biomassa , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Fermentação , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Rhodococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491935

RESUMO

Palmitoleic acid, one scarce omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid, has important applications in the fields of medicine and health products. Tribonema has been considered as a promising candidate for the production of palmitoleic acid due to its high lipid and palmitoleic acid content and remarkable heterotrophic ability. The high-density heterotrophic cultivation of Tribonema minus was conducted in this work, and the highest biomass of 42.9 g L-1 and a relatively low lipid content of 28.7% were observed. To further enhance the lipid and palmitoleic acid accumulation, induction strategies under two regimes of phototrophy and heterotrophy with different conditions were investigated and compared. Results demonstrated encouraging promotions both by heterotrophic and phototrophic ways, and the final lipid contents reached 41.9% and 49.0%, respectively. In consideration of the time cost, however, the induction under heterotrophic conditions was much more advantageous, by which the highest lipid and palmitoleic acid productivities of 1.77 g L-1 d-1 and 924 mg L-1 d-1 were obtained respectively, with the lipid yield on glucose of 0.26 g g-1.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Fermentação , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Sementes/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Processos Fototróficos
6.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416149

RESUMO

Nervonic acid (24:1 n-9, NA) plays a crucial role in the development of white matter, and it occurs naturally in human milk. This study aims to quantify NA in human milk at different lactation stages and compare it with the NA measured in infant formulae. With this information, optimal nutritional interventions for infants, especially newborns, can be determined. In this study, an absolute detection method that uses experimentally derived standard curves and methyl tricosanoate as the internal standard was developed to quantitively analyze NA concentration. The method was applied to the analysis of 224 human milk samples, which were collected over a period of 3-30 days postpartum from eight healthy Chinese mothers. The results show that the NA concentration was highest in colostrum (0.76 ± 0.23 mg/g fat) and significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in mature milk (0.20 ± 0.03 mg/g fat). During the first 10 days of lactation, the change in NA concentration was the most pronounced, decreasing by about 65%. Next, the NA contents in 181 commercial infant formulae from the Chinese market were compared. The NA content in most formulae was <16% of that found in colostrum and less than that found in mature human milk (p < 0.05). No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed among NA content in formulae with different fat sources. Special attention was given to the variety of n-9 fatty acids in human milk during lactation, and the results indicated that interindividual variation in NA content may be primarily due to endogenous factors, with less influence from the maternal diet.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Desenvolvimento Infantil , China , Colostro/química , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Tempo
7.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(10): 1048-1055, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433200

RESUMO

DNA condensed agents can improve the transfection efficiency of the cationic liposome delivery system. However, various condensed agents have distinct transfection efficiency and cellular cytotoxicity. The object of this study was to screen the optimal agents with the high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity from four polymer compressive materials, polyethylenimine (PEI), chitosan, poly-l-lysine (PLL), and spermidine. DNA was precompressed with these four agents and then combined to cationic liposomes. Subsequently, the entrapment and transfection efficiency of the obtained complexes were investigated. Finally, the particle sizes, cytotoxicity, and endocytosis fashion of these copolymers (Lipo-PEI, Lipo-chitosan, Lipo-PLL, and Lipo-spermidine) were examined. It was found that these four copolymers had significantly lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency (45.5%, 42.4%, 36.8%, and 47.4%, respectively) than those in the control groups. The transfection efficiency of Lipo-PEI and Lipo-spermidine copolymers were better than the other two copolymers. In 293T cells, nystatin significantly inhibited the transfection efficiency of Lipo-PEI-DNA and Lipo-spermidine-DNA (51.88% and 46.05%, respectively), which suggest that the endocytosis pathway of Lipo-spermidine and Lipo-PEI copolymers was probably caveolin dependent. Our study indicated that these dual-degradable copolymers especially liposome-spermidine copolymer could be used as the potential biocompatible gene delivery carriers.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Lipossomos/química , Polietilenoimina/química , Polilisina/química , Espermidina/química , Transfecção/métodos , Cátions , Caveolina 1/genética , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Quitosana/metabolismo , Colesterol/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocitose/genética , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Nistatina/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Polietilenoimina/metabolismo , Polilisina/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/metabolismo , Espermidina/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 301: 125229, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377620

RESUMO

Capsaicinoids and capsinoids from dietary peppers have promising sensory properties and bioactivity, but the molecular basis of their penetration mechanism through cell lipid bilayers and its relationship to their bioavailability as food constituents are still poorly understood. Herein, statistically significant linear and quadratic quantitative structure-activity relationships were constructed to derive the essential structural elements required for their bioactivity against the elongation of etiolated wheat coleoptiles that mainly occurs via penetration. The resultant optimal models had high predictivity and reliability (r2 > 0.825 and r2pred > 0.950), which elucidate the importance of steric structural elements. Besides, their mechanistic hypothesis and rational design strategy were proposed, and the correlation between this bioactivity and their food-sensory properties was supposed. Finally, the bioactivity of newly designed analogs with methyl terminals and/or conjugated CC links was screened. Hopefully, this work would benefit the better understanding of their penetration mechanism and facile identification of bioactive analogs for designing food/drug formulations.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/química , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Cotilédone/metabolismo , Estiolamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Catecóis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Triticum/metabolismo
9.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 6405-6416, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Platelet membranes are extremely susceptible to peroxidation, forming a variety of lipid peroxides, including malondialdehyde (MDA), which has been implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLAs) are known to contribute to advanced endothelial injury and atherogenesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fatty acid (FA) methyl esters of the platelet membranes of 79 apparently healthy men without any acute clinical condition at the time of the study were identified by GC/MS. MDA was measured by HPLC in blood serum, and PLAs were analyzed by whole-blood flow cytometry. Individuals were divided into quartiles according to MDA concentration and percentage of PLAs formation. The composition of platelet membrane FAs was compared to MDA concentration and the percentage of PLAs formation in apparently healthy individuals. RESULTS In quartiles (Q) with higher MDA concentration, percentage of C 16: 1ω7 (Q1 vs. Q3, p=0.021), C 20: 1ω9 (Q2 vs. Q4, p=0.028) and C 20: 5ω3 (Q2 vs. Q4, p=0.046) was lower. However, C 22: 5ω3 (Q1 vs. Q4, p=0.038) and total ω3 (Q1 vs. Q2, p=0.024) were higher. CONCLUSIONS MDA and the formation of platelet-monocyte aggregates stimulate the incorporation of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in platelet phospholipid membranes, which may be a hallmark for a changed level of biologically active compounds required for the activation of future platelets.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Ativação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Agregação Plaquetária/fisiologia
10.
Food Chem ; 301: 125286, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382110

RESUMO

Nervonic acid (NA) has attracted considerable attention because of its close relationship with brain development. Sources of NA include oil crop seeds, oil-producing microalgae, and other microorganisms. Transgenic technology has also been applied to improve the sources and production of NA. NA can be separated and purified by urea adduction fractionation, molecular distillation, and crystallization. Studies on NA functionality involved treatments for demyelinating diseases and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as well as prediction of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. This mini review focuses on the sources, production, and biological functions of NA and provides prospective trends in the investigation of NA.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Microalgas/química , Óleos Vegetais/química
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387306

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in the liver. The disturbances in the fatty acid composition of stored lipids are more important than the lipid species itself, which may influence the overall effect caused by these molecules. Thus, uncovering time-dependent changes in the fatty acid composition of accumulated lipid fractions after a high fat diet seems to be a new marker of NAFLD occurrence. The experiments were conducted on high fat fed Wistar rats. The blood and liver samples were collected at the end of each experimental week and used to assess the content of lipid fractions and their fatty acid composition by gas liquid chromatography. The expression of proteins from lipid metabolism pathways and of fatty acid exporting proteins were detected by Western blotting. In the same high fat feeding period, decreased de novo lipogenesis, increased ß-oxidation and lipid efflux were demonstrated. The observed effects may be the first liver protective mechanisms against lipotoxicity. Nevertheless, such effects were still not sufficient to prevent the liver from proinflammatory lipid accumulation. Moreover, the changes in liver metabolic pathways caused the plasma nervonic acid concentration in sphingomyelin to decrease simultaneously with NAFLD development, which may be a steatosis occurrence prognostic marker.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipogênese , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Ratos
12.
Adipocyte ; 8(1): 265-279, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311389

RESUMO

Mast cell lipid bodies are key to initiation, maintenance and resolution of inflammatory responses in tissue. Mast cell lines, primary bone marrow-derived mast cells and peripheral blood basophils present a 'steatotic' phenotype in response to chronic insulin exposure, where cells become loaded with lipid bodies. Here we show this state is associated with reduced histamine release, but increased capacity to release bioactive lipids. We describe the overall lipid phenotype of mast cells in this insulin-induced steatotic state and the consequences for critical cellular lipid classes involved in stages of inflammation. We show significant insulin-induced shifts in specific lipid classes, especially arachidonic acid derivatives, MUFA and PUFA, the EPA/DHA ratio, and in cardiolipins, especially those conjugated to certain DHA and EPAs. Functionally, insulin exposure markedly alters the FcεRI-induced release of Series 4 leukotriene LTC4, Series 2 prostaglandin PGD2, Resolvin-D1, Resolvin-D2 and Resolvin-1, reflecting the expanded precursor pools and impact on both the pro-inflammation and pro-resolution bioactive lipids that are released during mast cell activation. Chronic hyperinsulinemia is a feature of obesity and progression to Type 2 Diabetes, these data suggest that mast cell release of key lipid mediators is altered in patients with metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Insulina/farmacologia , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiolipinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Glucose/farmacologia , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
13.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5601-5612, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222203

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of crude soybean lecithin (L) as an alternative energy source in broiler feeding and to study its influence on performance, fatty acid (FA) digestibility between 9 to 11 D and 36 to 37 D, feed AME content, and the FA profile of the abdominal fat pad (AFP). A basal diet was supplemented at 3% with soybean oil (S; experiment 1) or a monounsaturated vegetable acid oil (A; experiment 2) and increasing amounts of L (1, 2, and 3%) were included in replacement. The inclusion of L did not modify performance results (P > 0.05). In starter diets, the replacement of S by L reduced feed AME content (P < 0.001) and lowered PUFA digestibility (P = 0.028), whereas in the grower-finisher phase, a blend of 2% of S and 1% of L did not modify feed AME content or FA digestibility. When L was included instead of A, no effects on feed AME value and total FA digestibility (P > 0.05) were shown in the starter phase, whereas in grower-finisher diets, a blending of 2% of A and 1% of L enhanced feed AME content (P < 0.001) and total FA digestibility (P = 0.001). The FA profile of the AFP reflected the FA composition of the diets. Crude soybean lecithin represents an alternative energy source for broiler chickens, and it can be used in growing-finishing diets in replacement of 1% S. The best option to include both alternative fats (L and A) was 2% of L with 1% of A in starter diets and 1% of L with 2% of A in grower-finisher diets because they showed positive synergic effects. The results suggest that dietary FA profile have a bigger impact on the AFP saturation degree than the different dietary lipid molecular structures.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Lecitinas/metabolismo , Óleo de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/química , Tecido Adiposo/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Lecitinas/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 207, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sea buckthorn is a woody oil crop in which palmitoleic acid (C16:1n7, an omega-7 fatty acid (FA)) contributes approximately 40% of the total FA content in berry pulp (non-seed tissue). However, the molecular mechanisms contributing to the high accumulation of C16:1n7 in developing sea buckthorn berry pulp (SBP) remain poorly understood. RESULTS: We identified 1737 unigenes associated with lipid metabolism through RNA-sequencing analysis of the four developmental stages of berry pulp in two sea buckthorn lines, 'Za56' and 'TF2-36'; 139 differentially expressed genes were detected between the different berry pulp developmental stages in the two lines. Analyses of the FA composition showed that the C16:1n7 contents were significantly higher in line 'Za56' than in line 'TF2-36' in the mid-late developmental stages of SBP. Additionally, qRT-PCR analyses of 15 genes involved in FA and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in both lines revealed that delta9-ACP-desaturase (ACP-Δ9D) competed with 3-ketoacyl-ACP-synthase II (KASII) for the substrate C16:0-ACP and that ACP-Δ9D and delta9-CoA-desaturase (CoA-Δ9D) gene expression positively correlated with C16:1n7 content; KASII and fatty acid elongation 1 (FAE1) gene expression positively correlated with C18:0 content in developing SBP. Specifically, the abundance of ACP-Δ9D and CoA-Δ9D transcripts in line 'Za56', which had a higher C16:1n7 content than line 'TF2-36', suggests that these two genes play an important role in C16:1n7 biosynthesis. Furthermore, the high expressions of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1) gene and the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor contributed to increased biosynthesis of TAG precursor and FAs, respectively, in the early developmental stages of SBP, and the high expression of the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene increased TAG assembly in the later developmental stages of SBP. Overall, we concluded that increased ACP-Δ9D and CoA-Δ9D levels coupled with decreased KASII and FAE1 activity is a critical event for high C16:1n7 accumulation and that the coordinated high expression of WRI1, GPD1, and DGAT1 genes resulted in high oil accumulation in SBP. CONCLUSION: Our results provide a scientific basis for understanding the mechanism of high C16:1n7 accumulation in berry pulp (non-seed tissue) and are valuable to the genetic breeding programme for achieving a high quality and yield of SBP oil.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hippophae/genética , Hippophae/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(8): 1666-1682, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058972

RESUMO

We investigated potential biosynthetic pathways of long chain alkenols (LCAs), long chain alkyl diols (LCDs), and long chain hydroxy fatty acids (LCHFAs) in Nannochloropsis oceanica and Nannochloropsis gaditana, by combining culturing experiments with genomic and transcriptomic analyses. Incubation of Nannochloropsis spp. in the dark for 1 week led to significant increases in the cellular concentrations of LCAs and LCDs in both species. Consistently, 13C-labelled substrate experiments confirmed that both LCA and LCD were actively produced in the dark from C14-18 fatty acids by either condensation or elongation/hydroxylation, although no enzymatic evidence was found for the former pathway. Nannochloropsis spp. did, however, contain (i) multiple polyketide synthases (PKSs) including one type (PKS-Clade II) that might catalyze incomplete fatty acid elongations leading to the formation of 3-OH-fatty acids, (ii) 3-hydroxyacyl dehydratases (HADs), which can possibly form Δ2/Δ3 monounsaturated fatty acids, and (iii) fatty acid elongases (FAEs) that could elongate 3-OH-fatty acids and Δ2/Δ3 monounsaturated fatty acids to longer products. The enzymes responsible for reduction of the long chain fatty acids to LCDs and LCAs are, however, unclear. A putative wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA): diacylglycerol acyltransferase is likely to be involved in the esterification of LCAs and LCDs in the cell wall. Our data thus provide useful insights in predicting the biosynthetic pathways of LCAs and LCDs in phytoplankton suggesting a key role of FAE and PKS enzymes.


Assuntos
Álcoois/metabolismo , Alcenos/metabolismo , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Álcoois/química , Alcenos/química , Enoil-CoA Hidratase/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Microalgas/enzimologia , Microalgas/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959940

RESUMO

Fatty acid (FA) profiles in the plasma of patients with metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease (CKD) seem to be identical despite their different etiology (dietary mistakes vs. cachexia). The aim of this study was to compare both profiles and to highlight the differences that could influence the improvement of the treatment of patients in both groups. The study involved 73 women, including 24 patients with chronic kidney disease treated with haemodialysis, 19 patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and 30 healthy women in the control group. A total of 35 fatty acids and derivatives were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Intensified elongation processes from acid C10:0 to C16:0 were noted in both groups (more intense in MetS), as well as an increased synthesis of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), which was more intense in CKD. Significant correlations of oleic acid (C18:1n9), gamma linoleic acid (C18:3n6), and docosatetraenoate acid (C22:4n6) with parameters of CKD patients were observed. In the MetS group, auxiliary metabolic pathways of oleic acid were activated, which simultaneously inhibited the synthesis of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from alpha lipoic acid (ALA). On the other hand, in the group of female patients with CKD, the synthesis of EPA and DHA was intensified. Activation of the synthesis of oleic acid (C18: 1n9 ct) and trans-vaccinic acid (C18:1) is a protective mechanism in kidney diseases and especially in MetS due to the increased concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) in plasma. The cause of the increased amount of all FAs in plasma in the CKD group, especially in the case of palmitic (C16:0) and derivatives stearic (C18:0) acids, may be the decomposition of adipose tissue and the progressing devastation of the organism, whereas, in the MetS group, dietary intake seems to be the main reason for the increase in SFA. Moreover, in MetS, auxiliary metabolic pathways are activated for oleic acid, which cause the simultaneous inhibition of EPA and DHA synthesis from ALA, whereas, in the CKD group, we observe an increased synthesis of EPA and DHA. The higher increase of nervonic acid (C24:1) in CKD suggests a higher degree of demyelination and loss of axons.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(16): 4425-4434, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945860

RESUMO

Grapholita molesta is a notorious fruit borer globally, causing severe damage to fruit production. To control the pest, one commonly used mean is pheromone-mediated management. As an important sex pheromone, Z-8-dodecenyl acetate (Z8-12: Ac), is often coformulated with other active ingredients to regulate the behavior of G. molesta. To uncover its interactions with G. molesta pheromone binding protein 2 (GmolPBP2) is used to help develop insect attractants. During 200 ns molecular dynamics simulations, two representative conformations of the GmolPBP2-Z8-12: Ac complex are selected. Conformation II at the time of 14-106 ns is dominantly maintained by the hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bond. In Conformation I, which lasts from 106 to 200 ns, the hydrophobic interactions are enhanced while the hydrogen bond is quite weakened, due to the formation of a more sophisticated hydrophobic binding pocket and the enlargement of hydrogen bond distance. Taking the two conformations as a whole, the affinity between GmolPBP2 and Z8-12: Ac is crucially determined by three hot-spots including Phe11, Trp36, and Ile51. These results would provide a basis for the discovery, optimization, and design of leading compounds potentially active to attract G. molesta.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/química , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/química , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Mariposas/metabolismo , Feromônios/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Cinética , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mariposas/química , Mariposas/genética , Feromônios/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência
18.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214387, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide, particularly in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals. NAFLD ranges in severity from benign steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); and NASH can progress to cirrhosis, primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver failure. As such, NAFLD has emerged as a major public health concern. Herein, we used a lipidomic and transcriptomic approach to identify lipid markers associated with western diet (WD) induced NASH in female mice. METHODS: Female mice (low-density lipoprotein receptor null (Ldlr -/-) were fed a reference or WD diet for 38 and 46 weeks. Transcriptomic and lipidomic approaches, coupled with statistical analyses, were used to identify associations between major NASH markers and transcriptomic & lipidomic markers. RESULTS: The WD induced all major hallmarks of NASH in female Ldlr -/- mice, including steatosis (SFA, MUFA, MUFA-containing di- and triacylglycerols), inflammation (TNFα), oxidative stress (Ncf2), and fibrosis (Col1A). The WD also increased transcripts associated with membrane remodeling (LpCat), apoptosis & autophagy (Casp1, CtsS), hedgehog (Taz) & notch signaling (Hey1), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (S1004A) and cancer (Gpc3). WD feeding, however, suppressed the expression of the hedgehog inhibitory protein (Hhip), and enzymes involved in triglyceride catabolism (Tgh/Ces3, Ces1g), as well as the hepatic abundance of C18-22 PUFA-containing phosphoglycerolipids (GpCho, GpEtn, GpSer, GpIns). WD feeding also increased hepatic cyclooxygenase (Cox1 & 2) expression and pro-inflammatory ω6 PUFA-derived oxylipins (PGE2), as well as lipid markers of oxidative stress (8-iso-PGF2α). The WD suppressed the hepatic abundance of reparative oxylipins (19, 20-DiHDPA) as well as the expression of enzymes involved in fatty epoxide metabolism (Cyp2C, Ephx). CONCLUSION: WD-induced NASH in female Ldlr -/- mice was characterized by a massive increase in hepatic neutral and membrane lipids containing SFA and MUFA and a loss of C18-22 PUFA-containing membrane lipids. Moreover, the WD increased hepatic pro-inflammatory oxylipins and suppressed the hepatic abundance of reparative oxylipins. Such global changes in the type and abundance of hepatic lipids likely contributes to tissue remodeling and NASH severity.


Assuntos
Lipidômica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/genética , Feminino , Fibrose/complicações , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
19.
J Biol Chem ; 294(23): 9285-9294, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018965

RESUMO

Oleate hydratases (OhyAs) belong to a large family of bacterial proteins catalyzing the hydration or isomerization of double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids. A Staphylococcus aureus gene (Sa0102) is predicted to encode an OhyA. Here, we recombinantly expressed and purified SaOhyA and found that it forms a homodimer that requires FAD for activity. SaOhyA hydrates only unsaturated fatty acids containing cis-9 double bonds, but not fatty acids with trans-9 double bonds or cis double bonds at other positions. SaOhyA products were not detected in S. aureus phospholipids and were released into the growth medium. S. aureus does not synthesize unsaturated fatty acids, and the SaOhyA substrates are derived from infection sites. Palmitoleate (16:1(9Z)) is a major mammalian skin-produced antimicrobial fatty acid that protects against S. aureus infection, and we observed that it is an SaOhyA substrate and that its hydroxylated derivative is not antimicrobial. Treatment of S. aureus with 24 µm 16:1(9Z) immediately arrested growth, followed by growth resumption after a lag period of 2 h. The ΔohyA mutant strain did not recover from the 16:1(9Z) challenge, and increasing SaOhyA expression using a plasmid system prevented the initial growth arrest. Challenging S. aureus with sapienic acid (16:1(6Z)), an antimicrobial fatty acid produced only by human skin, arrested growth without recovery in WT, ΔohyA, and SaOhyA-overexpressing strains. We conclude that SaOhyA protects S. aureus from palmitoleic acid, the antimicrobial unsaturated fatty acid produced by most mammals, and that sapienic acid, uniquely produced by humans, counters the OhyA-dependent bacterial defense mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Hidroliases/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Hidroliases/genética , Hidroliases/isolamento & purificação , Cinética , Pele/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade por Substrato
20.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(4): 1019-1032, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903183

RESUMO

The Chinese forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii; FMD) is an artiodactyl mammal and is both economically valuable and highly endangered. To investigate the genetic mechanisms of musk secretion and adaptive immunity in FMD, we compared its genome to nine other artiodactyl genomes. Comparative genomics demonstrated that eight positively selected genes (PSGs) in FMD were annotated in three KEGG pathways that were related to metabolic and synthetic activity of musk, similar to previous transcriptome studies. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that many PSGs were involved in the regulation of immune system processes, implying important reorganization of the immune system in FMD. FMD-specific missense mutations were found in two PSGs (MHC class II antigen DRA and ADA) that were classified as deleterious by PolyPhen-2, possibly contributing to immune adaptation to infectious diseases. Functional assessment showed that the FMD-specific mutation enhanced the ADA activity, which was likely to strengthen the immune defense against pathogenic invasion. Single nucleotide polymorphism-based inference showed the recent demographic trajectory for FMD. Our data and findings provide valuable genomic resources not only for studying the genetic mechanisms of musk secretion and adaptive immunity, but also for facilitating more effective management of the captive breeding programs for this endangered species.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Cervos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Genes MHC da Classe II , Genoma , Masculino , Família Multigênica , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Dinâmica Populacional , Seleção Genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA